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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 191407 matches for " Sanford D. Eigenbrode "
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Alkaloids, Limonoids and Phenols from Meliaceae Species Decrease Survival and Performance of Hypsipyla Grandella Larvae  [PDF]
Julián Pérez-Flores, Sanford D. Eigenbrode, Luko Hilje-Quiroz
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.37117
Abstract: Meliaceae plants are distinguished by the attack of the shootborer Hypsipyla grandella and also for the occurrence of limonoids, alkaloids and phenolic compounds. Such compounds extracted from leaves of Meliaceae species Cedrela odorata L., Swietenia macrophylla King, Khaya senegalensis, Toona ciliata, and C. odorata grafted onto T. ciliata plants, were tested on C. odorata leaf disks to determine their effects on survival and performance of H. grandella larvae. Larval survival was assessed 2, 10 and 25 days after starting the bioassays. Leaf consumption and weight gain per larva, days to pupa and to adult stages, pupal weight and length, and moth wing appearance were assessed for larval performance. The three compunds from the four Meliaceae species and the grafted combination affected (P ≤ 0.02) larval leaf consumption, weight gain, time to pupa and to adult stages, wing development and larval survival of H. grandella. Pupa weight (P = 0.78, F = 0.72, d.f. = 18, 160) and length (P = 0.48, F = 0.98, d.f. = 18, 160) were similar regardless of the coumpound used. Limonoid reduced larval survival on the three dates of evaluation. Alkaloids decreased leaf consumption, weight gain of larvae and time needed to reach pupa and adult stages. Alkaloids from T. ciliata and phenols from C. odorata were the best coumpounds to reduce leaf consumption and weight gain. Alkaloids from the grafted plants caused 20% of H. grandella adults to form abnormal wings.
Use of grafting to prevent Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) damage to new world Meliaceae species
Perez, Julian;Eigenbrode, Sanford D;Hilje, Luko;Tripepi, Robert R;Aguilar, Maria E;Mesen, Francisco;
Neotropical Entomology , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-566X2010000400024
Abstract: the susceptible species cedrela odorata and swietenia macrophylla to attack by hypsipyla grandella (zeller) larvae were grafted onto the resistant species khaya senegalensis and toona ciliata. six-month-old grafted plants were then compared to their reciprocal grafts and to both intact (non-grafted) and autografted plants for damage due to h. grandella larvae and for their effects on larval performance. two experiments were conducted: one in which the apical bud of the main plant shoot was inoculated with h. grandella eggs, and the other in which the bud was inoculated with third instars. damage in each experiment was assessed by the number of frass piles, number and length of tunnels, number of damaged leaves, and damage to the apical bud. larval performance was evaluated in terms of time to reach pupation and pupal weight and length. in both experiments, plant damage differed significantly among treatments (p < 0.03). resistant rootstocks conferred resistance to susceptible scions. in both experiments, grafting by itself, regardless of the rootstock and scion combination, also reduced damage caused by h. grandella larvae. scions of autografted susceptible species had similar resistance to susceptible scions grafted on resistant rootstocks. few larvae reached pupation, and their pupal weight and length were similar.
Arthropod diversity in peas with normal or reduced waxy bloom
Gary C. Chang,Claire E. Rutledge,Russell C. Biggam,Sanford D. Eigenbrode
Journal of Insect Science , 2004,
Abstract: Crop traits can alter economically important interactions between plants, pests, and biological control agents. For example, a reduced waxy bloom on the surface of pea plants alters interactions between pea aphids and their natural enemies. In this study, we assess whether the effect of wax reduction extends beyond the 2 or 3 arthropod species closely associated with the plants and into the structure of the broader arthropod community of over 200 taxa at our site. We sampled arthropods on lines of peas with normal and reduced wax in Latah Co., Idaho using pitfall traps within randomly assigned pairs of 5 × 5 meter plots. During the 1998 and 1999 growing seasons, we collected 12,113 individual arthropods from 221 unambiguously identified morphospecies. The number of individuals collected from each morphospecies responded idiosyncratically to the reduced wax peas. To test whether arthropod community structure differed between the collections from plots having peas with normal or reduced wax, we performed a randomization test. The collection from peas with reduced wax had higher species evenness and thus higher community diversity despite having lower species richness. Our results demonstrate the potential of a single plant trait, epicuticular wax, to affect a community of arthropods. Two pests of peas had opposite responses to peas with reduced wax. The number of pea aphids collected was greater from peas with normal wax peas than those with reduced wax. In contrast, the number of pea leaf weevils collected was greater from peas with reduced wax.
Masoncus Spider: A Miniature Predator of Collembola in Harvester Ant Colonies
Sanford D. Porter
Psyche , 1985, DOI: 10.1155/1985/92082
Potential legacy effects of biofuel cropping systems on soil microbial communities in southern Wisconsin, USA  [PDF]
Chao Liang, Gregg R. Sanford, Randall D. Jackson, Teri C. Balser
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/as.2011.22019
Abstract: Soil microbial community structure is clearly linked to current plant species composition, but less is known about the legacy effects of plant species and agricultural management practices on soil microbial communities. Using microbial lipid biomarkers, we assessed patterns of com-munity-level diversity and abundance at depths of 0-10 and 10-25 cm from three hay (al-falfa/orchardgrass) and two corn plots in south ern Wisconsin. Principal components analysis of the lipid biomarkers revealed differential composition of the soil microbial communities at the two depths. Despite similar abundance of fungi, bacteria, actinomycete, protozoa, and total microbial lipids in the hay and corn at 0-10 cm, community structure differed with a sig-nificantly higher absolute abundance of arbus-cular mycorrhizal fungi and gram-negative bacteria in the hay plots. No significant micro-bial lipid mass differences were detected be-tween the two management regimes at 10-25 cm, but the proportional dominance of bacterial gram type differed with depth. These results indicate the potential for legacy effects of an-nual and perennial cropping systems manage-ment on microbial community composition and suggests the importance of considering past land-use when initiating long-term agroecolo- gical trials.
Skittle: A 2-Dimensional Genome Visualization Tool
Josiah D Seaman, John C Sanford
BMC Bioinformatics , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-10-452
Abstract: This program first creates a 2-dimensional nucleotide display by assigning four colors to the four nucleotides, and then text-wraps to a user adjustable width. This nucleotide display is accompanied by a "repeat map" which comprehensively displays all local repeating units, based upon analysis of all possible local alignments. Skittle includes a smooth-zooming interface which allows the user to analyze genomic patterns at any scale.Skittle is especially useful in identifying and analyzing tandem repeats, including repeats not normally detectable by other methods. However, Skittle is also more generally useful for analysis of any genomic data, allowing users to correlate published annotations and observable visual patterns, and allowing for sequence and construct quality control.Preliminary observations using Skittle reveal intriguing genomic patterns not otherwise obvious, including structured variations inside tandem repeats. The striking visual patterns revealed by Skittle appear to be useful for hypothesis development, and have already led the authors to theorize that imperfect tandem repeats could act as information carriers, and may form tertiary structures within the interphase nucleus.Recent discoveries are changing our appreciation of the complexity of genomic information. This includes strong conservation in non-coding regions, large scale transcription from areas previously considered to be non-functional DNA, bidirectional promoters, and alternative splicing patterns [1]. In addition, several unique coding patterns have been discovered that transcend the level of the classic gene, including a nucleosome binding code and a histone modification code [2]. In order to identify new encoding patterns with potential biological significance, novel strategies are required. It was for this reason that Skittle was developed.It is well known that the human mind excels at pattern recognition (e.g., near-instantaneous face recognition), but the mind needs graphical hel
麦类作物学报 , 1986, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1009-1041.1986.05.107
Abstract: 普通小麦的籽粒产量是单位面积粒数和粒重的函数.粒重取决于籽粒生长速率和持续期.籽粒数及其影响因素已受到了人们的重视,但对籽粒生长特性与产量的关系及其在育种中的价值尚未详细研究.
The influence of food supply on the response of Olympia oyster larvae to ocean acidification
A. Hettinger,E. Sanford,T. M. Hill,J. D. Hosfelt
Biogeosciences Discussions , 2013, DOI: 10.5194/bgd-10-5781-2013
Abstract: Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide drive accompanying changes in the marine carbonate system as carbon dioxide (CO2) enters seawater and alters its pH (termed "ocean acidification"). However, such changes do not occur in isolation, and other environmental factors have the potential to modulate the consequences of altered ocean chemistry. Given that physiological mechanisms used by organisms to confront acidification can be energetically costly, we explored the potential for food supply to influence the response of Olympia oyster (Ostrea lurida) larvae to ocean acidification. In laboratory experiments, we reared oyster larvae under a factorial combination of pCO2 and food level. High food availability offset the negative consequences of elevated pCO2 on larval shell growth and total dry weight. Low food availability, in contrast, exacerbated these impacts. In both cases, effects of food and pCO2 interacted additively rather than synergistically, indicating that they operated independently. Despite the potential for abundant resources to counteract the consequences of ocean acidification, impacts were never completely negated, suggesting that even under conditions of enhanced primary production and elevated food availability, impacts of ocean acidification may still accrue in some consumers.
红外 , 2001,
Abstract: 先进地球同步研究成像器(AGSI)的系统设计把现有的最新技术融合成一种仪器设计原理,这种设计原理将能产生国家气象局(设在美国海洋与大气管理局内)所寻求的高性能,并且符合美国航空与航天管理局在一个联合计划中的地球系统科学目标.仪器能够每15分钟覆盖一次地球圆盘,其星下点的分辨率在可见光波段内为0.5 km,在长波红外波段内为2 km.同时,它能以5分钟的间隔提供3000 km×5000 km的覆盖区域,并且每30秒提供一次1000 km见方区域内有关天气系统的最新资料.我们发现,即便我们在设计的迭演中把重点放在减轻质量上,仪器的性能范围仍可得到提高.扫描速度的选择原则是让性能达到最高,但允许对整个系统产生可以接受的影响.所设计的18通道结构未明显增加质量或者体积,就能提供大大优于目前地球同步实用环境卫星(GOES)的性能,但我们仍密切注意控制成本以及对主要卫星的影响.这种结构可随着要求的改变而更新,也可以降格为具有较低的数据速率和较少的通道.
Lost Opportunities: Why We Need a Variety of Statistical Languages
Sanford Weisberg
Journal of Statistical Software , 2005,
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