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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 558 matches for " Sana Noreen "
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Molecular Detection and Sequencing for S1 Glycoprotein Gene of Bronchitis Virus of 2016 Epidemic from Sindh and Punjab  [PDF]
Ahmad Umer Sultan, Muhammad Danish Mehmood, Rameez Hassan, Huma Anwar, Sana Noreen, Faisal Amin, Sajjad Hussain
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2018.912044
Abstract: Infectious Bronchitis (IB) is highly contagious disease of commercial poultry causing substantial economic loses by producing poor quality meat in broilers and effecting production in breeder birds. The causative agent has been reported as most hazardous pathogen among other infectious agent even after being immunized with multi-variant strain vaccine. Currently, different strain such as H-120, 4/91 and D274 have been used extensively for immunoprophylaxis against velogenic strain across Pakistan with minimal protection reported. In current study PCR analysis was used to investigate the molecular nature of IB isolates from Punjab and Sind province of Pakistan in 2016 epidemics. Total of 100 tracheal samples were considered for virus inoculation in 10 days old chicken embryonated eggs. The IBV infected amniotic fluid was neutralized with monoclonal antisera of H-120, 4/91 and D274 strains. The IBV screened samples were subjected for RNA extraction and subsequent to PCR using type specific primer of each strain. The amplified product of 840 bp was sequenced through Sanger sequencing. On the basis of PCR results, four similar amplified products from both regions were obtained showing similarities in agarose gel electrophoresis, but they differ from each other on the basis of nucleotides sequence. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that nucleotide sequences of isolates from Karachi were similar to the IBV H-120, Mass-41 and Connecticut 46 reference strains. Whereas, isolates from the Punjab province are analogous to the Mans-2, Mans-3, 9/41(UK) but did not show significant similarity with other reference strain. Therefore, it is recommended that use of M-41 and H-120 in vaccine production could be effective measure against velogenic infectious agent in Sindh particularly in Karachi, whereas, it would be better to incorporate either of the variant GQ281656.1, AY279533.1 in vaccine because of their highest level of resemblance with genetically sequenced isolates from Lahore and its surroundings.
Immunomodulatory Effect of Purified Exotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus in Association with Bird Flu Virus Vaccine in Broilers  [PDF]
Muhammad Usman Ghani, Muhammad Danish Mehmood, Amna Javed, Farheen Ansari, Huma Anwar, Sana Noreen, Sajjad Hussain Shah
American Journal of Molecular Biology (AJMB) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ajmb.2019.91001
Abstract: Immunization is the most effective method still used against infectious agents. Although not always, vaccines ineffectiveness is reported enormously against many of the pathogens throughout the world in poultry, particularly in case of killed or sub unit vaccine. The current project is, therefore, carried out as a preliminary study on broiler chickens to investigate the modulation of immune system against avian influenza virus in association with purified Staphylococcus aureus toxoid. After isolation of Gram positive cocci bacteria on mannitol salt agar from raw milk, yogurt and chicken meat were subsequently biochemically characterized by using rapid diagnostic kit. Pure culture of S. aureus was inoculated into digitally controlled bio-fermentor containing mannitol salt broth for production of toxins. Enormous production of bacteria was passed through sequence of filtration system based on 0.45 μm followed by 0.22 μm size. The centrifugation of the filtrate was made at 10,000 rpm for 60 minutes at 5 followed by 56,100 rpm for 20 minutes and clear supernatant containing Staphylococcus enterotoxin (SEs) was obtained. Bradford estimation of proteins further provided 305 μg/ml of SEs toxoid. Four types of oil adjuvant avian influenza type H9N2 virus vaccines (without toxoid, 91.5 μg/0.3ml, 22.8 μg/0.3ml and 11.43 μg/0.3ml) were injected into healthy AI H9N2 susceptible broilers and anti-H9N2 HI antibody titers were measured in terms of hemagglutination inhibition test. It was observed that on the 8th day
Serine 204 phosphorylation and O-β-GlcNAC interplay of IGFBP-6 as therapeutic indicator to regulate IGF-II functions in viral mediated hepatocellular carcinoma
Waqar Ahmad, Khadija Shabbiri, Bushra Ijaz, Sultan Asad, Noreen Nazar, Shazia Nazar, Kiran Fouzia, Humera Kausar, Sana Gull, Muhammad T Sarwar, Imran Shahid, Sajida Hassan
Virology Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-8-208
Abstract: Among the highly malignant human tumors, hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common. It is the fifth most prominent tumor in the world and is the third most widespread cause of cancer-related death [1]. HCC progression is a multi-step process along with multiple factors based etiology. Major risk factors contributing to HCC include HCV and HBV infection along with alcohol intake and metastasis of cancer in other parts of the body like colon [2]. The malignant transformation process is influenced by a number of growth factors, receptors and other related proteins. Among these related proteins, IGF axis is one of the very important disease contributors [3]. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system regulates growth, development and function of glands through complex interactions with other growth factors and hormones [4]. IGF has structure similarities to insulin [5]. IGF system is composed of two ligands (polypeptide growth factors, IGF-I and IGF-II), two receptors (IGF-IR and IGF-IIR), and six high-affinity binding proteins (IGFBPs) [6]. IGFs bind to a number of proteins including insulin receptors (IGF-I receptor and IGF-II receptor) and serum carrier proteins. IGFs exert their biological actions by interacting with specific receptors localized on the cell membrane [7,8].IGF-I binds with high affinity to IGF-I receptor whereas IGF-II binds with IGF-II receptor more effectively [9]. IGF-II responses are mediated by G-proteins singling. IGF-II receptor stimulates cellular responses like proliferation and motility when interact with IGF-II [10]. IGF-II has cell replication promoting effects and is also termed as multiplication stimulating activity (MSA) [11]. IGF-II is closely related to insulin like fetal growth peptide produced by liver. In a variety of neoplasms IGF-II is reported to be highly over expressed [12]. Furthermore aberrant IGF-II expression is also thought to be involved in liver carcinogenesis [13]. High concentration of IGF-II is also been found in
A Comparison of Direct and Indirect Solvers for Linear Systems of Equations
Noreen Jameel
International Journal of Emerging Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: In this paper, various methods are compared for solving linear systems of equations. Both direct and indirect methods are considered. Direct and Indirect methods are widely used for solving large sparse and dense problems. In direct methods, two methods will be considered: Gaussian Elimination and LU-Factorization methods. Jacobi, Gauss-Seidel ,SOR, CG and GMRES Methods will be discussed as an iterative method. The results show that the GMRES method is more efficient than the other iterative and direct methods. The criteria considered are time to converge, number of iterations, memory requirements and accuracy.
The Professional Medical Journal , 2006,
Abstract: Objective: To identify the epidemiological differences betweennormotensive pregnant women and women in pregnancy induced hypertension. Designs: A descriptive analytical casecontrol study. Setting: Department of Obs and Gynae of Sir Ganga Ram Hospital Lahore. Period: From January toDecember 2004. Materials & Methods: 2 groups with 100 patients in each were studied. Results: PIH is morecommon in young, obese, primigravidas with a family or past history of PIH or hypertension and in those with poorsocioeconomic status and no regular dietary calcium supplementation.
Implications of Demographic Antecedents in Determining the Motivational Drives among Women Entrepreneurs: A Case Study of Women Entrepreneurs Venturing in Lahore, Pakistan
Noreen Zahra
Asian Journal of Business Management , 2013,
Abstract: The emergence of entrepreneurship has grabbed the attention of all state, non-state and scholarly actors around the globe. The very reason of such lukewarm acceptance is its capacity of constructive destruction to bring innovation for economic reforms. Scholars are incisive to explore the dimensions of entrepreneurship in multiple perspectives. One of the growing dimensions in entrepreneurship is gender as more women are invading in this masculine entrepreneurial world. The women entrepreneurs have grabbed the attention of many scholars as they have successfully marked themselves as under explored potential economic actors. Unlike western set-up, the Asian women face many visible and invisible social barriers along with embedded gender discrimination still the entrepreneurial trends among women are observed. In Pakistan, women are just popped up on the face of formal sector with visible economic contribution. This study aims at exploring the demographic antecedes of women in shaping the motivational drives among women entrepreneurs in the context of Pull and Push entrepreneurial drives. This study is based on quantitative methods taking a deductive approach. A survey was conducted with a sample size of 120 women venturing their business with special focus on SMEs with snow ball sampling technique. A questionnaire containing close ended questions and 5 point Likert scale was deployed and descriptive along with correlation analysis were applied for conjecture of demographic antecedes in determining the motivational drives among women entrepreneurs. This study reveals that age, education, marital status, income, income contribution and family structure are closely related with motivational drives and income and income contribution are the most prominent in this context. It is also observed that most of the women entrepreneurs are push entrepreneurs and choose entrepreneurship only in case of immense unavoidability. In addition to that, most of the women venturing in Lahore are engage in such businesses which are less capital and less technology intensive. This study is planned to be conducted in urban city of Lahore Pakistan. Due to specific environmental factors of city Lahore, the generalizability of data analysis and discussion on the other part of the country cannot be claimed on the other part of the Pakistan.
Mixed Convection Peristaltic Flow of Third Order Nanofluid with an Induced Magnetic Field
Saima Noreen
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078770
Abstract: This research is concerned with the peristaltic flow of third order nanofluid in an asymmetric channel. The governing equations of third order nanofluid are modelled in wave frame of reference. Effect of induced magnetic field is considered. Long wavelength and low Reynolds number situation is tackled. Numerical solutions of the governing problem are computed and analyzed. The effects of Brownian motion and thermophoretic diffusion of nano particles are particularly emphasized. Physical quantities such as velocity, pressure rise, temperature, induced magnetic field and concentration distributions are discussed.
Very-High-Precision Calculations in Physics
Amna Noreen
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: This is the introductory part of my Ph.D thesis, defended at the Faculty of Science and Technology, NTNU on December 10, 2012.
Constraint Solvers for User Interface Layout
Noreen Jamil
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Constraints have played an important role in the construction of GUIs, where they are mainly used to define the layout of the widgets. Resizing behavior is very important in GUIs because areas have domain specific parameters such as form the resizing of windows. If linear objective function is used and window is resized then error is not distributed equally. To distribute the error equally, a quadratic objective function is introduced. Different algorithms are widely used for solving linear constraints and quadratic problems in a variety of different scientific areas. The linear relxation, Kaczmarz, direct and linear programming methods are common methods for solving linear constraints for GUI layout. The interior point and active set methods are most commonly used techniques to solve quadratic programming problems. Current constraint solvers designed for GUI layout do not use interior point methods for solving a quadratic objective function subject to linear equality and inequality constraints. In this paper, performance aspects and the convergence speed of interior point and active set methods are compared along with one most commonly used linear programming method when they are implemented for graphical user interface layout. The performance and convergence of the proposed algorithms are evaluated empirically using randomly generated UI layout specifications of various sizes. The results show that the interior point algorithms perform significantly better than the Simplex method and QOCA-solver, which uses the active set method implementation for solving quadratic optimization.
Mineralogy and the Texture of the Basalt in Hail Region, Saudi Arabia  [PDF]
Sana’a Odat
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2014.45015

The study is carried out to list mineralogy and texture of the basalt in Hail region. The basalt flows belong to the Arabian Harrat volcanism. Cenozoic volcanism has produced 13, vast, basaltic fields in western Saudi Arabia, covering a total area of about 100,000 sq. km. The volcanism starts in the late Cretaceous time and continues periodically into the Holocene. The basaltic field presently investigated is known as Harrat Al-Hamad (or Harrat As-Shamah) which lies in northwestern Saudi Arabia, and continues northwards into Jordan. Mineralogical analysis of 20 rock samples indicates that the rocks are products of continental intra-plate magmatism; mostly as coarse-grained silica—under saturated olivine-rich alkali basalt. Mineralogical study shows that rocks are olivine, plagioclase, pyroxene, Nepheline and Opaque minerals. They correspond to alkali olivine basalts. Moreover, the main well-defined texture is intergranular, vesicular and amygdaloidal texture.

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