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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1268 matches for " Sandeep;Gaiha "
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Role of the Parasight-F test in the diagnosis of complicated Plasmodium falciparum malarial infection
Arora, Sandeep;Gaiha, Manorama;Arora, Anju;
Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-86702003000500008
Abstract: an evaluation was made of the diagnostic efficacy and utility of the parasight-f test in diagnosing plasmodium falciparum malaria, compared with conventional microscopy, particularly in severe and complicated cases. this study was designed as a prospective, case control hospital-based study. febrile patients suspected to be suffering from malaria were selected randomly and were subjected to peripheral smear examinations (thick and thin) and parasight-f tests till the required number of at least 30 cases of p. falciparum infection were identified, including at least 15 complicated cases. in addition 20 cases of p. vivax malarial infection as well as 20 healthy age and sex-matched individuals were taken as two control groups. the outcome measure was the number of cases with positive parasight-f test results compared with conventional microscopy. thirty-two patients with p. falciparum malaria were identified, with 15 severe and complicated cases. peripheral smears were positive in 29 (91%) of these, while parasight-f test was positive in 31 out of 32 (97%) cases. parasites were detected only by bone marrow examination in one case. diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of peripheral smears for detecting falciparum infection were 90.6% and 100% respectively while that of the parasight-f test were 96.8% and 100%, respectively (p>.05). the parasight-f test has high sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing p. falciparum malarial infection, comparable to or even higher than microscopy exams, particularly in severe and complicated cases, with additional advantages of speed, simplicity and objectivity.
Role of the Parasight-F test in the diagnosis of complicated Plasmodium falciparum malarial infection
Arora Sandeep,Gaiha Manorama,Arora Anju
Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases , 2003,
Abstract: An evaluation was made of the diagnostic efficacy and utility of the Parasight-F test in diagnosing Plasmodium falciparum malaria, compared with conventional microscopy, particularly in severe and complicated cases. This study was designed as a prospective, case control hospital-based study. Febrile patients suspected to be suffering from malaria were selected randomly and were subjected to peripheral smear examinations (thick and thin) and Parasight-F tests till the required number of at least 30 cases of P. falciparum infection were identified, including at least 15 complicated cases. In addition 20 cases of P. vivax malarial infection as well as 20 healthy age and sex-matched individuals were taken as two control groups. The outcome measure was the number of cases with positive Parasight-F test results compared with conventional microscopy. Thirty-two patients with P. falciparum malaria were identified, with 15 severe and complicated cases. Peripheral smears were positive in 29 (91%) of these, while parasight-F test was positive in 31 out of 32 (97%) cases. Parasites were detected only by bone marrow examination in one case. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of peripheral smears for detecting falciparum infection were 90.6% and 100% respectively while that of the Parasight-F test were 96.8% and 100%, respectively (P>.05). The Parasight-F test has high sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing P. falciparum malarial infection, comparable to or even higher than microscopy exams, particularly in severe and complicated cases, with additional advantages of speed, simplicity and objectivity.
Influence of Supernova SN Ia Rate and the Early Star Formation Rate on the Galactic Chemical Evolution  [PDF]
Sandeep Sahijpal
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2013.33038
Abstract:

Based on the recently developed numerical approach to understand the formation and the chemical evolution of the milky-way galaxy in the solar neighborhood we study the influence of the supernova type SN Ia rates on the galactic chemical evolution. Supernova SN Ia plays an important role in producing the iron inventory of the galaxy. We also study the dependence of the chemical evolution on the star formation rate prevailing during the initial one billion years of the evolution of the galaxy. This era marks the formation of the galactic halo and the thick disk. A comparison of the elemental abundance distributions of the dwarf stars in the solar neighborhood is made among the various models simulated in the present work. In order to explain the majority of the observed elemental evolutionary trends, specifically those related with the galactic evolution of iron and oxygen, it would be essential to incorporate a major component of prompt SN Ia to the galactic evolution. The prompt SN Ia would produce significant fraction of SN Ia within the initial ~100 million years from the time of star formation. The essential requirement of prompt SN Ia would result in a significant enhancement of SN Ia rates during the earliest epoch of the galaxy. The elemental evolutionary trends also favor an enhancement in the star formation rate during the initial one billion years of the galaxy at least by a factor of three compared to the trend prevailing during the latter evolutionary time of the galaxy.

Galaxy Formation and Chemical Evolution  [PDF]
Sandeep Sahijpal
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2014.43045
Abstract:

The manner the galaxy accretes matter, along with the star formation rates at different epochs, influences the evolution of the stable isotopic inventories of the galaxy. A detailed analysis is presented here to study the dependence of the galactic chemical evolution on the accretion scenario of the galaxy along with the star formation rate during the early accretionary phase of the galactic thick disk and thin disk. Our results indicate that a rapid early accretion of the galaxy during the formation of the galactic thick disk along with an enhanced star formation rate in the early stages of the galaxy accretion could explain the majority of the galactic chemical evolution trends of the major elements. Further, we corroborate the recent suggestions regarding the formation of a massive galactic thick disk rather than the earlier assumed low mass thick disk.

Nonlinear Blind Equalizers: NCMA and NMCMA  [PDF]
Donglin Wang, Sandeep Chandana
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2010.36070
Abstract: This paper proposes two nonlinear blind equalizers: the nonlinear constant modulus algorithm (NCMA) and the nonlinear modified constant modulus algorithm (NCMA) by applying a nonlinear transfer function (NTF) into constant modulus algorithm (CMA) and modified constant modulus algorithm (MCMA), respectively. The effect of the NTF on CMA and MCMA is theoretically analyzed, which implies that the NTF can make their decision regions much sharper so that the proposed two nonlinear blind equalizers are more robust against the convergency error compared to their linear counterparts. The embedded single layer in NCMA and NMCMA simultaneously guarantees a comparably speedy convergency. On 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) symbols, computer simulations show that NCMA achieves an 8dB lower convergency mean square error (MSE) than CMA, and NMCMA achieves a 15dB lower convergency MSE than MCMA.
Dynamic Identity Based Authentication Protocol for Two-Server Architecture  [PDF]
Sandeep K. Sood
Journal of Information Security (JIS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jis.2012.34040
Abstract: Most of the password based authentication protocols make use of the single authentication server for user's authentication. User's verifier information stored on the single server is a main point of susceptibility and remains an attractive target for the attacker. On the other hand, multi-server architecture based authentication protocols make it difficult for the attacker to find out any significant authentication information related to the legitimate users. In 2009, Liao and Wang proposed a dynamic identity based remote user authentication protocol for multi-server environment. However, we found that Liao and Wang's protocol is susceptible to malicious server attack and malicious user attack. This paper presents a novel dynamic identity based authentication protocol for multi-server architecture using smart cards that resolves the aforementioned flaws, while keeping the merits of Liao and Wang's protocol. It uses two-server paradigm by imposing different levels of trust upon the two servers and the user's verifier information is distributed between these two servers known as the service provider server and the control server. The proposed protocol is practical and computational efficient because only nonce, one-way hash function and XOR operations are used in its implementation. It provides a secure method to change the user's password without the server's help. In e-commerce, the number of servers providing the services to the user is usually more than one and hence secure authentication protocols for multi-server environment are required.
Thin Film Encapsulation at Low Temperature Using Combination of Inorganic Dyad Layers and Spray Coated Organic Layer  [PDF]
Sandeep Kumar, Monica Katiyar
Journal of Encapsulation and Adsorption Sciences (JEAS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jeas.2017.74011
Abstract: Organic devices have many advantages such as low material consumption and low energy requirements, but they have serious issues regarding long term stability. Hence we need to develop a barrier film which solves this problem. Initially, the organic devices were fabricated on glass and were encapsulated using glass and epoxy (as sealant). Gradually there was a need to shift on to flexible substrates which required encapsulation to be flexible as well. Therefore, the motivation of the work is to develop thin film encapsulation that can be made flexible. The low temperature PECVD grown films of SiOx and SiNxwere used as the barrier film. Alternate inorganic layers (2-dyads) provided barrier of ~10-2 g/m2 day and increasing the number of dyads to five improved the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) only by one order of magnitude. However, introducing organic layers in this structure resulted in WVTR value of order 10-5 g/m2 day. The organic layers were deposited by spray technique.
On Secure Digital Image Watermarking Techniques  [PDF]
Manjit Thapa, Sandeep Kumar Sood
Journal of Information Security (JIS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jis.2011.24017
Abstract: Digital watermarking is used to hide the information inside a signal, which can not be easily extracted by the third party. Its widely used application is copyright protection of digital information. It is different from the encryption in the sense that it allows the user to access, view and interpret the signal but protect the ownership of the content. One of the current research areas is to protect digital watermark inside the information so that ownership of the information cannot be claimed by third party. With a lot of information available on various search engines, to protect the ownership of information is a crucial area of research. In latest years, several digital watermarking techniques are presented based on discrete cosine transform (DCT), discrete wavelets transform (DWT) and discrete fourier transforms (DFT). In this paper, we propose an algorithm for digital image watermarking technique based on singular value decomposition; both of the L and U components are explored for watermarking algorithm. This technique refers to the watermark embedding algorithm and watermark extracting algorithm. The experimental results prove that the quality of the watermarked image is excellent and there is strong resistant against many geometrical attacks.
Genetic Algorithm for the Design of Optimal IIR Digital Filters  [PDF]
Ranjit Singh, Sandeep K. Arya
Journal of Signal and Information Processing (JSIP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsip.2012.33038
Abstract: This paper presents the design of Optimal Infinite-Impulse Response (IIR) digital filters using Genetic Algorithm (GA). IIR filter is essentially a digital filter with Recursive responses. Since the error surface of digital IIR filters is generally nonlinear and multimodal, global optimization techniques are required in order to avoid local minima. This paper presents heuristic way for the designing IIR filters. GA is a powerful global optimization algorithm introduced in combinatorial optimization problems. The paper finds the optimum Coefficients of IIR digital filter through GA. Design of Lowpass and High pass IIR digital filter is proposed to provide estimate of transition band. It is found that the calculated values are more optimal than fda tool available for the design of filter in MATLAB. The simulation result of the employed examples shows an improvement on transition band and mean-square-error (MSE). The position of pole-zero is also presented to describe stability and results are compared with Simulated Annealing (SA) method.
Surfactant Protein D Modulates HIV Infection of Both T-Cells and Dendritic Cells
Jens Madsen, Gaurav D. Gaiha, Nades Palaniyar, Tao Dong, Daniel A. Mitchell, Howard W. Clark
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059047
Abstract: Surfactant Protein D (SP-D) is an oligomerized C-type lectin molecule with immunomodulatory properties and involvement in lung surfactant homeostasis in the respiratory tract. SP-D binds to the enveloped viruses, influenza A virus and respiratory syncytial virus and inhibits their replication in vitro and in vivo. SP-D has been shown to bind to HIV via the HIV envelope protein gp120 and inhibit infectivity in vitro. Here we show that SP-D binds to different strains of HIV (BaL and IIIB) and the binding occurs at both pH 7.4 and 5.0 resembling physiological relevant pH values found in the body and the female urogenital tract, respectively. The binding of SP-D to HIV particles and gp120 was inhibited by the presence of several hexoses with mannose found to be the strongest inhibitor. Competition studies showed that soluble CD4 and CVN did not interfere with the interaction between SP-D and gp120. However, soluble recombinant DC-SIGN was shown to inhibit the binding between SP-D and gp120. SP-D agglutinated HIV and gp120 in a calcium dependent manner. SP-D inhibited the infectivity of HIV strains at both pH values of 7.4 and 5.0 in a concentration dependent manner. The inhibition of the infectivity was abolished by the presence of mannose. SP-D enhanced the binding of HIV to immature monocyte derived dendritic cells (iMDDCs) and was also found to enhance HIV capture and transfer to the T-cell like line PM1. These results suggest that SP-D can bind to and inhibit direct infection of T-cells by HIV but also enhance the transfer of infectious HIV particles from DCs to T-cells in vivo.
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