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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 112489 matches for " Samson O Adoka "
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Malaria hotspot areas in a highland Kenya site are consistent in epidemic and non-epidemic years and are associated with ecological factors
Kacey C Ernst, Samson O Adoka, Dickens O Kowuor, Mark L Wilson, Chandy C John
Malaria Journal , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-5-78
Abstract: To address this issue, spatial distribution of malaria incidence and the relationship of ecological factors to malaria incidence were assessed in the highland area of Kipsamoite, Kenya, from 2001–2004.Clustering of disease in a single geographic "hotspot" area occurred in epidemic and non-epidemic years, with a 2.6 to 3.2-fold increased risk of malaria inside the hotspot, as compared to outside the area (P < 0.001, all 4 years). Altitude and proximity to the forest were independently associated with increased malaria risk in all years, including epidemic and non-epidemic years.In this highland area, areas of high malaria risk are consistent in epidemic and non-epidemic years and are associated with specific ecological risk factors. Ongoing interventions in areas of ecological risk factors could be a cost-effective method of significantly reducing malaria incidence and blunting or preventing epidemics, even in the absence of malaria early warning systems. Further studies should be conducted to see if these findings hold true in varied highland settings.It has been estimated that 34 million individuals in highland areas of East Africa are at risk for malaria [1] and malaria in these highland areas has been responsible for numerous deaths [2]. However, the levels of variation in malaria risk within these highland areas are not well described and only a few studies have investigated risk factors for malaria there [3-5]. Previous studies have demonstrated that malaria cases aggregate from the household to the countrywide level [3,6,7]. The determinants of such clustering are likely due to shared anthropogenic and environmental variables, as well as factors related to contagion such as population density and human interactions [8,9]. Brooker et al demonstrated that there was spatial clustering of malaria cases in children during an epidemic in a single year in highland area of Kenya [3]. However, without data from multiple years, it is difficult to discern if clusters of
Susceptibility of Some Selected Nitte Municipal Wastewater Sources to Trace Metals Pollution  [PDF]
Samson O. Ojoawo, Gaddale Udayakumar
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering (CWEEE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/cweee.2014.33010

The negative impacts of pollution due to trace metals in wastewater on aquatic ecosystem and related organisms in water bodies are on the increase. This paper deals with the investigation on the pollution indices of trace metals in selected wastewater samples of Nitte Town, Udupi District, Karnataka State, India. Twelve wastewater samples were obtained from Students Hostels, Auto-Service Workshop Station, Foundry, Laundry, Landfill Leachate and Wastewater Treatment Plant Inlet. The measured heavy metals in the samples include: Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), Magnesium (Mg), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Zinc (Zn), Manganese (Mn) and Cadmium (Cd), using the air-acetylene-operated Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (FAAS), Avanta GM model. The results were all compared with the EPA Effluent Standards. Findings revealed that all samples recorded dwindling levels of trace metals pollution when compared with the Standards. The heaviest concentration occurred in Cd with as high as 1856.4 ppm as found in the Stale Landfill Leachate sample, while the least contaminating metal in the samples is Manganese which was detected in only Aerated Wastewater Treatment Plant sample (2.3 ppm). This study is therefore recommending Electro-coagulation treatment method for trace metals with high concentration levels like Cd, Pb, Mg and Cu, while those with lesser concentration such as Mn, Cr, Ni and Zn in the samples are suggested to be treated with chemical precipitation method.

Arginase as a Potential Target in the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease  [PDF]
Baruh Polis, Abraham O. Samson
Advances in Alzheimer's Disease (AAD) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aad.2018.74009
Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a slowly progressive, neurodegenerative disorder with an insidious onset that is characterized by severe decline in memory, thinking and reasoning skills. Advanced age is a prominent risk factor for AD and other metabolic diseases, such as type II diabetes and atherosclerosis. Their causal mechanisms are multifaceted and not fully understood. The precise pathophysiology of AD remains a mystery despite decades of intensive investigation. Thus far, there is no truly successful AD therapy. Arginase is the central enzyme of the urea cycle. Recent studies have identified arginase function in the brain and associated this enzyme with the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Upregulation of arginase has been shown to contribute to endothelial dysfunction, ischemia-reperfusion, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and neurodegeneration. Other state-of-the-art discoveries of the precise molecular machinery of neurodegeneration have provided new directions for the rational development of innovative therapeutic strategies in the treatment of common neurodegenerative diseases. In this context, the regulation of arginase activity appears to be a universal approach in interfering with the pathogenesis of AD and providing relief for it and other metabolic disorders. Therefore, the enzyme represents a novel therapeutic target. Arginase inhibition has been shown to reverse amyloid-driven neuronal dysfunction and microgliosis and prevent the development of other AD symptoms in rodent models of AD. Consequently, the methodology represents a promising direction for clinical development.
Contamination Levels of Some Selected Wells in Ogbomoso South Local Government Area, Nigeria and the Implications on Human Health  [PDF]
Samson O. Ojoawo, T. Lateef Kolade
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.57066

Incident of water-borne diseases is becoming more rampant in developing countries in the 21st century. This paper examines the contamination levels of some selected wells in Ogbomoso South Local Government Area (LGA), Oyo State, Nigeria. Methodology includes administering of structured questionnaire, field survey/sampling and laboratory analysis. The first set of questionnaires sought information on water sources, quality, supply and treatment. These were administered in 10 selected major locations which included: Ajegunle, Arinkinkin, Arowomole, Caretaker, Esanu-Aje, Ita-Olola, Malete, Oke-Alapata, Ora-Gada and Sunsun. The other set which was administered in 6 randomly selected Health Institutions viz: Oyo State General Hospital, Alaafia Tayo, Oore-Ofe, Bethel, Favour, and Grace Hospitals had questions on health-related issues. Ten (10) wells were randomly selected for sampling, one in each location. Results were compared with WHO’s Drinking Water Standards. Questionnaires revealed that residents depended mostly on wells for water supply; the water quality was low; supply was irregular; quantity was inadequate and boiling was the commonest treatment method. Health Officials established that some residents consumed improperly treated well water and there were some incidences of water-related diseases. Laboratory analyses showed that samples from Ajegumle and Esanu-Aje had colour values above the standard. Also, the pH was observed to vary from slightly acidic to slightly alkaline with values ranging between 6.0 and 8.1. Only Arinkinkin and Ita-Olola areas had

Application of TRACI and CML Modeling Tools in Life Cycle Impact Assessment of Municipal Wastes  [PDF]
Samson O. Ojoawo, Abayomi A. Gbadamosi
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.46070

In this study, the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other Environmental Impacts (TRACI) of the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the methodology of the Centre for Environmental Studies (CML) of the University of Leiden are two approaches applied as provided for in the GaBi5 (Holistic Balancing) Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) software database, to classify and characterize environmental impacts of municipal wastes in Ogbomoso South Local Government Area (LGA), Nigeria. On waste composition, 5 representative households were selected, each from the cardinal polling units in Ibapon (ward 4) for the study. Wastes samples were collected from the households over a period of 5 days, sorted, classified according to their constituents and weighed accordingly. For the Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA), two waste management scenarios/models were developed and compared using GaBi5 software. Scenario 1 involves collection, transportation and landfilling, while Scenario 2 ends with incineration. The Impact Indices determined from both scenarios were: Global Warming Potential (GWP), Acidification Potential (AP), Eutrophication Potential (EP) and Ozone Layer Depletion Potential (ODP). Findings show that the overall mean percent (%) wastes composition for biodegradable, metal, textile, paper, plastic, glass and wood were respectively found to be 55.9, 9.5, 2.4, 6.5, 6.7, 6.6, and 12.2. From the results of LCIA methods studied, landfilling of wastes poses a lesser burden on the environment, using the ODP index, as compared to incineration. It is concluded that of the management scenarios considered, landfilling of wastes is more environmentally friendly and therefore recommended for use in the study area.

System Dynamics Modeling of Dumpsite Leachate Control in Ogbomosoland, Nigeria  [PDF]
Samson O. Ojoawo, Oluwole A. Agbede, Abimbola Y. Sangodoyin
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.31015
Abstract: Leachate pollution from landfills is a major source of environmental hazard in many Nigerian municipalities and there is the need to mitigate its effects. The aim of this study is to examine the leachate pollution and determine the effectiveness of liner system in leachate management of dumpsites in Ogbomosoland. The method of modeling us ing principles of system dynamics was employed to determine the interrelationships of leachate generation components for 50 years. Causal loops indicating the linkage of population, economic status, waste generation per capita and weather conditions to wastes and leachate generation were developed. A set of state model equations for Gas Produced (Gp), Precipitation (Pt), Degradation water-loss (Wg), Leachate Quantity (LQn), were formulated. Leachate management strategies of liner systems were studied, and the effectiveness of Compacted Clay (CC), High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE), Geosynthetic Clay (GC), Silt (SI), Sandy loam (SL), and Sand (SA) liners were examined. A user-friendly computer program for estimating leachate generation per time and breakthrough time for liners was then developed. The results showed that a direct relationship exists between leachate and Gp, Pt, Wg and LQn. Average leachate breakthrough times for the liners, in years, were CC (41.5), HDPE (14.0), LDPE (10.0), GC (1.1), SI (0.1), SL (0.01), and SA (0.00002). In conclusion, dumpsite leachate pollution was established as having negative effects on the groundwater resource. Compacted Clay liner is therefore recommended for use in curtailing its menace.
Characterization of Dumpsite Leachate: Case Study of Ogbomosoland, South-Western Nigeria  [PDF]
Samson O. Ojoawo, Oluwole A. Agbede, Abimbola Y. Sangodoyin
Open Journal of Civil Engineering (OJCE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojce.2012.21006
Abstract: Leachates contain varying complex characteristics. The 5 Local Government Areas (LGAs) under this study that characterized leachate are no exceptions. Five aged dumpsites, one per LGA were selected and leachates extracted from them through BS 1377 standard method. Samples were taken seasonally over 2 years and subjected to Laboratory analyses for physical, inorganic, metallic and microbial characteristics. The key leachate contents mean, (pollution indices) included Nickel (0.2 mg/l), Manganese (1.8 mg/l), Dissolved Oxygen (11.5 mg/l) and Total Coliform (24.3 cfu/ml). Results obtained were compared with the Nigerian Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) standards. The leachate of the area is found to be stable, objectionably coloured, odoured, alkaline, turbid, hard, with moderate recalcitrant organic and biological matters. The study recommends leachate treatment to minimize groundwater pollution.
Public Debt and the Crisis of Development in Nigeria Econometric Investigation
Chris O. Udoka,Samson Ogege
Asian Journal of Finance & Accounting , 2012, DOI: 10.5296/ajfa.v4i2.2028
Abstract: The study examined the extent of public debt crisis and its consequences on economic development using data from Nigerian economy for the period 1970 to 2010. It employed the error correction framework and co-integration techniques to test the relationship between per-capita gross domestic product and macroeconomics variables. The test reveals that there is long relationship between dependent and the independent variables. This implies that political instability may reduce rate development and other independent variables are responsible for the underdevelopment of Nigeria. Hence, to avoid the crisis of economic development in Nigeria public debt should be reduce to a minimal level.
Combining Coded Signals with Arbitrary Modulations in Orthogonal Relay Channels
Brice Djeumou,Samson Lasaulce,Antoine O. Berthet
Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/287320
Abstract: We consider a relay channel for which the following assumptions are made. (1) The source-destination and relay-destination channels are orthogonal (frequency division relay channel). (2) The relay implements the decode-and-forward protocol. (3) The source and relay implement the same channel encoder, namely, a convolutional encoder. (4) They can use arbitrary and possibly different modulations. In this framework, we derive the best combiner in the sense of the maximum likelihood (ML) at the destination and the branch metrics of the trellis associated with its channel decoder for the ML combiner and also for the maximum ratio combiner (MRC), cooperative-MRC (C-MRC), and the minimum mean-square error (MMSE) combiner.
The Impact of the Interaction between Verbal and Mathematical Languages in Education
Atieno Kili K'Odhiambo, Samson O. Gunga
Thought and Practice: A Journal of the Philosophical Association of Kenya , 2010,
Abstract: Since the methods employed during teacher-learner interchange are constrained by the internal structure of a discipline, a study of the interaction amongst verbal language, technical language and structure of disciplines is at the heart of the classic problem of transfer in teaching-learning situations. This paper utilizes the analytic method of philosophy to explore aspects of the role of language in mathematics education, and attempts to harmonize mathematical meanings exposed by verbal language and the precise meanings expressed by the mathematics register (MR) formulated in verbal language. While focusing on the integration of language use and meaning construction in mathematics education, the paper explores the relationship between the conceptual understanding revealed by the mathematics register and the procedural knowledge that refers to the mathematical content through ordinary discourse.
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