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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6106 matches for " Samuel Kumah Atiadevie "
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Population-Based Tuberculosis Disease Prevalence Survey in Ghana: The Role and Lessons Learnt from the Laboratory  [PDF]
Kennedy Kwasi Addo, Samuel Ofori Addo, Christian Bonsu, Ezekiel Mensah, Sarah Edusei, Prosper Dedzo, Michael Amo Omari, Samuel Kudzawu, Honesty Ganu, Samuel Kumah Atiadevie, Frank Adae Bonsu
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2019.72009
Abstract: Background: Bacteriologically-confirmed tuberculosis (TB) cases used in calculating TB prevalence in a country are obtained through laboratory examination of sputum specimens. Objective: This article describes laboratory processing of specimens, results overview, conclusions and key lessons learnt from the perspective of laboratory personnel involved in the conduct of TB disease prevalence survey in Ghana in 2013. Methods: Symptoms screening and Chest X-ray suggestive of TB were used to select participants who produced sputum to confirm TB cases using microscopy, culture and Xpert® MTB/RIF assay (GeneXpert). Results: A total of 15,935 single and paired sputum specimens were received from eligible participants. About half of Ziehl-Nielsen (129/263) and Auramine O (122/246) stained smear positives were scanty positive. Culture positivity rate for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex was 266/14,994 (1.7%) and 100/15,179 (0.7%) in Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) and Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) media respectively; while non-tuberculous mycobacterium was 294/14,994 (1.96%) and 167/15,179 (1.1%). Total contamination rates in MGIT (5.4%) were higher than in LJ (1.7%). Prevalence of smear positive TB and bacteriologically confirmed TB among adult population (≥15 years) was estimated at 111 (95% CI: 76 - 145) and 356 (95% CI: 288 - 425) per 100,000 population respectively. Conclusions and Lessons Learnt: Direct supervision of specimen collection by well-trained laboratory personnel, timely transportation of specimens from field to laboratory, prompt specimen processing and use of electronic data management systems are essential for a reliable TB disease prevalence survey data. More importantly, strengthening human and logistical capacity of the laboratory must be of utmost priority.
In Search of Inclusive Growth: The Role of Economic Institutions and Policy  [PDF]
Francis Y. Kumah, Mathew Sandy
Modern Economy (ME) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/me.2013.411081
Abstract:


Inclusive economic growth is one of key challenges facing countries across the globe, notwithstanding initial conditions, particularly following the 2008 global economic slowdown. This paper searches for links between the quality of institutions, economic policies, economic growth and employment creation in low-income countries, using the specific case of Sierra Leone to illustrate. While its findings are consistent with the literature, the paper suggests that re-focusing economic policies on per capita real GDP growth may yield employment dividends, but well-targeted interventions would be needed to cater for the unemployed and to support vulnerable groups which may be adversely impacted by the very policies that drive growth.


Impact of firm-level factors and market entry mode on performance: A study of service MNCs in an emerging economy
George Acheampong,Benard Kumah
Management Science Letters , 2012,
Abstract: The study examined the market entry strategies of multinational services companies into Ghana’s service sector and the linkages to firm level performance after entry. Literature was reviewed on market entry strategies, internationalisation, globalisation of service firms and resource-based theory. The study adopted a combination of both quantitative and qualitative research approaches in this study. The qualitative approach was for deeper enquiry and quantitative for empirical testing. The study found that firm specific factors affect the market entry strategy while the entry strategy also affects performance after it enters the market. Home country factors and the features of services are also seen to moderate on the effects mentioned. Respondents also indicated that the features of services were an industry wide issue not so much consideration is given to it.
Color Measurement of Segmented Printed Fabric Patterns in Lab Color Space from RGB Digital Images  [PDF]
Charles Kumah, Ning Zhang, Rafiu King Raji, Ruru Pan
Journal of Textile Science and Technology (JTST) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jtst.2019.51001
Abstract: Colors of textile materials are the first parameter of quality evaluated by consumers and a key component considered in selecting printed fabric. In the textiles industry, digital printed fabric analysis is one of the basic elements in successfully utilizing a color mechanism scheme and objectively evaluating fabric color alterations. Precise color measurement, however, is mostly used in sample analysis and quality inspection which help to produce reproducible or similar product. It is important that for quality inspection, the color of the product should be measured as a necessary requirement of quality control whether the product is to be accepted or not. Presented in this study is an unsupervised segmentation of printed fabrics patterns using mean shift algorithm and color measurements over the segmented regions of printed fabric patterns. The results established a consistent and reliable color measurement of multiple color patterns and appearance with the established range without any interactions.
Effect of ripening stage on composition, sensory qualities and acceptability of keitt mango (mangifera indica L.) chips
F Appiah, P Kumah, I Idun
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2011,
Abstract: Mango (Mangifera indica) fruits are consumed, among other reasons, for their pleasant flavour. They are rich sources of vitamins A, B6 and C. Mango fruits are being increasingly processed into products such as dried mango slices (chips). These products have longer shelflife and, therefore, assure all year round availability of mango in different forms. The stage of ripening of mango fruits influences consumer acceptability. This is because it affects the physico-chemical characteristics of the mango fruit. In order to produce mango chips of acceptable quality, determination of the most appropriate stage of ripening of fruits for chip production should be known. This study was, therefore, carried out to determine the effect of stage of ripening of Keitt mango fruits on eating quality of its derivative chips. Some physico-chemical changes occurring in fruits were monitored during ripening. The results showed that there were significant increases (P<0.05) in total soluble solids and pH while titratable acidity and vitamin C content declined with ripening. No significant differences were observed between the different stages of ripening in any of the proximate parameters with the exception of the ash content. Chips showed increased levels of ash with ripening. Magnesium levels in chips increased with ripening whereas the levels of phosphorus, potassium, calcium and sodium declined. Sensory evaluation of the chips revealed that chips produced from fully ripe Keitt mango fruits were more acceptable than half ripe and unripe mango fruits. The chips from the fully ripened had the best scores for appearance (1.37), taste (1.27), flavour (1.38) as well as mouthfeel (1.45). The texture of chips produced using the fully ripened Keittt mango fruits were adjudged to be satisfactory (2.64). The study showed that fully ripened mango fruits were better in producing chips of acceptable sensory quality than both unripe and full-ripe mango fruits. The taste which was mainly due to the sugar content of the mango chips contributed significantly to overall acceptability and therefore could be used as a quality indicator of Keitt mango chips.
Radiation-related eye diseases among welders of Suame ‘magazine’ in the Kumasi metropolis
DB Kumah, F Cobbina, DJ Duodu
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) , 2011,
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of radiations on the ocular health of welders and to determine the prevalence of ocular diseases among them in the Kumasi metropolis. In this study, 470 welders (test group) and 450 non-welders (control group) at Suame “Magazine” in the Kumasi metropolis were enrolled for the study. Methods employed in the examination were the administration of a questionnaire seeking clinical and ocular history, visual acuity measurements, external eye examination and ophthalmoscopy. Where necessary, referrals were written for patients to the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) for further examination and treatment. Two hundred and forty two welders, (51.1%) had worked for a period of over ten years. The chief ocular complaints found amongst the respondents were gritty sensation (65.1%) and excessive tearing (56.0%). The commonest radiation-related ocular diseases were pterygium (56.6%), photoconjunctivitis (22.6%) and cataract (5.1%) whereas in the control group the commonest conditions were pterygium (6.2%), pinguecula (2.2%) and cataract (1.3%). There was a small number of retinopathies associated with radiation (4.0%). Most (60.0%) of the welders used electricity (arc welding) and the remaining (40.0%) used carbide (oxy-acetylene flame). A total of 308 ( 65.5%) welders and 76 (16.9%) non-welders (control group) had one or more ocular conditions. The prevalence of eye diseases among the welders and control group is thus 65.5% and 16.9% respectively. In conclusion, it was seen that the ocular symptoms and ailments prevalent among the welders were most likely due to the radiations they are exposed to in their work environment.
Predicting the Consumer Acceptability of Dried MD2 and Smooth Cayenne Pineapple Pulps from Chemical Composition
Francis Appiah,Patrick Kumah,David Oppong
Journal of Food Research (JFR) , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jfr.v1n2p210
Abstract: Drying of pineapple (Ananas comosus) pulp enhances shelf life while assuring all-year-round availability of pineapple in different forms. The difficulty in selecting suitable fruit pulps for producing acceptable dried pulp needs to be addressed in order to reduce variability in dried pineapple pulps and predict consumer acceptability. MD2 and Smooth cayenne fruits were used for the study. Relationships existing between chemical and sensory characteristics of oven-dried pineapple pulps were determined using standard procedures. While a strong positive correlation was found between total soluble solids (TSS) and taste (SC=0.98; MD2=0.99) a negative association was found between TSS and crispness (SC=-0.98; MD2=-0.99) as well as between total titratable acidity (TTA) and taste (SC=-0.99; MD2=-0.98). The study showed that TSS of the fresh fruit was the single most important predictor of overall acceptability of dehydrated pulps. TSS of fresh fruits could therefore be used to select fresh pulps for dehydration.
Presbyopia among public senior high school teachers in the Kumasi metropolis
DB Kumah, SY Lartey, K Amoah-Duah
Ghana Medical Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Presbyopia if uncorrected causes inability to see and do near work. It is unavoidable as one ages. High school teachers whose work depends much on near work need proper and adequate correction of their presbyopia to increase effectiveness and efficiency. Objectives: The aim was to determine the uptake of correction and prescription for presbyopia of presbyopic teachers of public Senior High School (S.H.S.). Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Methods: The study was conducted in 12 public S.H.S. in the Kumasi, with a total sample size of 298. Questionnaire was administered to teachers. Their visual acuity, refraction and ophthalmoscopy were done. Results: The prevalence of presbyopia among the teachers was 68.1%. Out of the number examined 197(66.1%) were males and 10(33.9%) were females. Amongst the presbyopes 60 did not have presbyopic correction, representing 29.6% of the presbyopes. A total of 52 presbyopic teachers required an add of +2.00DS and this was the highest diopter of correction needed (25.6%). Among those with presbyopic correction 55.5% of them use single vision type of correction whiles the remaining 44.5% use bifocals. Out of the 48% presbyopic teachers who have had their presbyopia corrected before, 6% were not wearing their correction. Conclusion: The study has demonstrated a relatively higher prevalence of uncorrected presbyopia amongst teachers in public Senior High Schools in the Kumasi Metropolis of 29.6%. Among those with correction 6 % were not using their correction. Proper and adequate correction is needed by presbyopic teachers through screening to ensure their maximum performance.
Investigating the Distribution of Selected Major and Trace Metals in Lithogenic Environment near Cement Factory, Mekelle, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Samuel Estifanos
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.52018
Abstract:

Sixteen physicochemical parameters including four major and ten trace metals were analyzed for seven top soil and six top stream sediment samples collected around the vicinity of cement factory in Mekelle, Ethiopia. Water and aqua regia extraction techniques were deployed to determine the water soluble and near total concentration of the metals in the samples. Water extraction results verified the magnitude of loading of the metals from anthropogenic sources. The mean values of the water soluble metals are found to exceed the reference values except for Ca and Zn in both lithogenic media indicating the severity of pollution. Spatial distribution of the metals suggested that cement factory dust and traffic emissions represent the most important pollutant sources for the investigated area.  The mean proportion of the major and trace metals in the water soluble phase of soil can be put on a descending order as: Mg (57.76%) > Fe > Ca > K > Na > Mn (3.77%) and Mo (53.17%) > Cu > Co > As > Ni > Zn > Pb

Assessing the Relative Efficiency of Health Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa Using Data Envelopment Analysis  [PDF]
Samuel Ambapour
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2015.51003
Abstract: We assess the relative efficiency of health systems of 35 countries in sub-Saharan Africa using Data Envelopment Analysis. This method allows us to evaluate the ability of each country to transform its sanitary “inputs” into health “outputs”. Our results show that, on average, the health systems of these countries have an efficiency score between 72% and 84% of their maximum level. We also note that education and density of population are factors that affect the efficiency of the health system in these countries.
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