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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 29250 matches for " Sandra Costa; "
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Cooperació i educació per al desenvolupament
Sandra Costa
Temps d'Educació , 2000,
Sandra Costa,Carmen Tabernero
Revista Iberoamericana de Psicología y Salud , 2012,
Abstract: Based on social cognitive theory, the purpose of this research is to identify the gender differences in academic performance and self-concept in a sample of Spanish students of secondary. Also, the role of self-concept as predictor of academic performance is analyzed. For this, 406 students (190 female and 215 male) participated in this research and the questionnaire used to measure self-concept was the AF5. Our results show gender differences in favour of girls in the subject: Spanish Language and Literature and also marginal differences in favour of girls in other subject: Foreign Language. Furthermore, students have got a positive self-concept, not only in general but also in the academic, social, emotional, family and physical aspects. Finally, a path analyses showed that academic, familiar and physical self-concept, and the age of students had a great influence on the academic performance. This search also showed the great importance of family and physical self-concept to determinate the academic self-concept.
The Importance of the Study of Bullying in Medical Schools for Training Professional Physicians in Brazil  [PDF]
Lilian Koifman, Sandra de Matos Botelho da Costa
Creative Education (CE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2016.76080
Abstract: This research aims to investigate school bullying, specifically in the setting of a Brazilian medical school. It presents part of the results of a doctoral research carried out in the Graduate Program in Bioethics, Applied Ethics and Collective Health (PPGBIOS), in Rio de Janeiro city. We confirm that few studies have investigated this phenomenon in the university, especially using the qualitative research methodology in education and health. It is possible to observe that the phenomenon of school bullying occurs in this setting and that the fieldwork is fundamental to give rise to important reflections on the subject among the students.
Opinion on moderate/low cancer genetic risk markers in medical practice including comment on the article Genetic contribution to all cancers: the first demonstration using the model of breast cancers from Poland stratified by age at diagnosis and tumour pathology by Lubinski et al., Breast Cancer Res Treat 2008 Apr 15
Sandra Costa, Fernando C Schmitt
Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1897-4287-6-2-64
Abstract: Remarkable efforts have been made to define the genetic susceptibility factors that help to identify women expected to develop breast cancer. The recent study performed by Lubinski et al. [8] is a promising one. This work takes into account several critical points in these types of association studies. First of all, they used a large sample of randomized cancer cases and unaffected matched controls, which produce adequate statistical power (superior to 80%, calculated in http://www.openepi.com/Menu/OpenEpiMenu.htm webcite). A recent report suggests that studies regarding the association between genetic variants and cancer must take into account not only the statistical significance (P-value) but also the false positive report probability (FPRP) [9]. We think that the use of the FPRP criterion will be helpful to validate their results.Another important improvement made in this work was the stratification of the cases in more homogeneous groups, considering relevant factors in the multifactorial aetiology of this disease, including not only the morphology of the lesion (histological type and grade), but also the hormonal receptor status. This consideration is of extreme importance, since nowadays breast cancer morphological classification is being remodelled using expression profile analysis through cDNA microarrays that can be translated to routine practice using immunohistochemistry for some markers [10]. This approach has redefined breast cancer taxonomy and identified distinct subtypes of carcinomas: luminal (A and B), normal breast-like, HER2 overexpressing and basal-like [2,10]. These molecular subtypes not only reflect the heterogeneity of breast carcinomas and the possible different cell lineage pathways in breast carcinogenesis, but also demonstrate the difference in clinical outcome. It is quite interesting to see in the results of Lubinski et al. [8] that some markers, such as CDKN24, are associated with ductal carcinomas that were high grade and ER positiv
Risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection among blood donors in southern Brazil: a case-control study
Ajacio BM Brand?o, Sandra Costa Fuchs
BMC Gastroenterology , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1471-230x-2-18
Abstract: One hundred and seventy eight blood donors with two positive ELISA results for anti-HCV were cases, and 356 controls tested negative. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect data concerning demographic and socioeconomic aspects, history of previous hepatitis infection, social and sexual behaviors, and number of donations. Variables were grouped into sets of hierarchical categories. Cases and controls were compared using logistic regression, odds ratios, and 95% confidence intervals. The statistical significance of the associations was assessed through likelihood ratio tests based on a P value < 0.05.The prevalence of anti-HCV among blood donors was 1.1%. Most of the donors were white and males. In the multivariate analysis, independent predictors of anti-HCV positivity were: intravenous drug use, blood transfusion >10 years earlier, having had two to four sexually transmitted diseases, incarceration, tattooing, sex with a hepatitis B or C virus carrier or with intravenous drug users.Intravenous drug use, blood transfusion, and tattooing were the main risk factors for anti-HCV positivity among blood donors from southern Brazil, but sexual HCV transmission should also be considered.The worldwide prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection is estimated by the World Health Organization (WHO) to be approximately 3% – corresponding to 170 million infected persons [1,2]. In Brazil, WHO estimates suggest that between 2.5 and 4.9% of the general population present anti-HCV antibodies [3]. This corresponds to as many as 3.9 to 7.6 million chronic carriers at risk for developing liver cirrhosis and/or liver cancer. Studies show that among Brazilian patients with chronic liver disease, 20 to 58% are anti-HCV positive [4], and that in southern Brazil 27% of the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma are anti-HCV positive [5].While the search for an effective therapy [6] and vaccine [7] continues, prevention and control of HCV infection should be the goals of public health
Perfil dos usuários de implante coclear da cidade de Manaus
Pedrett, Mariana dos Santos;Moreira, Sandra Costa;
International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology , 2012, DOI: 10.7162/S1809-97772012000400005
Abstract: introduction: the cochlear implant is a device that is intended to substitute for the function of cochlear hair cells, electrically stimulate auditory nerve fibers, and contribute to the perception of speech sounds. however, the surgical procedure alone is not enough for the user to achieve favorable results in habilitation/rehabilitation. objective: to characterize the patients from manaus who have received cochlear implants based on the criteria for surgery. methods: we conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of 15 cases and recorded etiological aspects of deafness, age, gender, duration of implant use, use of hearing aids, and participation in individual therapy. data were recorded in a protocol designed specifically for this purpose. all patients were natives of manaus. results: the leading etiological aspect was ototoxicity associated with prematurity in newborns undergoing treatment in the neonatal intensive care unit. the age at surgery is carefully observed in the evaluation of implant centers, as well as if the candidate is pre-or post-lingual. in this study, 73% of patients were pre-lingual and did not benefit from hearing aids. as to the degree and type of hearing loss, 93% had audiological reports indicating profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and 7% had severe bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. this latter finding confirmed one of the basic principles of implant placement. conclusion: this study allowed us to verify that there are reduced number of cochlear implant recipients in manaus, but they have met the criteria required by implant centers located in other states of brazil.
Evaluation of trace metals (cadmium, chromium, copper and zinc) in tissues of a commercially important fish (Leporinus obtusidens) from Guaíba Lake, Southern Brazil
Costa, Silene de Carvalho;Hartz, Sandra Maria;
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89132009000100029
Abstract: concentrations of cd, cr, cu and zn were determined in liver and muscle of leporinus obtusidens. during 2003, the fishes (n = 54) were sampled from three sites along guaíba lake (north, central and south zones). the hypotheses tested assumed that there were differences in the location and date as to levels of contamination, association between the trace metal content in the fishes and size, and that the sex influenced metal accumulation. possible risks of contaminated fish consumption to human health were also evaluated. the level of mean concentration (μg/g) of metals in tissues was higher in liver than muscle: [cd] = 2.32♂; [cr] = 0.08♀; [cu] = 30.82♀ and [zn] = 97.77♀. the results showed differences between the local and date sampling for all metals except cr. metal content was higher in the warmer than colder seasons and in the central zone than at other points. significant sexual differences were detected for cd and zn and there were positive associations between the size and metal concentrations for cu and zn. the concentration levels of metals in muscle tissue showed that the fish samples did not offer risks to human health.
Fatores de risco para mortalidade fetal em uma maternidade do Sistema único de Saúde, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil: estudo caso-controle
Fonseca, Sandra Costa;Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2010000200004
Abstract: stillbirth rate is high in brazil, and it is important to identify its determinants. a nested case-control was conducted to explore the determinants of fetal death in a population treated at public services in rio de janeiro from 2002 to 2004. data were collected from mothers' interviews and medical records. a structured model was proposed to perform statistical analysis, attributing hierarchical levels: socioeconomic factors (distal level), reproductive, behavioral, and healthcare determinants (intermediate level), and fetal biological characteristics (proximal level). according to the findings, work stability, stable marital status, presence of a companion during admission, and adequate prenatal care had a protective effect against fetal death, while domestic violence, maternal morbidity, and intrauterine growth restriction increased the risk. quality of prenatal care showed a large protective effect, thus becoming a key strategy for reducing fetal mortality in populations with low socioeconomic status.
Risk and prognostic factors for diarrheal disease in Brazilian infants: a special case-control design application
Fuchs, Sandra Costa;Victora, Cesar Gomes;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2002000300026
Abstract: the aim of this study was to examine the effect of demographic, socioeconomic, environmental, maternal reproductive, dietary, and nutritional variables on diarrhea risk and prognosis using a hierarchical framework. a case-control study of children aged 0-23 months in greater metropolitan porto alegre was conducted during the peak season for diarrhea in 1987-1988. three groups were investigated, with 192 children each. the first group included hospitalized children with an episode of acute diarrhea complicated by moderate to severe dehydration. the second group included children with acute mild diarrhea without signs of dehydration who were identified in the same neighborhood as hospitalized cases. the third group consisted of controls without diarrhea. mothers were interviewed by trained interviewers using a standardized questionnaire. data analysis included a hierarchical approach to control for confounding, using conditional logistic regression. comparison of the three groups aimed to identify risk factors for diarrhea complicated by dehydration, prognostic factors for dehydration, and risk factors for mild diarrhea. low birth weight, stunting, and lack or breastfeeding acted simultaneously as risk and prognostic factors for diarrhea.
A rela??o entre a inicia??o do uso de drogas e o primeiro ato infracional entre os adolescentes em conflito com a lei
Martins, Mayra Costa;Pillon, Sandra Cristina;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2008000500018
Abstract: the aim of this study was to analyze a possible relationship between first experience with drugs and delinquency among adolescents in conflict with the law. in 2006, a cross-sectional study was conducted in facilities of the state foundation for the well-being of minors (febem), with a total occupancy of 312. the sample consisted of 150 male adolescents (48% of the total population) aged 12 to 21, confined for the first time in febem detention centers for socio-educational rehabilitation in sert?ozinho and ribeir?o preto, s?o paulo state, brazil. an individual questionnaire with closed questions was used. results showed high rates of first-time alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use, occurring concomitantly around 12 years. the most common offenses were robbery (44.7%), followed by drug traffic (29.4%), and theft (9.3%), occurring around 13. the data show that drug use occurs prior to offenses.
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