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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 9508 matches for " Sandra; "
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Investigating the Suitability of Agile Methods for Requirements Development of Home Care Systems  [PDF]
Sandra Kelly, Frank Keenan
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2010.39104
Abstract: The ageing population in developed countries brings many benefits but also many challenges, particularly in terms of the development of appropriate technology to support their ability to remain in their own home environment. One particular challenge reported for such Home Care Systems (HCS) is the identification of an appropriate requirements development technique for dealing with the typical diverse stakeholders involved. Agile Methods (AMs) recognize this challenge and propose techniques that could be useful. This paper examines the desirable characteristics identified for requirements development in HCS and investigates the extent to which agile practices conform to these. It also sets out future work to improve the situation for the non compliant points found.
Recent Developments in the Nasal Immunization against Anthrax  [PDF]
Sandra Jesus, Olga Borges
World Journal of Vaccines (WJV) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wjv.2011.13008
Abstract: Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax, a bacterial infection with a high mortality rate [1-3]. Although anthrax infection can be cutaneous, gastrointestinal or pulmonary, the pulmonary form is the most deadly [2,3]. Thus, the release of Bacillus anthracis spores that can be inhaled represents a potent bioterrorism threat; the capacity of B. anthracis spores to act as a bioterrorism weapon was demonstrated in 2001, with the intentional infection of 22 persons in the U.S.A. [2,4]. Until recently, the available vaccines were developed to confer protection against cutaneous infection; despite this, these vaccines demonstrated experimental efficacy against pulmonary infection in multiple animal models [1,2]. Nevertheless, there are many limitations for these vaccines to be considered successful and effective vaccine, including the intensity of the required vaccination schedule, the administration route and the presence of local adverse effects experienced after vaccination [1,3,5,6]. To develop more efficient vaccines against pulmonary anthrax, intranasal formulations with adjuvant have been studied. These formulations have advantages because they are easy to administer and because they are expected to induce both systemic and respiratory tract mucosal immune responses. Therefore, the main goal of this review is to compare the different experimental adjuvants used with anthrax antigens and the different approaches regarding the vaccination schedule and consecutive boosters.
Effect of Breed and Sex on Pork Meat Sensory Evaluation  [PDF]
Sandra Rodrigues, Alfredo Teixeira
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.57070
Abstract:

This work had an objective to evaluate the sensory quality of two categories of pork meat from a commercial pork meat and a selected meat from the Portuguese black pork (Preto Alentejano breed). Sixteen animals were used, 8 females and 8 males from each breed. Animals had 80 - 100 kg of live weight. The longissimus muscle between the 5th thoracic vertebra and the 10th lumbar vertebra was used in the analysis. Sensory analysis was performed by a trained taste panel of 10 elements, in 5 sessions. All evaluation conditions were standardized, and the attributes studied were odor intensity, toughness, juiciness and flavor intensity. The taste panel found differences mainly between breeds. The panellists scored Preto Alentejano meat as being juicier, tenderer, and with richer taste than Commercial meat. The higher juiciness score of Preto Alentejano meat was probably attributable to the higher intramuscular fat content compared with Commercial meat. The Commercial pork was characterized mainly by high toughness.

Trends in U.S. Voting Attitudes with a Consideration of Variation by Gender and Race/Ethnicity  [PDF]
Sandra L. Hanson
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2016.64038
Abstract: Low turnout rates and discussions of disaffected voters are receiving considerable attention as we approach the 2016 U.S. presidential elections. Do trends in American’s attitudes about voting and correlates of these attitudes (political involvement, efficacy, and social connectedness) confirm the pessimistic assessments and do voters across gender and race/ethnic groups think similarly? Data from the American National Election Studies (ANES) provide some reason for optimism. Trends over the past few presidential election periods show a majority of Americans intend to vote and this majority is increasing. Trends show increases or stability on numerous correlates of voting attitudes including political involvement and social connectedness. Trends in voting attitudes by gender and race/ethnicity show considerable variation. Women and race/ethnic minorities (especially African Americans) are an important element of the positive trends shown here. Findings on external efficacy are an exception to the generally optimistic trends with data showing a majority of respondents don’t believe public officials care what people like the respondent think. However, trends do not show an increase in negative attitudes about public officials. Implications of the findings are considered.
Early Children’s Literature and Aging  [PDF]
Sandra L. McGuire
Creative Education (CE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2016.717245
Abstract: Increased longevity is a worldwide phenomenon placing emphasis on the need for preparation for life’s later years and for maximizing the potentials of these years. Today’s children will be the older adults of tomorrow. A resource that can help to educate them about aging and prepare them for the long life ahead is early children’s literature (Preschool-Primary). This literature can provide children with a holistic view of aging, teach them about aging and the aging process, promote positive attitudes about aging, and promote positive aging. Selecting early children’s literature for aging content, resources for finding early children’s literature to promote positive aging, and examples of early children’s literature to promote positive aging are presented.
Aging Education: A Worldwide Imperative  [PDF]
Sandra L. McGuire
Creative Education (CE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2017.812128
Abstract: Life expectancy is increasing worldwide. Unfortunately, people are generally not prepared for this long life ahead and have ageist attitudes that inhibit maximizing the “longevity dividend” they have been given. Aging education can prepare people for life’s later years and combat ageism. It can reimage aging as a time of continued growth, development?and?fulfillment. Unfortunately, aging education is not a common occurrence. This education needs to begin with children and continue throughout life. This article discusses why we need to teach about aging?and?aging education content, suggests a conceptual framework for aging education, and presents aging education resources. The concept of ageism is discussed and suggestions for combating ageism are proposed.
Virtues in Clinical Practice: Teaching Students about the Complexities and Depth of Professional Practice  [PDF]
Sandra Grace, Airdre Grant
Creative Education (CE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2017.813143
Abstract: This paper investigates the integration of virtues into teaching programs for allied health students. It explores the notion that practitioners’ effectiveness is enhanced when they practice virtues along with their technical expertise. These virtues include wisdom and love and they imbue the practitioner’s role with a meaning that extends beyond efficient diagnosis and competent case management. Practicing virtues can deepen the clinical relationship. Allied health students may feel cautious and uncertain about what it actually means to be a virtuous practitioner. Reflexive practice and dialogic encounters are presented as teaching activities that can cultivate virtuous practice.
Pandemic influenza: A global challenge for social marketing marketing  [PDF]
Sandra C. Jones, Don Iverson
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.430146
Abstract: Recent years have seen increased attention and concern regarding the potential for pandemic influenza, following large-scale outbreaks of swine flu and bird flu. Governments and health agencies have time to develop social marketing strategies and specific messages that have the potential to minimize fear, refute or inoculate against misinformation that the public may encounter, and enhance the likelihood of the public taking the recommended preventive and remedial actions should these become necessary. This paper presents an overview of how social marketing can be used to tackle the global challenge of pandemic influenza. The potential pandemic influenza poses a major challenge for social marketers (along with governments, health services, and businesses). There are a number of critical factors about a potential pandemic influenza that make it fundamentally different to the majority of issues to which social marketing has previously been applied. The underlying principles of social marketing are equally applicable to a global infectious disease outbreak (such as pandemic influenza). Even if the current strains do not become pandemic, social marketers should use this impetus to develop the skills and resources to address future communicable disease outbreaks. This paper applies the concepts of social marketing to a unique health issue which has the potential to become one of the largest global public health crises in history, but which can be tackled with effective global social marketing.
An Exact Formula for Estimation of Age-Specific Sensitivity for Screening Tests  [PDF]
Ning Jia, Sandra J. Lee
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.517265
Abstract: There has been a growing interest in screening programs designed to detect chronic progressive cancers in the asymptomatic stage, with the expectation that early detection will result in a better prognosis. One key element of early detection programs is a screening test. An accurate screening test is more effective in finding cases with early-stage diseases. Sensitivity, the conditional probability of getting a positive test result when one truly has a disease, represents one measure of accuracy for a screening test. Since the true disease status is unknown, it is not straightforward to estimate the sensitivity directly from observed data. Furthermore, the sensitivity is associated with other parameters related to the disease progression. This feature introduces additional numerical complexity and limitations, especially when the sensitivity depends on age. In this paper, we propose a new approach that, through combinatorial manipulation of probability statements, formulates the age-dependent sensitivity. This formulation has an exact and simple expression and can be estimated based on directly observable probabilities. This approach also helps evaluate other parameters associated with the natural history of disease more accurately. The proposed method was applied to estimate the mammography sensitivity for breast cancer using the data from the Health Insurance Plan trial.
Rarity, Species Richness, and the Threat of Extinction—Are Plants the Same as Animals?
Sandra Knapp
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001067
Abstract: Assessment of conservation status is done both for areas or habitats and for species (or taxa). IUCN Red List categories have been the principal method of categorising species in terms of extinction risk, and have been shown to be robust and helpful in the groups for which they have been developed. A recent study highlights properties associated with extinction risk in flowering plants, focusing on the species-rich hot spot of the Cape region of South Africa, and concludes that merely following methods derived from studies of vertebrates may not provide the best estimates of extinction risk for plants. Biology, geography, and history all are important factors in risk, and the study poses many questions about how we categorise and assess species for conservation priorities.
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