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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10559 matches for " Sandra Reynolds "
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Lectins Offer New Perspectives in the Development of Macrophage-Targeted Therapies for COPD/Emphysema
Violet R. Mukaro, Johan Bylund, Greg Hodge, Mark Holmes, Hubertus Jersmann, Paul N. Reynolds, Sandra Hodge
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056147
Abstract: We have previously shown that the defective ability of alveolar macrophages (AM) to phagocytose apoptotic cells (‘efferocytosis’) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/emphysema (COPD) could be therapeutically improved using the C-type lectin, mannose binding lectin (MBL), although the exact mechanisms underlying this effect are unknown. An S-type lectin, galectin-3, is also known to regulate macrophage phenotype and function, via interaction with its receptor CD98. We hypothesized that defective expression of galectin/CD98 would be associated with defective efferocytosis in COPD and that mechanisms would include effects on cytoskeletal remodeling and macrophage phenotype and glutathione (GSH) availability. Galectin-3 was measured by ELISA in BAL from controls, smokers and current/ex-smokers with COPD. CD98 was measured on AM using flow cytometry. We assessed the effects of galectin-3 on efferocytosis, CD98, GSH, actin polymerisation, rac activation, and the involvement of PI3K (using β-actin probing and wortmannin inhibition) in vitro using human AM and/or MH-S macrophage cell line. Significant decreases in BAL galectin-3 and AM CD98 were observed in BAL from both current- and ex-smoker COPD subjects vs controls. Galectin 3 increased efferocytosis via an increase in active GTP bound Rac1. This was confirmed with β-actin probing and the role of PI3K was confirmed using wortmannin inhibition. The increased efferocytosis was associated with increases in available glutathione and expression of CD98. We provide evidence for a role of airway lectins in the failed efferocytosis in COPD, supporting their further investigation as potential macrophage-targeted therapies.
Positive Psychology in the Elementary Classroom: The Influence of Strengths-Based Approaches on Children’s Self-Efficacy  [PDF]
Rod Galloway, Bronwyn Reynolds
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.39003

Despite the positive psychology movement being relatively young and academic research is still building in this area, there is growing confidence that identifying and developing children’s strengths could have profound long-term learning benefits. The intended outcome of this investigation is to contribute to the knowledge base about learning success when children’s emerging preferences, passions and abilities are recognized and developed. This paper explores the foundations of strengths-based approaches for education and presents the findings of a case study that suggests strengths-based approaches have a positive effect on student self-efficacy.

Boobs Out! A Perspective on Fashion, Sexuality and Equality  [PDF]
Sarah E. Reynolds
Art and Design Review (ADR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/adr.2017.52009
Abstract: Society is facing many challenges currently with uncertainty about the implications for the economy (including the fashion industry) and equality of issues such as Brexit and the rise of the Right. This article takes the opportunity to survey current fashion trends and take stock of potential equality issues. This article discusses key trends in dress length, cut and footwear, and also how the big cleavage is such a key look currently. The key look for any young woman in the west currently who wants to look fashionable is “Boobs Out!”. We also discuss how women are wily and can use their bodies, including the revealing of lots of cleavage, to exert a powerful influence over men. This article discusses some of the safety issues relating to women’s outfits and how further research is required into these aspects. Progress and remaining challenges with regard to gender equality in fashion, for example the pressure to wear high heels, is also discussed.
Oxidative Stress Decreases Functional Airway Mannose Binding Lectin in COPD
Hai B. Tran, Jessica Ahern, Greg Hodge, Phillip Holt, Melinda M. Dean, Paul N. Reynolds, Sandra Hodge
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098571
Abstract: We have previously established that a defect in the ability of alveolar macrophages (AM) to phagocytose apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) and pathogens is a potential therapeutic target in COPD. We further showed that levels of mannose binding lectin (MBL; required for effective macrophage phagocytic function) were reduced in the airways but not circulation of COPD patients. We hypothesized that increased oxidative stress in the airway could be a cause for such disturbances. We therefore studied the effects of oxidation on the structure of the MBL molecule and its functional interactions with macrophages. Oligomeric structure of plasma derived MBL (pdMBL) before and after oxidation (oxMBL) with 2,2′-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine)dihyd?rochroride(AAPH) was investigated by blue native PAGE. Macrophage function in the presence of pd/oxMBL was assessed by measuring efferocytosis, phagocytosis of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and expression of macrophage scavenger receptors. Oxidation disrupted higher order MBL oligomers. This was associated with changed macrophage function evident by a significantly reduced capacity to phagocytose apoptotic cells and NTHi in the presence of oxMBL vs pdMBL (eg, NTHi by 55.9 and 27.0% respectively). Interestingly, oxidation of MBL significantly reduced macrophage phagocytic ability to below control levels. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence revealed a significant increase in expression of macrophage scavenger receptor (SRA1) in the presence of pdMBL that was abrogated in the presence of oxMBL. We show the pulmonary macrophage dysfunction in COPD may at least partially result from an oxidative stress-induced effect on MBL, and identify a further potential therapeutic strategy for this debilitating disease.
Civics and Citizenship Education in Its Global Context: The Complexity of Global Citizenship Dialogues
Ruth Reynolds
Education Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/educsci2040190
Abstract: Despite much rhetoric around the notion of a global citizenship, the overriding focus of civics education, from the viewpoint of examining the international educational curriculum, seems to be on national identity and establishing national boundaries for citizenship education. [...]
HIV as a chronic disease considerations for service planning in resource-poor settings
Lucy Reynolds
Globalization and Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8603-7-35
Abstract: In 2009, an estimated 33.3 million [31.4 million-35.3 million] people were living with HIV, according to UNAIDS[1]. With successful antiretroviral treatment, life expectancy for people living with HIV (PLHIV) can be restored to near normal: thus HIV has latterly been transformed into a manageable chronic illness, compatible with fairly good health, lifestyle and economic participation. Most countries now have from a few to many thousands of their population maintained with chronic HIV infection on antiretroviral treatment (ART). This situation already causes some significant challenges, which will increase as the ongoing spread of HIV adds to the caseload. Much has been written about the need to introduce and scale-up antiretroviral treatment to prevent deaths from AIDS. Much less has been said about planning for the situation when PLHIV have been stabilised on treatment so that their immunity is largely restored and they can resume familial and social roles, although a number of important medical and social issues emerge at this stage. This paper aims to raise awareness of some of the key questions for health ministries and governments.As HIV prevalence continues to rise through the roll-out of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to minimise mortality, there will be escalating stress on health provision. Once HAART has transformed HIV from an acute to a chronic illness, patients must be supported in adhering to treatment so that they do not accumulate resistant virus which can once again impair immunity and result in acute illness from opportunistic infections. Further, because chronic HIV infection results in various forms of organ damage, and because PLHIV are as vulnerable to unconnected illnesses as other people, it is also essential to ensure their access to general health facilities. The main barrier is the attitude of health workers: they may be afraid of HIV infection, and may stigmatise patients known or thought to carry it. Irrational fears and d
Implications of changing from grazed or semi-natural vegetation to forestry for carbon stores and fluxes in upland organo-mineral soils in the UK
B. Reynolds
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2007,
Abstract: In the UK, as organo-mineral soils are a significant store of soil organic carbon (SOC), they may become increasingly favoured for the expansion of upland forestry. It is important, therefore, to assess the likely impacts on SOC of this potentially major land use change. Currently, these assessments rely on modelling approaches which assume that afforestation of organo-mineral soils is "carbon neutral". This review evaluates this assumption in two ways. Firstly, UK information from the direct measurement of SOC change following afforestation is examined in the context of international studies. Secondly, UK data on the magnitude and direction of the major fluxes in the carbon cycle of semi-natural upland ecosystems are assessed to identify the likely responses of the fluxes to afforestation of organo-mineral soils. There are few directly relevant measurements of SOC change following afforestation of organo-mineral soils in the UK uplands but there are related studies on peat lands and agricultural soils. Overall, information on the magnitude and direction of change in SOC with afforestation is inconclusive. Data on the accumulation of litter beneath conifer stands have been identified but the extent to which the carbon held in this pool is incorporated into the stable soil carbon reservoir is uncertain. The effect of afforestation on most carbon fluxes is small because the fluxes are either relatively minor or of the same magnitude and direction irrespective of land use. Compared with undisturbed moorland, particulate organic carbon losses increase throughout the forest cycle but the data are exclusively from plantation conifer forests and in many cases pre-date current industry best practice guidelines which aim to reduce such losses. The biggest uncertainty in flux estimates is the relative magnitude of the sink for atmospheric carbon as trees grow and mature compared with that lost during site preparation and harvesting. Given the size of this flux relative to many of the others, this should be a focus for future carbon research on these systems.
Disentangling Privacy and Intimacy: Intimate Citizenship, Private Boundaries and Public Transgressions
Paul Reynolds
Human Affairs , 2010, DOI: 10.2478/v10023-010-0004-1
Abstract: Recent theorisations of transformations of intimacy—like Ken Plummer's (2003) Intimate Citizenship project—concentrate on social and cultural transformations that erode the containment of intimacy within the private sphere. They have less to say about the character of and oppositions to that erosion, and specifically how far the idea of the private stands in opposition to intimacy transgressing into the public. In this essay, the private is explored through its constitutive features—liberal codifications of rights, liberty and property, medico-moral discourses and conservative values and legal and political regulation—to give a more political and critical reading. This reading suggests that an explicit disentangling of the private and the intimate is necessary if tendencies toward public and emancipated intimacies are to become meaningful transformations, and this involves a dissembling of and critical engagement with the powerful historically entrenched idea of privacy in western societies.
The triple test as a screening technique for Down syndrome: reliability and relevance
Tim Reynolds
International Journal of Women's Health , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S8548
Abstract: riple test as a screening technique for Down syndrome: reliability and relevance Review (5007) Total Article Views Authors: Tim Reynolds Published Date May 2010 Volume 2010:2 Pages 83 - 88 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S8548 Tim Reynolds Clinical Chemistry Department, Queen’s Hospital, Burton-on-Trent, Staffordshire, UK Abstract: The triple test is a second trimester screening test used to identify those pregnant women who should be offered a diagnostic test to identify whether their fetus has an aneuploidy. It was first described in 1988, but has largely been superseded by newer tests either conducted earlier in the first trimester (ie, the combined test, using ultrasound measurement of nuchal translucency,pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, and human chorionic gonadotrophin [hCG]) or in the second trimester (ie, the quadruple test, using α-fetoprotein, hCG, uE3, and inhibin). These newer tests have been introduced because they offer greater detection and lower screen positive results thereby enhancing diagnosis rates, while decreasing the risk of iatrogenic harm caused by the invasive testing required when collecting suitable sample tissue. Noninvasive alternatives to the triple test have been identified, but these have not been adopted despite 13 years of development. It is likely, therefore, that the triple test (or variants thereof) will continue to be used in routine antenatal care for the foreseeable future.
Anglo-Saxon human sacrifice at Cuddesdon and Sutton Hoo?
Andrew Reynolds
Papers from the Institute of Archaeology , 1996, DOI: 10.5334/pia.97
Abstract: By reference to two well-known sites where human sacrifice has been suggested, some problems of interpretation of Early Anglo-Saxon burial practices and pre-burial rites from archaeological evidence are considered.
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