Abstract:
Objective To identify patterns of perception of front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labels and determine dietary, lifestyle and health profiles related to such patterns. Design Cross-sectional. Participants/Setting 28,952 French adults participating in the web-based Nutrinet-Santé cohort. Outcome measures Perception was measured using indicators of understanding and acceptability for three simple FOP labels (“green tick”, the logo of the French Nutrition and Health Program and “simple traffic lights” (STL)), and two detailed FOP formats (“multiple traffic lights” (MTL) and “color range” logo (CR)), placed on ready-to-eat soup packages. Dietary intake data were collected using three web-based 24 h records. Statistical analyses Associations of perception patterns with individual characteristics, including diet, lifestyle and health status, were examined using analysis of covariance and logistic regression, adjusted for socio-demographic and economic factors. Results No clear trend emerged concerning differences in dietary intake between perception groups. Low physical activity and obesity were more frequent in the ‘favorable to STL’ group (respectively, 20.7% and 10.7%). The ‘favorable to MTL’ group included the highest percentage of individuals who declared type 2 diabetes (2.2%). Persons with hypertension were proportionally more numerous in the ‘favorable to MTL’ and the ‘favorable to CR logo’ groups (respectively, 9.5% and 9.3%). Conclusions After adjustment for socio-demographic and economic factors, no FOP label stood out as being more suitable than another for reaching populations with poor diet. However, both STL and MTL may be most appropriate for increasing awareness of healthy eating among groups at higher risk of nutrition-related chronic diseases.

Abstract:
Background Lifestyle, dietary patterns and nutritional status of organic food consumers have rarely been described, while interest for a sustainable diet is markedly increasing. Methods Consumer attitude and frequency of use of 18 organic products were assessed in 54,311 adult participants in the Nutrinet-Santé cohort. Cluster analysis was performed to identify behaviors associated with organic product consumption. Socio-demographic characteristics, food consumption and nutrient intake across clusters are provided. Cross-sectional association with overweight/obesity was estimated using polytomous logistic regression. Results Five clusters were identified: 3 clusters of non-consumers whose reasons differed, occasional (OCOP, 51%) and regular (RCOP, 14%) organic product consumers. RCOP were more highly educated and physically active than other clusters. They also exhibited dietary patterns that included more plant foods and less sweet and alcoholic beverages, processed meat or milk. Their nutrient intake profiles (fatty acids, most minerals and vitamins, fibers) were healthier and they more closely adhered to dietary guidelines. In multivariate models (after accounting for confounders, including level of adherence to nutritional guidelines), compared to those not interested in organic products, RCOP participants showed a markedly lower probability of overweight (excluding obesity) (25≤body mass index<30) and obesity (body mass index ≥30): ？36% and ？62% in men and ？42% and ？48% in women, respectively (P<0.0001). OCOP participants (%) generally showed intermediate figures. Conclusions Regular consumers of organic products, a sizeable group in our sample, exhibit specific socio-demographic characteristics, and an overall healthy profile which should be accounted for in further studies analyzing organic food intake and health markers.

Abstract:
Background The rising prevalence of obesity and the social pressure for thinness increase the prevalence of dieting. However, little is known about the overall perception of dieting strategies actually used by the general population. Objectives Our main objective was to investigate perceptions of weight-loss practices in an observational study in order to identify the most favourable strategy. Design Adults from the ongoing Nutrinet-Santé cohort study who had reported engaging in dieting in the three previous years were included in the study. For each diet, detailed information was collected on types of diets, circumstances and perception of the diet, and outcomes. Perceptions were compared across diets using sex-specific mixed effects models. Result Among the 48 435 subjects who had completed the respective questionnaire, 12 673 (26.7%, 87.8% of women) had followed at least one weight-loss diet in the previous three years. Diet plans prescribed by health professionals and diets conforming to official dietary recommendations were the most favourably perceived among all assessed weight-loss strategies. Alternatively, commercial diet plans and self-imposed dietary restrictions were more negatively perceived (Odds ratios (OR) for adherence difficulty 1.30 (95% confidence interval (0.99;1.7)) in men and OR 1.92 (1.76;2.10) in women compared to official nutritional guidelines; OR 1.06 (0.82;1.38) in men and OR 1.39 (1.26;1.54) in women respectively) compared to official nutritional guidelines. Conclusion Official dietary recommendations could be useful tools for maintaining a dietary balance while following a weight-loss diet.

Abstract:
We compute the limiting eigenvalue statistics at the edge of the spectrum of large Hermitian random matrices perturbed by the addition of small rank deterministic matrices. To be more precise, we consider random Hermitian matrices with independent Gaussian entries $M_{ij}, i\leq j$ with various expectations. We prove that the largest eigenvalue of such random matrices exhibits, in the large $N$ limit, various limiting distributions depending on both the eigenvalues of the matrix $(\mathbb{E}M_{ij})_{i,j=1}^N$ and its rank.

Abstract:
Eleven patients responding successfully to first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) were investigated for proviral drug resistance mutations (DRMs) in RT by ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS). After molecular typing of the class I alleles A and B, the CTL epitopes in the Gag, Nef and Pol regions of the provirus were sequenced and compared to the reference HXB2 HIV-1 epitopes. They were then matched with the HLA alleles with determination of theoretical affinity (TA). For 3 patients, the results could be compared with an RNA sample of the circulating virus at initiation of therapy. Five out of 11 patients exhibited DRMs by UDPS. The issue is whether a therapeutic switch is relevant in these patients by taking into account the identity of the archived resistance mutations. When the archived CTL epitopes were determined on the basis of the HLA alleles, different patterns were observed. Some epitopes were identical to those reported for the reference with the same TA, while others were mutated with a decrease in TA. In 2 cases, an epitope was observed as a combination of subpopulations at entry and was retrieved as a single population with lower TA at success. With regard to immunological stimulation and given the variability of the archived CTL epitopes, we propose a new concept of curative vaccine based on identification of HIV-1 CTL epitopes after prior sequencing of proviral DNA and matching with HLA class I alleles.

Abstract:
We consider sample covariance matrices $S_N=\frac{1}{p}\Sigma_N^{1/2}X_NX_N^* \Sigma_N^{1/2}$ where $X_N$ is a $N \times p$ real or complex matrix with i.i.d. entries with finite $12^{\rm th}$ moment and $\Sigma_N$ is a $N \times N$ positive definite matrix. In addition we assume that the spectral measure of $\Sigma_N$ almost surely converges to some limiting probability distribution as $N \to \infty$ and $p/N \to \gamma >0.$ We quantify the relationship between sample and population eigenvectors by studying the asymptotics of functionals of the type $\frac{1}{N} \text{Tr} (g(\Sigma_N) (S_N-zI)^{-1})),$ where $I$ is the identity matrix, $g$ is a bounded function and $z$ is a complex number. This is then used to compute the asymptotically optimal bias correction for sample eigenvalues, paving the way for a new generation of improved estimators of the covariance matrix and its inverse.

Abstract:
For each $N\geq 1$, let $G_N$ be a simple random graph on the set of vertices $[N]=\{1,2, ..., N\}$, which is invariant by relabeling of the vertices. The asymptotic behavior as $N$ goes to infinity of correlation functions: $$ \mathfrak C_N(T)= \mathbb E\bigg[ \prod_{(i,j) \in T} \Big(\mathbf 1_{\big(\{i,j\} \in G_N \big)} - \mathbb P(\{i,j\} \in G_N) \Big)\bigg], \ T \subset [N]^2 \textrm{finite}$$ furnishes informations on the asymptotic spectral properties of the adjacency matrix $A_N$ of $G_N$. Denote by $d_N = N\times \mathbb P(\{i,j\} \in G_N) $ and assume $d_N, N-d_N\underset{N \rightarrow \infty}{\longrightarrow} \infty$. If $\mathfrak C_N(T) =\big(\frac{d_N}N\big)^{|T|} \times O\big(d_N^{-\frac {|T|}2}\big)$ for any $T$, the standardized empirical eigenvalue distribution of $A_N$ converges in expectation to the semicircular law and the matrix satisfies asymptotic freeness properties in the sense of free probability theory. We provide such estimates for uniform $d_N$-regular graphs $G_{N,d_N}$, under the additional assumption that $|\frac N 2 - d_N- \eta \sqrt{d_N}| \underset{N \rightarrow \infty}{\longrightarrow} \infty$ for some $\eta>0$. Our method applies also for simple graphs whose edges are labelled by i.i.d. random variables.

Abstract:
We consider in this note a class of two-dimensional determinantal Coulomb gases confined by a radial external field. As the number of particles tends to infinity, their empirical distribution tends to a probability measure supported in a centered ring of the complex plane. A quadratic confinement corresponds to the complex Ginibre Ensemble. In this case, it is also already known that the asymptotic fluctuation of the radial edge follows a Gumbel law. We establish in this note the universality of this edge behavior, beyond the quadratic case. The approach, inspired by earlier works of Kostlan and Rider, boils down to identities in law and to an instance of the Laplace method.

Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to establish universality of the fluctuations of the largest eigenvalue of some non necessarily Gaussian complex Deformed Wigner Ensembles. The real model is also considered. Our approach is close to the one used by A. Soshnikov in the investigations of classical real or complex Wigner Ensembles. It is based on the computation of moments of traces of high powers of the random matrices under consideration.

Abstract:
We consider large complex random sample covariance matrices obtained from "spiked populations", that is when the true covariance matrix is diagonal with all but finitely many eigenvalues equal to one. We investigate the limiting behavior of the largest eigenvalues when the population and the sample sizes both become large. Under some conditions on moments of the sample distribution, we prove that the asymptotic fluctuations of the largest eigenvalues are the same as for a complex Gaussian sample with the same true covariance. The real setting is also considered.