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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7393 matches for " Samuel Franklin; "
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MDCC: Multi-Data Center Consistency
Tim Kraska,Gene Pang,Michael J. Franklin,Samuel Madden
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: Replicating data across multiple data centers not only allows moving the data closer to the user and, thus, reduces latency for applications, but also increases the availability in the event of a data center failure. Therefore, it is not surprising that companies like Google, Yahoo, and Netflix already replicate user data across geographically different regions. However, replication across data centers is expensive. Inter-data center network delays are in the hundreds of milliseconds and vary significantly. Synchronous wide-area replication is therefore considered to be unfeasible with strong consistency and current solutions either settle for asynchronous replication which implies the risk of losing data in the event of failures, restrict consistency to small partitions, or give up consistency entirely. With MDCC (Multi-Data Center Consistency), we describe the first optimistic commit protocol, that does not require a master or partitioning, and is strongly consistent at a cost similar to eventually consistent protocols. MDCC can commit transactions in a single round-trip across data centers in the normal operational case. We further propose a new programming model which empowers the application developer to handle longer and unpredictable latencies caused by inter-data center communication. Our evaluation using the TPC-W benchmark with MDCC deployed across 5 geographically diverse data centers shows that MDCC is able to achieve throughput and latency similar to eventually consistent quorum protocols and that MDCC is able to sustain a data center outage without a significant impact on response times while guaranteeing strong consistency.
2-Aminopyridinium (2-aminopyridine)trichloridonickelate(II)
Hoong-Kun Fun,S. Franklin,Samuel Robinson Jebas,T. Balasubramanian
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2008, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536808005655
Abstract: In the title compound, (C5H7N2)[NiCl3(C5H6N2)], the NiII atom is four-coordinated by three chloride anions and one N atom of a 2-aminopyridine ligand, forming a distorted tetrahedral coordination. In the crystal structure, cations and complex anions are linked into chains along the a, b and c axes by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of a three-dimensional framework.
4,4′-Dimethoxybenzophenone: a triclinic polymorph
Hoong-Kun Fun,S. Franklin,Samuel Robinson Jebas,T. Balasubramanian
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2008, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536808017315
Abstract: The title compound, C15H14O3, has been found to crystallize as a new triclinic polymorph. The asymmetric unit of the present structure, as in the previously reported monoclinic structure [Norment & Karle (1962). Acta Cryst. 15, 873–878], contains two independent molecules, which differ slightly in the orientations of the two benzene rings. The crystal packing of the triclinic polymorph is stabilized by intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds and C—H...π interactions.
The Role of Transoral Robotic Surgery in the Management of Oropharyngeal Cancer: A Review of the Literature
Samuel A. Dowthwaite,Jason H. Franklin,David A. Palma,Kevin Fung
ISRN Oncology , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/945162
Abstract:
The Role of Transoral Robotic Surgery in the Management of Oropharyngeal Cancer: A Review of the Literature
Samuel A. Dowthwaite,Jason H. Franklin,David A. Palma,Kevin Fung,John Yoo,Anthony C. Nichols
ISRN Oncology , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/945162
Abstract: Background. Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) is an emerging treatment option for the treatment of head and neck malignancies, particularly for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Preliminary studies have demonstrated excellent oncologic and functional outcomes that have led to a resurgence of interest in the primary surgical management of OPSCC. The aim of the present study was to review the evidence base supporting the use of TORS in OPSCC. Methods. Studies evaluating the application of TORS in the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and more specifically OPSCC, were identified for review. Further searches were made of reference lists for complete evaluation of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in treating OPSCC. Results. Seventeen results relating to the application of TORS in treatment of OPSCC were identified. Further results relating to the role of transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) in OPSCC were included for review. Feasibility, oncologic, and functional data is summarized and discussed. Discussion. Management strategies for patients with OPSCC continue to evolve. Minimally invasive surgical techniques including TORS and TLM offer impressive functional and oncologic outcomes particularly for patients with early T-classification and low-volume regional metastatic disease. Potential exists for treatment deintensification, particularly in patients who are HPV positive. 1. Introduction Approximately 500,000 new cases of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are diagnosed each year making HNSCC the 6th most common cancer worldwide [1]. The rate of HNSCC has been increasing recently secondary to an epidemic of human papillomavirus- (HPV-) related oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer (OPSCC). These trends, which have seen rates of OPSCC as much as double over the last three decades in some countries, have been associated with a shift in demographics to a younger population that is typically high functioning with lower rates of comorbid illness [2]. Combined with lower rates of smoking and alcohol abuse and an intrinsic improved response rate of HPV-related OPSCC to curative treatment regimens, the overall and disease-free survival rates in this patient group are significantly higher than previously observed. As such, long-term quality of life considerations have been made even more relevant to the multidisciplinary team coordinating the care of these patients. These new developments in the pathogenesis of HNSCC, and in particular OPSCC, are occurring in the context of large-scale paradigm shifts over the past two
Active Learning for Crowd-Sourced Databases
Barzan Mozafari,Purnamrita Sarkar,Michael J. Franklin,Michael I. Jordan,Samuel Madden
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: Crowd-sourcing has become a popular means of acquiring labeled data for a wide variety of tasks where humans are more accurate than computers, e.g., labeling images, matching objects, or analyzing sentiment. However, relying solely on the crowd is often impractical even for data sets with thousands of items, due to time and cost constraints of acquiring human input (which cost pennies and minutes per label). In this paper, we propose algorithms for integrating machine learning into crowd-sourced databases, with the goal of allowing crowd-sourcing applications to scale, i.e., to handle larger datasets at lower costs. The key observation is that, in many of the above tasks, humans and machine learning algorithms can be complementary, as humans are often more accurate but slow and expensive, while algorithms are usually less accurate, but faster and cheaper. Based on this observation, we present two new active learning algorithms to combine humans and algorithms together in a crowd-sourced database. Our algorithms are based on the theory of non-parametric bootstrap, which makes our results applicable to a broad class of machine learning models. Our results, on three real-life datasets collected with Amazon's Mechanical Turk, and on 15 well-known UCI data sets, show that our methods on average ask humans to label one to two orders of magnitude fewer items to achieve the same accuracy as a baseline that labels random images, and two to eight times fewer questions than previous active learning schemes.
Effects of Academic Stress and Perceived Social Support on the Psychological Wellbeing of Adolescents in Ghana  [PDF]
Franklin N. Glozah
Open Journal of Medical Psychology (OJMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmp.2013.24022
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine how academic stress and perceived social support influence the psychological wellbeing of Senior High School students in Ghana. Two hundred and twenty six male and female students participated. The general health questionnaire, student life-stress inventory and perceived social support from family and friends scales were used to assess psychological wellbeing, academic stress and perceived social support respectively. The results indicated that perceived social support buffered the effects of academic stress on psychological wellbeing. Girls reported higher scores on perceived social support but reported more depression. Boys reported higher academic stress and better psychological wellbeing, and these have been attributed partly to the socialisation role of gender. These results have policy implications in respect of the creation of a cordial school environment as well as encouraging a healthy interpersonal relationship between adolescents and their family and friends with the aim of reducing academic stress appraisal which is inimical to the psychological wellbeing of adolescents.
Heterotrophic and Autotrophic Soil Respiration under Simulated Dormancy Conditions  [PDF]
Daniel Beverly, Scott Franklin
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2015.53024
Abstract: Carbon cycling research has increased over the past 20 years, but less is known about the primary contributors to soil respiration (i.e. heterotrophic and autotrophic) under dormant conditions. It is understood that soil CO2 effluxes are significantly lower during the winter of temperate ecosystems and assumed microorganisms dominate efflux origination. We hypothesized that heterotrophic contributions would be greater than autotrophic under simulated dormancy conditions. To test this hypothesis, we designed an experiment with the following treatments: combined autotrophic heterotrophic respiration, heterotrophic respiration, autotrophic respiration, no respiration, autotrophic respiration in vermiculite, and no respiration in vermiculite. Engelmann spruce seedlings and soil substrates were placed in specially designed respiration chambers and soil CO2 efflux measurements were taken four times over the course of a month. Soil microbial densities and root volumes were measured for each chamber after day thirty-three. Seedling presence resulted in significantly higher soil CO2 efflux rates for all soil substrates. Autotrophic respiration treatments were not representative of solely autotrophic soil CO2 efflux due to soil microbial contamination of autoclaved soil substrates; however, the mean autotrophic contributions averaged less than 25% of the total soil CO2 efflux. Soil microorganism communities were likely the primary contributor to soil CO2 efflux in simulated dormant conditions, as treatments with the greatest proportions of microbial densities had the highest soil CO2 efflux rates. Although this study is not directly comparable to field dormant season soil CO2 effluxes of Engelmann spruce forest, as snowpack is not maintained throughout this experiment, relationships, and metrics from such small-scale ecosystem component processes may yield more accurate carbon budget models.
Possíveis fatores etiológicos para desordens temporomandibulares de origem articular com implica??es para diagnóstico e tratamento
Maydana, Aline Vettore;Tesch, Ricardo de Souza;Denardin, Odilon Vitor Porto;Ursi, Weber José da Silva;Dworkin, Samuel Franklin;
Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S2176-94512010000300010
Abstract: the authors reviewed the factors involved in the etiology, diagnosis and treatment of temporomandibular joint disorders (tmd). although essential, specific criteria for inclusion and exclusion in tmd diagnosis have shown limited usefulness. currently, the research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (rdc/tmd) offer the best evidence-based classification for the most common tmd subgroups. the rdc/tmd includes not only methods for physical diagnostic classification, comprised in axis i, but also methods to assess the intensity and severity of chronic pain and the levels of non-specific depressive and physical symptoms, in axis ii. although historically malocclusions have been identified as risk factors for the development of tmd-including those predominantly joint-related-in many cases the association established between these variables seems to have taken opposite directions. regarding internal tmj derangements, the results of studies on the induced shortening of the mandibular ramus, secondary to anterior articular disk displacement, indicate that repositioning the displaced disk in children or young adolescents may make more sense than previously imagined. the therapeutic use of dietary supplements, such as glucosamine sulfate, seems to be a safe alternative to the anti-inflammatory drugs commonly used to control pain associated with tmj osteoarthritis, although evidence of its effectiveness for most tmd patients has yet to be fully established.
Translating OWL and Semantic Web Rules into Prolog: Moving Toward Description Logic Programs
Ken Samuel,Leo Obrst,Suzette Stoutenberg,Karen Fox,Paul Franklin,Adrian Johnson,Ken Laskey,Deborah Nichols,Steve Lopez,Jason Peterson
Computer Science , 2007,
Abstract: To appear in Theory and Practice of Logic Programming (TPLP), 2008. We are researching the interaction between the rule and the ontology layers of the Semantic Web, by comparing two options: 1) using OWL and its rule extension SWRL to develop an integrated ontology/rule language, and 2) layering rules on top of an ontology with RuleML and OWL. Toward this end, we are developing the SWORIER system, which enables efficient automated reasoning on ontologies and rules, by translating all of them into Prolog and adding a set of general rules that properly capture the semantics of OWL. We have also enabled the user to make dynamic changes on the fly, at run time. This work addresses several of the concerns expressed in previous work, such as negation, complementary classes, disjunctive heads, and cardinality, and it discusses alternative approaches for dealing with inconsistencies in the knowledge base. In addition, for efficiency, we implemented techniques called extensionalization, avoiding reanalysis, and code minimization.
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