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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 413241 matches for " Sandra M Johnson "
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Efficacy and patient tolerability of travoprost BAK-free solution in patients with open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension
Sophia K Mirza, Sandra M Johnson
Clinical Ophthalmology , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S6292
Abstract: acy and patient tolerability of travoprost BAK-free solution in patients with open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension Review (3313) Total Article Views Authors: Sophia K Mirza, Sandra M Johnson Published Date July 2010 Volume 2010:4 Pages 877 - 888 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S6292 Sophia K Mirza, Sandra M Johnson Department of Ophthalmology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA Abstract: The medical treatment of glaucoma has evolved significantly over the past several decades. The main driving forces behind this evolution are the safety profiles and efficacy of these medications. Prostaglandin (PG) analogs are shown to be superior to older drugs in both efficacy and tolerability. Though there are much fewer side effects that manifest after using PG analogs, the adherence and compliance to medication regimens are surprisingly lower than expected. A commonly sited reason is the ocular irritation and inflammation with these medications. Much of this inflammation can be attributed to the preservative, benzalkonium chloride (BAK). The chronic clinical and subclinical inflammation becomes increasingly detrimental when filtration surgery fails from bleb fibrosis secondary to this hypercellularity. A BAK-free formulation of a PG analog recently became available. BAK-free travoprost is reviewed here. It has demonstrated equal efficacy and less ocular surface toxicity than its preserved counterparts. It is expected to serve as an instrumental resource in managing ocular hypertension and glaucoma in patients who demonstrate significant sensitivity to BAK. More randomized, controlled, double-blind studies are encouraged to evaluate its improved safety and tolerability.
Efficacy and patient tolerability of travoprost BAK-free solution in patients with open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension
Sophia K Mirza,Sandra M Johnson
Clinical Ophthalmology , 2010,
Abstract: Sophia K Mirza, Sandra M JohnsonDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USAAbstract: The medical treatment of glaucoma has evolved significantly over the past several decades. The main driving forces behind this evolution are the safety profiles and efficacy of these medications. Prostaglandin (PG) analogs are shown to be superior to older drugs in both efficacy and tolerability. Though there are much fewer side effects that manifest after using PG analogs, the adherence and compliance to medication regimens are surprisingly lower than expected. A commonly sited reason is the ocular irritation and inflammation with these medications. Much of this inflammation can be attributed to the preservative, benzalkonium chloride (BAK). The chronic clinical and subclinical inflammation becomes increasingly detrimental when filtration surgery fails from bleb fibrosis secondary to this hypercellularity. A BAK-free formulation of a PG analog recently became available. BAK-free travoprost is reviewed here. It has demonstrated equal efficacy and less ocular surface toxicity than its preserved counterparts. It is expected to serve as an instrumental resource in managing ocular hypertension and glaucoma in patients who demonstrate significant sensitivity to BAK. More randomized, controlled, double-blind studies are encouraged to evaluate its improved safety and tolerability.Keywords: glaucoma, benzalkonium chloride, Travatan Z, sofZia
Early Root Herbivory Impairs Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Colonization and Shifts Defence Allocation in Establishing Plantago lanceolata
Alison E. Bennett, Anna M. Macrae, Ben D. Moore, Sandra Caul, Scott N. Johnson
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066053
Abstract: Research into plant-mediated indirect interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and insect herbivores has focussed on those between plant shoots and above-ground herbivores, despite the fact that only below-ground herbivores share the same part of the host plant as AM fungi. Using Plantago lanceolata L., we aimed to characterise how early root herbivory by the vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus F.) affected subsequent colonization by AM fungi (Glomus spp.) and determine how the two affected plant growth and defensive chemistry. We exposed four week old P. lanceolata to root herbivory and AM fungi using a 2×2 factorial design (and quantified subsequent effects on plant biomass and iridoid glycosides (IGs) concentrations. Otiorhynchus sulcatus reduced root growth by c. 64%, whereas plant growth was unaffected by AM fungi. Root herbivory reduced extent of AM fungal colonization (by c. 61%). O. sulcatus did not influence overall IG concentrations, but caused qualitative shifts in root and shoot IGs, specifically increasing the proportion of the more toxic catalpol. These changes may reflect defensive allocation in the plant against further attack. This study demonstrates that very early root herbivory during plant development can shape future patterns of AM fungal colonization and influence defensive allocation in the plant.
A Relearning Virtual Machine for Hot Method Prediction
Sandra Johnson,Valli Shanmugam
International Journal of Soft Computing , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/ijscomp.2010.206.210
Abstract: Predicting hot methods of a program code using machine learning algorithms in compiler optimization eliminates the overhead incurred during runtime identification. Since learning is a continuous process, the system should be able to relearn and update itself. In this study we implement this idea in a virtual machine which learns and relearns as to how hot methods can be effectively predicted in a program. This is the first attempt to make a compilation system relearn about hot method prediction after each execution. By applying relearning we are able to develop models for the prediction of the frequently called and the long running hot methods that can obtain 19 and 37% accuracies showing an improvement of 10 and 21%, respectively over the corresponding models without relearning. This is due to the ability of the model to learn from every program that enters execution and reconstruct itself.
Maf1 Is a Novel Target of PTEN and PI3K Signaling That Negatively Regulates Oncogenesis and Lipid Metabolism
Beth M. Palian equal contributor,Aarti D. Rohira equal contributor,Sandra A. S. Johnson equal contributor,Lina He,Ni Zheng,Louis Dubeau,Bangyan L. Stiles,Deborah L. Johnson
PLOS Genetics , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004789
Abstract: Maf1 was initially identified as a transcriptional repressor of RNA pol III-transcribed genes, yet little is known about its other potential target genes or its biological function. Here, we show that Maf1 is a key downstream target of PTEN that drives both its tumor suppressor and metabolic functions. Maf1 expression is diminished with loss of PTEN in both mouse models and human cancers. Consistent with its role as a tumor suppressor, Maf1 reduces anchorage-independent growth and tumor formation in mice. PTEN-mediated changes in Maf1 expression are mediated by PTEN acting on PI3K/AKT/FoxO1 signaling, revealing a new pathway that regulates RNA pol III-dependent genes. This regulatory event is biologically relevant as diet-induced PI3K activation reduces Maf1 expression in mouse liver. We further identify lipogenic enzymes as a new class of Maf1-regulated genes whereby Maf1 occupancy at the FASN promoter opposes SREBP1c-mediated transcription activation. Consistent with these findings, Maf1 inhibits intracellular lipid accumulation and increasing Maf1 expression in mouse liver abrogates diet-mediated induction of lipogenic enzymes and triglycerides. Together, these results establish a new biological role for Maf1 as a downstream effector of PTEN/PI3K signaling and reveal that Maf1 is a key element by which this pathway co-regulates lipid metabolism and oncogenesis.
Spaceflight Influences both Mucosal and Peripheral Cytokine Production in PTN-Tg and Wild Type Mice
Justin L. McCarville, Sandra T. Clarke, Padmaja Shastri, Yi Liu, Martin Kalmokoff, Stephen P. J. Brooks, Julia M. Green-Johnson
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068961
Abstract: Spaceflight is associated with several health issues including diminished immune efficiency. Effects of long-term spaceflight on selected immune parameters of wild type (Wt) and transgenic mice over-expressing pleiotrophin under the human bone-specific osteocalcin promoter (PTN-Tg) were examined using the novel Mouse Drawer System (MDS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) over a 91 day period. Effects of this long duration flight on PTN-Tg and Wt mice were determined in comparison to ground controls and vivarium-housed PTN-Tg and Wt mice. Levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) were measured in mucosal and systemic tissues of Wt and PTN-Tg mice. Colonic contents were also analyzed to assess potential effects on the gut microbiota, although no firm conclusions could be made due to constraints imposed by the MDS payload and the time of sampling. Spaceflight-associated differences were observed in colonic tissue and systemic lymph node levels of IL-2 and TGF-β1 relative to ground controls. Total colonic TGF-β1 levels were lower in Wt and PTN-Tg flight mice in comparison to ground controls. The Wt flight mouse had lower levels of IL-2 and TGF-β1 compared to the Wt ground control in both the inguinal and brachial lymph nodes, however this pattern was not consistently observed in PTN-Tg mice. Vivarium-housed Wt controls had higher levels of active TGF-β1 and IL-2 in inguinal lymph nodes relative to PTN-Tg mice. The results of this study suggest compartmentalized effects of spaceflight and on immune parameters in mice.
Notes on the Tension Between Privacy and Surveillance in Nursing
Johnson, M
Online Journal of Issues in Nursing , 2005,
Abstract: Given their 24 hour responsibility for care in many settings, nurses are the main arbiters of the privacy afforded or denied to patients. In this article the author delineates four aspects of privacy, namely: bodily privacy, space privacy, information privacy, and privacy of individual behaviour. He draws on a range of recent evidence that points to people's experiences of health care being unsatisfactory in terms of privacy, and offers explanations as to why much patient privacy is impossible. He argues that the patients’ need for privacy is to a large extent in competition with the professional need for surveillance, noting that while nurses and others do maintain some patient expectations of privacy, these expectations are artificially low on the part of nurses, who are predisposed to invade privacy as an unconscious aspect of their maintenance of professional power. The author provides a discussion of the theoretical basis of this viewpoint, drawing on importa nt insights from Foucault and Goffman, and concludes that an awareness of these issues can help to re-balance the tension between the need for privacy and the need for surveillance.
Differential expression of Isoesterases in leaves and roots of Vigna unguiculata L. in response to saline stress
Johnson M.
Journal of Stress Physiology & Biochemistry , 2012,
Abstract: The present study was intended to reveal the differential isoesterase expression in leaves and roots of Vigna unguiculata L. in response to saline stress. Influence of NaCl (0, 3, 5, 7 and10 %) on seedlings of Vigna unguiculata L. was analyzed. The seedlings were grown in the centre for a period of 30 days. The randomly collected whole plants were used as a source for isoesterase isolation. The seedlings showed the maximum tolerance up to 10% of NaCl. The Poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis was performed by Anbalagan method. The staining and fixation of the enzyme was performed by the Sadasivam and Manickam method. Seedlings treated with various concentrations of NaCl showed different banding profile based on the concentration (0-10%) and duration (5-30 days) of salt treatment as follows: 32 bands with five active regions, 56 bands with eight active regions, 102 bands with eight active regions, 47 bands with seven active regions, 64 bands with nine active regions and 84 bands with nine active regions on 5th, 10th, 15th, 20th, 25th and 30th day respectively. The changing pattern of isozymes during development may be interpreted as evidence for differential timing of gene expression correlated with the physiological stress. The results of the present study concluded that the isoesterase patterns could serve as a useful biochemical marker of salinity.
The Effects of Vestibular Rehabilitation after Bilateral Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence: A Case Report  [PDF]
Connor L. Naccarato, Kristen M. Johnson
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2017.86042
Abstract: Background and Purpose: Despite the strong body of evidence for vestibular rehabilitation, research is lacking for effective clinical management of patients with superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) and endolymphatic hydrops (EH). The purpose of this case report is to describe the effects of physical therapy in the treatment of a patient diagnosed with bilateral SSCD. Case Description: The patient was a 56-year-old woman with a long-standing otologic history involving bilateral SSCD and EH. The patient’s body structure and function impairments include constant headaches, dizziness with head rotation and eye movements, sensitivity to sounds and lights, and instability during gait. Her activity limitations include lower extremity dressing, driving, and playing her flute. Her participation restrictions include taking part in social gatherings, going to church, driving longer than 30 minutes, playing with her dogs, and teaching flute lessons. Interventions: Specific interventions included vestibular habituation and adaptation exercises, balance and gait training, and patient education. Physical therapy services were provided for approximately 11 weeks with a frequency of two times per week. Outcomes: After eleven weeks of physical therapy, the patient made improvements on the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (43/80 to 52/80), the Dynamic Gait Index (19/24 to 24/24), the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (86/100 to 68/100), and the Sharpened Romberg (2 seconds to >30 seconds). The patient improved in all her activity limitations and participation restrictions. She was able to play her flute for 20-minute intervals, play with her dogs, partake in social gatherings, and drive for 5 hours without symptoms. The patient had plans to pursue surgical intervention within the next year. Discussion: For a patient with a complex otologic history and a current diagnosis of bilateral SSCD, vestibular rehabilitation was an effective management option. The information from this case can be used to guide the effective treatment of similar patients diagnosed with vestibular dysfunction.
Structural Properties of the RNA Synthesized by Glutamate Dehydrogenase for the Degradation of Total RNA  [PDF]
Godson O. Osuji, Paul M. Johnson
Advances in Enzyme Research (AER) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aer.2018.63004
Abstract: Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH)-synthesized RNA, a nongenetic code-based RNA is suitable for unraveling the structural constraints imposed on the regulation (transcription, translation, siRNA etc.) of metabolism by genetic code. GDH-synthesized RNAs have been induced in whole plants to knock out target mRNA populations thereby producing plant phenotypes that are allergen-free; enriched in fatty acids, essential amino acids, shikimic acid, resveratrol etc. Methods applied hereunder for investigating the structural properties of GDH-synthesized RNA included purification of GDH isoenzymes, synthesis of RNA by the isoenzymes, reverse transcription of the RNA to cDNA, sequencing of the cDNA, computation of the G+C-contents, profiling the stability through PCR amplification compared with genetic code-based DNA; and biochemical characterization of the RNAs synthesized by individual hexameric isoenzymes of GDH. Single product bands resulted from the PCR amplification of the cDNAs of GDH-synthesized RNA, whereas several bands resulted from the amplification of genetic code-based DNA. The cDNAs have wide G+C-contents (35% to 59%), whereas genetic code-based DNA has narrower G+C-contents (50% to 60%). The GDH β6 homo-hexameric isoenzyme synthesized the A+U-rich RNAs, whereas the a6, and α6 homo-hexameric isoenzymes synthesized the G+C-rich RNAs. Therefore, the RNA synthesized by GDH is different from genetic code-based RNAs. In vitro chemical reactions revealed that GDH-synthesized RNA degraded total RNA to lower molecular weight products. Therefore, GDH-synthesized RNA is RNA enzyme. Dismantling of the structural constraints imposed on RNA by genetic code liberated RNA to become an enzyme with specificity to degrade unwanted transcripts. The RNA enzyme activity of GDH-synthesized RNA is ubiquitous in cells; it is readily induced by treatment of plants with mineral nutrients etc. and may simplify experimental approaches in plant enzymology and molecular biology research projects.
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