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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 9500 matches for " Sandra "
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Investigating the Suitability of Agile Methods for Requirements Development of Home Care Systems  [PDF]
Sandra Kelly, Frank Keenan
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2010.39104
Abstract: The ageing population in developed countries brings many benefits but also many challenges, particularly in terms of the development of appropriate technology to support their ability to remain in their own home environment. One particular challenge reported for such Home Care Systems (HCS) is the identification of an appropriate requirements development technique for dealing with the typical diverse stakeholders involved. Agile Methods (AMs) recognize this challenge and propose techniques that could be useful. This paper examines the desirable characteristics identified for requirements development in HCS and investigates the extent to which agile practices conform to these. It also sets out future work to improve the situation for the non compliant points found.
Recent Developments in the Nasal Immunization against Anthrax  [PDF]
Sandra Jesus, Olga Borges
World Journal of Vaccines (WJV) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wjv.2011.13008
Abstract: Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax, a bacterial infection with a high mortality rate [1-3]. Although anthrax infection can be cutaneous, gastrointestinal or pulmonary, the pulmonary form is the most deadly [2,3]. Thus, the release of Bacillus anthracis spores that can be inhaled represents a potent bioterrorism threat; the capacity of B. anthracis spores to act as a bioterrorism weapon was demonstrated in 2001, with the intentional infection of 22 persons in the U.S.A. [2,4]. Until recently, the available vaccines were developed to confer protection against cutaneous infection; despite this, these vaccines demonstrated experimental efficacy against pulmonary infection in multiple animal models [1,2]. Nevertheless, there are many limitations for these vaccines to be considered successful and effective vaccine, including the intensity of the required vaccination schedule, the administration route and the presence of local adverse effects experienced after vaccination [1,3,5,6]. To develop more efficient vaccines against pulmonary anthrax, intranasal formulations with adjuvant have been studied. These formulations have advantages because they are easy to administer and because they are expected to induce both systemic and respiratory tract mucosal immune responses. Therefore, the main goal of this review is to compare the different experimental adjuvants used with anthrax antigens and the different approaches regarding the vaccination schedule and consecutive boosters.
Effect of Breed and Sex on Pork Meat Sensory Evaluation  [PDF]
Sandra Rodrigues, Alfredo Teixeira
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.57070
Abstract:

This work had an objective to evaluate the sensory quality of two categories of pork meat from a commercial pork meat and a selected meat from the Portuguese black pork (Preto Alentejano breed). Sixteen animals were used, 8 females and 8 males from each breed. Animals had 80 - 100 kg of live weight. The longissimus muscle between the 5th thoracic vertebra and the 10th lumbar vertebra was used in the analysis. Sensory analysis was performed by a trained taste panel of 10 elements, in 5 sessions. All evaluation conditions were standardized, and the attributes studied were odor intensity, toughness, juiciness and flavor intensity. The taste panel found differences mainly between breeds. The panellists scored Preto Alentejano meat as being juicier, tenderer, and with richer taste than Commercial meat. The higher juiciness score of Preto Alentejano meat was probably attributable to the higher intramuscular fat content compared with Commercial meat. The Commercial pork was characterized mainly by high toughness.

Pandemic influenza: A global challenge for social marketing marketing  [PDF]
Sandra C. Jones, Don Iverson
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.430146
Abstract: Recent years have seen increased attention and concern regarding the potential for pandemic influenza, following large-scale outbreaks of swine flu and bird flu. Governments and health agencies have time to develop social marketing strategies and specific messages that have the potential to minimize fear, refute or inoculate against misinformation that the public may encounter, and enhance the likelihood of the public taking the recommended preventive and remedial actions should these become necessary. This paper presents an overview of how social marketing can be used to tackle the global challenge of pandemic influenza. The potential pandemic influenza poses a major challenge for social marketers (along with governments, health services, and businesses). There are a number of critical factors about a potential pandemic influenza that make it fundamentally different to the majority of issues to which social marketing has previously been applied. The underlying principles of social marketing are equally applicable to a global infectious disease outbreak (such as pandemic influenza). Even if the current strains do not become pandemic, social marketers should use this impetus to develop the skills and resources to address future communicable disease outbreaks. This paper applies the concepts of social marketing to a unique health issue which has the potential to become one of the largest global public health crises in history, but which can be tackled with effective global social marketing.
An Exact Formula for Estimation of Age-Specific Sensitivity for Screening Tests  [PDF]
Ning Jia, Sandra J. Lee
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.517265
Abstract: There has been a growing interest in screening programs designed to detect chronic progressive cancers in the asymptomatic stage, with the expectation that early detection will result in a better prognosis. One key element of early detection programs is a screening test. An accurate screening test is more effective in finding cases with early-stage diseases. Sensitivity, the conditional probability of getting a positive test result when one truly has a disease, represents one measure of accuracy for a screening test. Since the true disease status is unknown, it is not straightforward to estimate the sensitivity directly from observed data. Furthermore, the sensitivity is associated with other parameters related to the disease progression. This feature introduces additional numerical complexity and limitations, especially when the sensitivity depends on age. In this paper, we propose a new approach that, through combinatorial manipulation of probability statements, formulates the age-dependent sensitivity. This formulation has an exact and simple expression and can be estimated based on directly observable probabilities. This approach also helps evaluate other parameters associated with the natural history of disease more accurately. The proposed method was applied to estimate the mammography sensitivity for breast cancer using the data from the Health Insurance Plan trial.
Rarity, Species Richness, and the Threat of Extinction—Are Plants the Same as Animals?
Sandra Knapp
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001067
Abstract: Assessment of conservation status is done both for areas or habitats and for species (or taxa). IUCN Red List categories have been the principal method of categorising species in terms of extinction risk, and have been shown to be robust and helpful in the groups for which they have been developed. A recent study highlights properties associated with extinction risk in flowering plants, focusing on the species-rich hot spot of the Cape region of South Africa, and concludes that merely following methods derived from studies of vertebrates may not provide the best estimates of extinction risk for plants. Biology, geography, and history all are important factors in risk, and the study poses many questions about how we categorise and assess species for conservation priorities.
Four New Vining Species of Solanum (Dulcamaroid Clade) from Montane Habitats in Tropical America
Sandra Knapp
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010502
Abstract: Solanum (Solanaceae), with approximately 1500 species, is one of the largest genera of flowering plants, and has a centre of diversity in the New World tropics. The genus is divided into 13 major clades, of which two, the Dulcamaroid clade and the “African Non-Spiny” clade, exhibit vine morphology with twining petioles. I am currently preparing a worldwide monograph of these two groups, comprising some 70 species.
Improved Forest Biomass and Carbon Estimations Using Texture Measures from WorldView-2 Satellite Data
Sandra Eckert
Remote Sensing , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/rs4040810
Abstract: Accurate estimation of aboveground biomass and carbon stock has gained importance in the context of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol. In order to develop improved forest stratum–specific aboveground biomass and carbon estimation models for humid rainforest in northeast Madagascar, this study analyzed texture measures derived from WorldView-2 satellite data. A forest inventory was conducted to develop stratum-specific allometric equations for dry biomass. On this basis, carbon was calculated by applying a conversion factor. After satellite data preprocessing, vegetation indices, principal components, and texture measures were calculated. The strength of their relationships with the stratum-specific plot data was analyzed using Pearson’s correlation. Biomass and carbon estimation models were developed by performing stepwise multiple linear regression. Pearson’s correlation coefficients revealed that (a) texture measures correlated more with biomass and carbon than spectral parameters, and (b) correlations were stronger for degraded forest than for non-degraded forest. For degraded forest, the texture measures of Correlation, Angular Second Moment, and Contrast, derived from the red band, contributed to the best estimation model, which explained 84% of the variability in the field data (relative RMSE = 6.8%). For non-degraded forest, the vegetation index EVI and the texture measures of Variance, Mean, and Correlation, derived from the newly introduced coastal blue band, both NIR bands, and the red band, contributed to the best model, which explained 81% of the variability in the field data (relative RMSE = 11.8%). These results indicate that estimation of tropical rainforest biomass/carbon, based on very high resolution satellite data, can be improved by (a) developing and applying forest stratum–specific models, and (b) including textural information in addition to spectral information.
Revisiting clinical trials on glycemic control and cardiovascular risk
Sandra Ferreira
Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1758-5996-1-12
Abstract: In the last years, an increase in the cardiovascular mortality of diabetic individuals has been observed, being more significant among diabetic women [1]. The presence of diabetes mellitus has a deleterious effect on mortality independently of other risk factors, resulting in a two-fold increase in the mortality rate [2]. Recently, Haffner et al [3] observed that diabetes is considered an equivalent of high cardiovascular risk, as diabetic individuals, even without a previous cardiovascular event, present an incidence of myocardial infarction in a period of seven years similar to non-diabetic individuals who have already presented cardiovascular events.Since the 1960s, several clinical trials evaluated the role of glycemic control in decreasing cardiovascular risk. However, by the end of the 1990s and especially in the beginning of this century, the main clinical studies focusing on the role of the glycemic control for the decrease of cardiovascular risk were conducted, such as the UKPDS - United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study [4] and Steno-2 [5]. In this review, we will emphasize mainly the three latest studies: the ACCORD - Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes [6], ADVANCE - Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease - Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation [7] and VADT - Veterans Affair Diabetes Trial [8].The UKPDS [4] was the first of these studies and it was a milestone in diabetology. The investigators observed that individuals submitted to intensive glycemic control had a risk reduction of 16%, which was not significant with regards to macrovascular events, especially acute myocardial infarction and sudden death. UKPDS also found that a 1% decrease in glycated hemoglobin reduced 21% of the risk of any diabetes-related outcome, 14% the risk of myocardial infarction and 37% the risk of microangiopathy [9]. Steno-2 [5] which was a study of intensive intervention in multiple cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetic indiv
Clasificaciones, acuerdos y negociaciones: bases de la primera estadística internacional de enfermedades mentales (París, 1889)
Caponi,Sandra;
Dynamis , 2012, DOI: 10.4321/S0211-95362012000100009
Abstract: this article discusses the construction of the first international classification of mental diseases, specifically created to allow a unified statistics on the mentally ill. this classification was discussed and approved at the international congress of mental medicine held in paris in august 1889, in response to a request made by the society of mental medicine of belgium four years earlier. a careful reading of this report helps us to understand the role of the classification and statistics of pathologies in the field of psychiatric medicine. this offers an historical perspective on an issue that remains problematic and allows analysis of the time when psychiatric classifications were first articulated and subjected to comparative statistical study.
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