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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6093 matches for " Samuel Kudzawu "
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Population-Based Tuberculosis Disease Prevalence Survey in Ghana: The Role and Lessons Learnt from the Laboratory  [PDF]
Kennedy Kwasi Addo, Samuel Ofori Addo, Christian Bonsu, Ezekiel Mensah, Sarah Edusei, Prosper Dedzo, Michael Amo Omari, Samuel Kudzawu, Honesty Ganu, Samuel Kumah Atiadevie, Frank Adae Bonsu
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2019.72009
Abstract: Background: Bacteriologically-confirmed tuberculosis (TB) cases used in calculating TB prevalence in a country are obtained through laboratory examination of sputum specimens. Objective: This article describes laboratory processing of specimens, results overview, conclusions and key lessons learnt from the perspective of laboratory personnel involved in the conduct of TB disease prevalence survey in Ghana in 2013. Methods: Symptoms screening and Chest X-ray suggestive of TB were used to select participants who produced sputum to confirm TB cases using microscopy, culture and Xpert® MTB/RIF assay (GeneXpert). Results: A total of 15,935 single and paired sputum specimens were received from eligible participants. About half of Ziehl-Nielsen (129/263) and Auramine O (122/246) stained smear positives were scanty positive. Culture positivity rate for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex was 266/14,994 (1.7%) and 100/15,179 (0.7%) in Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) and Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) media respectively; while non-tuberculous mycobacterium was 294/14,994 (1.96%) and 167/15,179 (1.1%). Total contamination rates in MGIT (5.4%) were higher than in LJ (1.7%). Prevalence of smear positive TB and bacteriologically confirmed TB among adult population (≥15 years) was estimated at 111 (95% CI: 76 - 145) and 356 (95% CI: 288 - 425) per 100,000 population respectively. Conclusions and Lessons Learnt: Direct supervision of specimen collection by well-trained laboratory personnel, timely transportation of specimens from field to laboratory, prompt specimen processing and use of electronic data management systems are essential for a reliable TB disease prevalence survey data. More importantly, strengthening human and logistical capacity of the laboratory must be of utmost priority.
A Cross Sectional Study of the Knowledge and Practice of Self-Breast Examination among Market Women at the Makola Shopping Mall, Accra, Ghana  [PDF]
Elorm Kudzawu, Francis Agbokey, Collins S. K. Ahorlu
Advances in Breast Cancer Research (ABCR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/abcr.2016.53013
Abstract: Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide. With an estimated incidence of 1,676,633 with 521,817 deaths in the year 2012, the figure is expected to hit the 82.5 millionth mark by 2015. Breast cancer screening is reported to be extremely low in most low-middle income countries like Ghana. This study was to determine the knowledge and practices of self-breast examination among market women at Makola Shopping Mall in Accra, Ghana. Methods: The study was conducted at the Makola Shopping Mall in Accra among women above the age of 20 years who owned a store and sell at the mall. Data were collected using mixed method involving in-depth interviews and questionnaire survey. Random samples of 170 participants were selected from a population of 400 for the quantitative survey. A total of eight in-depth interviews were conducted to generate qualitative data to complement the survey data. Results: Majority (60%) of the respondents were between the ages of 20 - 40 years. There’s a high literacy rate among the participants. Though awareness of self-breast examination was very high (93%), only 27% practiced self-breast examination in line with the recommended one week period after menses due to lack of knowledge of the basic skills to do self-breast examination. Conclusion: In view of the lack of knowledge resulting in non-performance of self-breast examination, continuous education on breast cancer screening should be given to the women to enable them acquire the skills of performing self-breast examination to promote early detection of the disease.
High frequency of first-line anti-tuberculosis drug resistance among persons with chronic pulmonary tuberculosis at a teaching hospital chest clinic
A Forson, S Kudzawu, A Kwara, T Flanigan
Ghana Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Introduction: The burden of MDR-TB is unknown in areas that do not have drug susceptibility testing (DST), but its frequency is expected to be higher in previously treated cases. Where DST is not available the WHO recommended standardized retreatment (Category II) regimen is given to previously treated TB patients Objective: To evaluate the frequency and pattern of drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from patients with chronic smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis. Method: We conducted a retrospective review of mycobacterial cultures and drug susceptibility testing (DST) performed on sputum samples collected, between January 2005 and September 2006, from 40 patients with pulmonary TB who had failed at least one standard retreatment regimen. Clinical data was extracted from patients’ case notes. Results: M. tuberculosis was recovered from 28 (70%) of the 40 patients. Of the 28 culture positive cases, 10 (36%) had resistance to at least rifampicin and isoniazid (multi-drug resistant TB), 22 (79%) isolates had resistance to streptomycin and 13 (46%) to ethambutol. Of the patients with a positive culture, only one (3.6%) had a fully susceptible organism. Of the 10 patients with MDR TB, 7 had received two or more retreatment courses. Conclusion: The frequency of drug resistant TB was high among patients who failed at least one course of category II therapy. Effective combination regimens based on DST is necessary in patients who remain smear positive on the standardized retreatment regimen.
Investigating the Distribution of Selected Major and Trace Metals in Lithogenic Environment near Cement Factory, Mekelle, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Samuel Estifanos
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.52018

Sixteen physicochemical parameters including four major and ten trace metals were analyzed for seven top soil and six top stream sediment samples collected around the vicinity of cement factory in Mekelle, Ethiopia. Water and aqua regia extraction techniques were deployed to determine the water soluble and near total concentration of the metals in the samples. Water extraction results verified the magnitude of loading of the metals from anthropogenic sources. The mean values of the water soluble metals are found to exceed the reference values except for Ca and Zn in both lithogenic media indicating the severity of pollution. Spatial distribution of the metals suggested that cement factory dust and traffic emissions represent the most important pollutant sources for the investigated area.  The mean proportion of the major and trace metals in the water soluble phase of soil can be put on a descending order as: Mg (57.76%) > Fe > Ca > K > Na > Mn (3.77%) and Mo (53.17%) > Cu > Co > As > Ni > Zn > Pb

Assessing the Relative Efficiency of Health Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa Using Data Envelopment Analysis  [PDF]
Samuel Ambapour
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2015.51003
Abstract: We assess the relative efficiency of health systems of 35 countries in sub-Saharan Africa using Data Envelopment Analysis. This method allows us to evaluate the ability of each country to transform its sanitary “inputs” into health “outputs”. Our results show that, on average, the health systems of these countries have an efficiency score between 72% and 84% of their maximum level. We also note that education and density of population are factors that affect the efficiency of the health system in these countries.
Block Unification Scheme for Elliptic, Telegraph, and Sine-Gordon Partial Differential Equations  [PDF]
Samuel Jator
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2015.52014
Abstract: In this paper, we use the method of lines to convert elliptic and hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDEs) into systems of boundary value problems and initial value problems in ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by replacing the appropriate derivatives with central difference methods. The resulting system of ODEs is then solved using an extended block Numerov-type method (EBNUM) via a block unification technique. The accuracy and speed advantages of the EBNUM over the finite difference method (FDM) are established numerically.
The Todaro Paradox: An Econometric Test Using Data from Congo  [PDF]
Samuel Ambapour
Modern Economy (ME) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/me.2015.68083
Abstract: In this paper we test on data from Congo, what is come to know as Todaro Paradox. That is, on the one hand, the idea is put forward by Lewis that, industrial expansion will allow developing countries to reduce unemployment caused by an oversized rural workforce. However, on the other hand, Harris and Todaro argue that expanding urban employment will attract the rural population into the cities thus increasing unemployment. Our result seems to confirm Lewis’ theory that urban job creation leads to lower unemployment.
A Note Regarding Prioritization on Congestible Networks  [PDF]
Samuel Raisanen
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2015.55071
Abstract: This paper examines the effect of allowing prioritization of traffic on a congestible network under three demand scenarios. First, it is shown that when prioritization does not affect usage, average congestion on the network increases. Second, this result is shown to hold when there is demand shifting toward the prioritized network service but no impact on total network traffic. Finally, it is proven that for prioritization to reduce average congestion on a network it must reduce the total traffic on the network.
Measuring Employment Inertia in a Period of Crisis: An Interpretation of Brechling Short-Run Model  [PDF]
Samuel Ambapour
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2017.74064
Abstract: In this paper, the Brechling model is used to measure employment inertia in five sectors of the Congolese economy between 1983 and 1993. During that period, the Congolese economy found itself at a crossroad. On the one hand, the implementation of the 1982-1986 five-year economic development plans involved considerable infrastructure investment. On the other hand, given the market reversal observed since 1985, the infrastructure funding and the tempo became less. A structural adjustment program had to be undertaken with the World Bank in 1987-1989 with its measures entirely designed to restore the country’s macroeconomic balance and to enable it to resume regular and sustainable growth over time. Thus, the result from the short-run employment model taken over the period in question demonstrates that there is strong employment inertia in the sectors investigated.
The Need for Structural Adjustment: Was It Essential for African Countries over the Decade of the 80’s? An Econometric Analysis Using Count Data Models  [PDF]
Samuel Ambapour
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2017.74041
Several economists agree to say that the need for adjustment was essential for African countries over the decade of the 80’s. The econometric analysis of a sample of 28 sub-Saharan African countries, from variables regarded as “representatives” for the adjustment objectives, proves that this assertion cannot be completely rejected.
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