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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 196036 matches for " Samuel G. Schumacher "
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Empathy Diminishes Prejudice: Active Perspective-Taking, Regardless of Target and Mortality Salience, Decreases Implicit Racial Bias  [PDF]
Travis J. Pashak, McCall A. Conley, Drew J. Whitney, Samuel R. Oswald, Stephanie G. Heckroth, Evan M. Schumacher
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2018.96082
Abstract: Racism, and particularly the oppression of Black citizens, remains a significant problem in the United States. This manuscript reports on an experiment studying the effects of mortality salience and active perspective-taking empathy on racial bias. Specifically, social empathy was hypothesized to counteract the increased in-group preferential bias typical of those primed with mortality salience. The sample consisted of n = 111 White emerging adults affiliated with a small Midwest American university. Death anxiety and active perspective-taking were experimentally manipulated, and the dependent variables were implicit bias change scores (pre-test versus post-test on the Race-Related Implicit Association Test using White/Black faces) and explicit racial prejudice (self-report scores on the Quick Discrimination Inventory and Scale of Ethnocultural Empathy). The four experimental groups did not differ on implicit bias change scores or explicit discrimination scores—neither main effects nor interaction effects were statistically significant. However, the QDI and SEE were correlated (r = .76, p > .001), thus supporting their construct validity, and the pre-scores on the Race IAT across the whole sample were statistically significantly higher than the post-scores, with a moderate effect size (t(110) = 3.13, p = .002, eta-squared = .08). Findings appear to indicate that engaging in active perspective-taking, regardless of the race of the target and regardless of the presence of mortality salience, leads to decreased implicit racial prejudice. Empathy training in various clinical and educational settings could lead to a reduction in prejudiced attitudes, and ultimately aid in the dismantling of American racism.
Incidence of adverse events with telmisartan compared with ACE inhibitors: evidence from a pooled analysis of clinical trials
Mancia G, Schumacher H
Patient Preference and Adherence , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S27939
Abstract: cidence of adverse events with telmisartan compared with ACE inhibitors: evidence from a pooled analysis of clinical trials Original Research (2915) Total Article Views Authors: Mancia G, Schumacher H Published Date December 2011 Volume 2012:6 Pages 1 - 9 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S27939 Giuseppe Mancia1, Helmut Schumacher2 1Universita degli Studi Milano-Bicocca, Ospedale San Gerardo di Monza, Milan, Italy; 2Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH and Co KG, Ingelheim, Germany Abstract: Telmisartan is indicated for the prevention of cardiovascular events in high-risk patients, based on comparable efficacy to the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, ramipril, in the ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET ) trial. However, tolerability must be considered when selecting treatments. This analysis compared the tolerability of telmisartan and ACE inhibitors using data pooled from 12 comparative, randomized studies involving 2564 telmisartan-treated patients and 2144 receiving ACE inhibitors (enalapril, lisinopril, or ramipril). Incidence rates of adverse events for the combined ACE inhibitor treatments and for telmisartan were similar (42.8% vs 43.9%, respectively) as were the rates of serious adverse events (1.8% vs 1.7% for telmisartan, respectively). Patients receiving ACE inhibitors had more cough (8.6% vs 2.6% with telmisartan, P < 0.0001). Results were similar irrespective of age, gender, or ethnicity. The adverse event of angioedema was observed in four patients (0.2%) receiving ACE inhibitors versus none with telmisartan (P = 0.043). There were small, numerical differences in serious adverse events. A total of 107 patients (5.0%) receiving ACE inhibitors and 93 patients (3.6%) receiving telmisartan discontinued treatment because of adverse events (P = 0.021); of these, 32.7% and 5.4%, respectively, were discontinuations due to cough (relative risk reduction of 88% [P < 0.0001] with telmisartan). Telmisartan and ACE inhibitors produced comparable blood pressure reductions at marketed doses. Telmisartan and ACE inhibitors are suitable for the prevention of cardiovascular events in high-risk patients, but telmisartan is better tolerated, particularly with regard to cough.
Incidence of adverse events with telmisartan compared with ACE inhibitors: evidence from a pooled analysis of clinical trials
Mancia G,Schumacher H
Patient Preference and Adherence , 2011,
Abstract: Giuseppe Mancia1, Helmut Schumacher21Universita degli Studi Milano-Bicocca, Ospedale San Gerardo di Monza, Milan, Italy; 2Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH and Co KG, Ingelheim, GermanyAbstract: Telmisartan is indicated for the prevention of cardiovascular events in high-risk patients, based on comparable efficacy to the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, ramipril, in the ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET ) trial. However, tolerability must be considered when selecting treatments. This analysis compared the tolerability of telmisartan and ACE inhibitors using data pooled from 12 comparative, randomized studies involving 2564 telmisartan-treated patients and 2144 receiving ACE inhibitors (enalapril, lisinopril, or ramipril). Incidence rates of adverse events for the combined ACE inhibitor treatments and for telmisartan were similar (42.8% vs 43.9%, respectively) as were the rates of serious adverse events (1.8% vs 1.7% for telmisartan, respectively). Patients receiving ACE inhibitors had more cough (8.6% vs 2.6% with telmisartan, P < 0.0001). Results were similar irrespective of age, gender, or ethnicity. The adverse event of angioedema was observed in four patients (0.2%) receiving ACE inhibitors versus none with telmisartan (P = 0.043). There were small, numerical differences in serious adverse events. A total of 107 patients (5.0%) receiving ACE inhibitors and 93 patients (3.6%) receiving telmisartan discontinued treatment because of adverse events (P = 0.021); of these, 32.7% and 5.4%, respectively, were discontinuations due to cough (relative risk reduction of 88% [P < 0.0001] with telmisartan). Telmisartan and ACE inhibitors produced comparable blood pressure reductions at marketed doses. Telmisartan and ACE inhibitors are suitable for the prevention of cardiovascular events in high-risk patients, but telmisartan is better tolerated, particularly with regard to cough.Keywords: adverse drug event, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers, cough, hypertension
Evaluation of bleach-sedimentation for sterilising and concentrating Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum specimens
Rusheng Chew, Carmen Calderón, Samuel G Schumacher, Jonathan M Sherman, Luz Caviedes, Patricia Fuentes, Jorge Coronel, Teresa Valencia, Beatriz Hererra, Mirko Zimic, Lucy Huaroto, Ivan Sabogal, A Rod Escombe, Robert H Gilman, Carlton A Evans
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-11-269
Abstract: This blinded, controlled study used sputum specimens (n = 72) from tuberculosis patients. Bleach concentrations and exposure times required to sterilise sputum (n = 31) were determined. In the light of these results, the performance of 5 gravity bleach-sedimentation techniques that sterilise sputum specimens (n = 16) were compared. The best-performing of these bleach-sedimentation techniques involved adding 1 volume of 5% bleach to 1 volume of sputum, shaking for 10-minutes, diluting in 8 volumes distilled water and sedimenting overnight before microscopy. This technique was further evaluated by comparing numbers of visible acid-fast bacilli, slide-reading speed and reliability for triplicate smears before versus after bleach-sedimentation of sputum specimens (n = 25). Triplicate smears were made to increase precision and were stained using the Ziehl-Neelsen method.M. tuberculosis in sputum was successfully sterilised by adding equal volumes of 15% bleach for 1-minute, 6% for 5-minutes or 3% for 20-minutes. Bleach-sedimentation significantly decreased the number of acid-fast bacilli visualised compared with conventional smears (geometric mean of acid-fast bacilli per 100 microscopy fields 166, 95%CI 68-406, versus 346, 95%CI 139-862, respectively; p = 0.02). Bleach-sedimentation diluted paucibacillary specimens less than specimens with higher concentrations of visible acid-fast bacilli (p = 0.02). Smears made from bleach-sedimented sputum were read more rapidly than conventional smears (9.6 versus 11.2 minutes, respectively, p = 0.03). Counting conventional acid-fast bacilli had high reliability (inter-observer agreement, r = 0.991) that was significantly reduced (p = 0.03) by bleach-sedimentation (to r = 0.707) because occasional strongly positive bleach-sedimented smears were misread as negative.Gravity bleach-sedimentation improved laboratory safety by sterilising sputum but decreased the concentration of acid-fast bacilli visible on microscopy, especially for sp
Challenges in the Development of an Immunochromatographic Interferon-Gamma Test for Diagnosis of Pleural Tuberculosis
Claudia M. Denkinger, Yatiraj Kalantri, Samuel G. Schumacher, Joy S. Michael, Deepa Shankar, Arvind Saxena, Natarajan Sriram, Thangakunam Balamugesh, Robert Luo, Nira R. Pollock, Madhukar Pai, Devasahayam J. Christopher
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085447
Abstract: Existing diagnostic tests for pleural tuberculosis (TB) have inadequate accuracy and/or turnaround time. Interferon-gamma (IFNg) has been identified in many studies as a biomarker for pleural TB. Our objective was to develop a lateral flow, immunochromatographic test (ICT) based on this biomarker and to evaluate the test in a clinical cohort. Because IFNg is commonly present in non-TB pleural effusions in low amounts, a diagnostic IFNg-threshold was first defined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for IFNg in samples from 38 patients with a confirmed clinical diagnosis (cut-off of 300pg/ml; 94% sensitivity and 93% specificity). The ICT was then designed; however, its achievable limit of detection (5000pg/ml) was over 10-fold higher than that of the ELISA. After several iterations in development, the prototype ICT assay for IFNg had a sensitivity of 69% (95% confidence interval (CI): 50-83) and a specificity of 94% (95% CI: 81-99%) compared to ELISA on frozen samples. Evaluation of the prototype in a prospective clinical cohort (72 patients) on fresh pleural fluid samples, in comparison to a composite reference standard (including histopathological and microbiologic test results), showed that the prototype had 65% sensitivity (95% CI: 44-83) and 89% specificity (95% CI: 74-97). Discordant results were observed in 15% of samples if testing was repeated after one freezing and thawing step. Inter-rater variability was limited (3%; 1out of 32). In conclusion, despite an iterative development and optimization process, the performance of the IFNg ICT remained lower than what could be expected from the published literature on IFNg as a biomarker in pleural fluid. Further improvements in the limit of detection of an ICT for IFNg, and possibly combination of IFNg with other biomarkers such as adenosine deaminase, are necessary for such a test to be of value in the evaluation of pleural tuberculosis.
TRANSFORMATION MATRICES FOR DETERMINATION OF γ/γ INTERFACE TYPES IN TWO-PHASE TiAl ALLOYS
Transformation Matrices for Determination of γ/γ Interface Types in Two-Phase TiAl Alloys

CHEN Shanhua,G Schumacher,
陈善华
,G.,Schumacher

金属学报 , 2004,
Abstract: γ/γ界面对(7 Q2)双相TiAl基合金的力学性能有着重要影响,采用矩阵方法系统地导出了该合金中标定γ 相晶体学取向的变换矩阵.利用这些变换矩阵和汇聚束电子衍射技术对XDTM制备的Ti-47A1-2Mn-2Nb(原子分数,%) 0.8TiBz(体积分数,%)合金中γ/γ界面关系及其统计分布进行了测定.
Comparison of Prairie and Eroded Agricultural Lands on Soil Organic Carbon Retention (South Dakota)  [PDF]
K. R. Olson, A. N. Gennadiyev, R. G. Kovach, T. E. Schumacher
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2014.44017
Abstract:


The primary objective of this research was to predict changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) and total soil nitrogen (TSN) stocks as a result of land use change from prairie to agricultural land if the mesic-frigid temperature line moved north in the US and the former frigid soils were cultivated. The conversion of prairie to agricultural use, as a result of climate shift, would release SOC to atmosphere and enhance greenhouse gas emissions. The SOC and TSN differences between the prairie site and agricultural land were compared in South Dakota. The agricultural land had 18% less SOC and 16% less TSN or only half of the expected loss from prairie levels. An attempt was made to document the land use history of the prairie site to understand why SOC and TSN losses were less than anticipated. The fly ash concentration levels on prairie side slopes suggested that the prairie was historically disturbed and eroded. Intensive grazing and burning contributed to the disturbance. The SOC and TSN stock losses appear to represent the minimal change that would occur in the next 100-year time period if a prairie was shifted to agricultural use as a result of climate shift and the mesic-frigid temperature line in US was to move north.


Spin-orbit coupling and crystal-field splitting in the electronic and optical properties of nitride quantum dots with a wurtzite crystal structure
S. Schulz,S. Schumacher,G. Czycholl
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1140/epjb/e2008-00269-7
Abstract: We present an $sp^3$ tight-binding model for the calculation of the electronic and optical properties of wurtzite semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). The tight-binding model takes into account strain, piezoelectricity, spin-orbit coupling and crystal-field splitting. Excitonic absorption spectra are calculated using the configuration interaction scheme. We study the electronic and optical properties of InN/GaN QDs and their dependence on structural properties, crystal-field splitting, and spin-orbit coupling.
确定双相TiAl基合金中γ/γ界面关系的变换矩阵
陈善华,G.Schumacher
金属学报 , 2004,
Abstract: γ/γ界面对(γ+α2)双相TiAl基合金的力学性能有着重要影响.采用矩阵方法系统地导出了该合金中标定γ相晶体学取向的变换矩阵.利用这些变换矩阵和汇聚束电子衍射技术对XDTM制备的Ti-47Al-2Mn-2Nb(原子分数,%)+0.8TiB2(体积分数,%)合金中γ/γ界面关系及其统计分布进行了测定.
A Potentiometric Evaluation of Stability Constants of Two-Step Overlapping Equilibria via a Bilogarithmic Hyperbolic Cosine Method  [PDF]
Samuel Beaumont, Julia Martin, Agustin G. Asuero
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation (JASMI) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jasmi.2016.62005
Abstract: A bilogarithmic hyperbolic cosine method for the evaluation of overlapping formation constants at varying (or fixed) ionic strength is devised in this paper and applied to data reported in the analytical literature, i.e. succinic acid system, Cu(II)-glycine system and Ag(I)-aminobutan-1-ol system. The method is based on the linearization of the formation function ? = f(pH) or ? = f(pL) data. A theoretical slope of unity should be obtained thus proving the correctness of the assumed equilibria. An additional advantage of the bilogarithmic method proposed is that it provides a closed scale representation of Y and X unlike other plots. This paper forms part of an investigation into the uses of bilogarithmic methods and hyperbolic functions in parameter estimation. Methods based on the application of spectrophotometric measurements have been the subject of recent studies.
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