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The negative impacts of pollution due to trace metals in wastewater on aquatic ecosystem and related organisms in water bodies are on the increase. This paper deals with the investigation on the pollution indices of trace metals in selected wastewater samples of Nitte Town, Udupi District, Karnataka State, India. Twelve wastewater samples were obtained from Students Hostels, Auto-Service Workshop Station, Foundry, Laundry, Landfill Leachate and Wastewater Treatment Plant Inlet. The measured heavy metals in the samples include: Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), Magnesium (Mg), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Zinc (Zn), Manganese (Mn) and Cadmium (Cd), using the air-acetylene-operated Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (FAAS), Avanta GM model. The results were all compared with the EPA Effluent Standards. Findings revealed that all samples recorded dwindling levels of trace metals pollution when compared with the Standards. The heaviest concentration occurred in Cd with as high as 1856.4 ppm as found in the Stale Landfill Leachate sample, while the least contaminating metal in the samples is Manganese which was detected in only Aerated Wastewater Treatment Plant sample (2.3 ppm). This study is therefore recommending Electro-coagulation treatment method for trace metals with high concentration levels like Cd, Pb, Mg and Cu, while those with lesser concentration such as Mn, Cr, Ni and Zn in the samples are suggested to be treated with chemical precipitation method.
Incident of water-borne diseases is becoming more rampant in developing countries in the 21st century. This paper examines the contamination levels of some selected wells in Ogbomoso South Local Government Area (LGA), Oyo State, Nigeria. Methodology includes administering of structured questionnaire, field survey/sampling and laboratory analysis. The first set of questionnaires sought information on water sources, quality, supply and treatment. These were administered in 10 selected major locations which included: Ajegunle, Arinkinkin, Arowomole, Caretaker, Esanu-Aje, Ita-Olola, Malete, Oke-Alapata, Ora-Gada and Sunsun. The other set which was administered in 6 randomly selected Health Institutions viz: Oyo State General Hospital, Alaafia Tayo, Oore-Ofe, Bethel, Favour, and Grace Hospitals had questions on health-related issues. Ten (10) wells were randomly selected for sampling, one in each location. Results were compared with WHO’s Drinking Water Standards. Questionnaires revealed that residents depended mostly on wells for water supply; the water quality was low; supply was irregular; quantity was inadequate and boiling was the commonest treatment method. Health Officials established that some residents consumed improperly treated well water and there were some incidences of water-related diseases. Laboratory analyses showed that samples from Ajegumle and Esanu-Aje had colour values above the standard. Also, the pH was observed to vary from slightly acidic to slightly alkaline with values ranging between 6.0 and 8.1. Only Arinkinkin and Ita-Olola areas had
In this study, the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other Environmental Impacts (TRACI) of the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the methodology of the Centre for Environmental Studies (CML) of the University of Leiden are two approaches applied as provided for in the GaBi5 (Holistic Balancing) Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) software database, to classify and characterize environmental impacts of municipal wastes in Ogbomoso South Local Government Area (LGA), Nigeria. On waste composition, 5 representative households were selected, each from the cardinal polling units in Ibapon (ward 4) for the study. Wastes samples were collected from the households over a period of 5 days, sorted, classified according to their constituents and weighed accordingly. For the Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA), two waste management scenarios/models were developed and compared using GaBi5 software. Scenario 1 involves collection, transportation and landfilling, while Scenario 2 ends with incineration. The Impact Indices determined from both scenarios were: Global Warming Potential (GWP), Acidification Potential (AP), Eutrophication Potential (EP) and Ozone Layer Depletion Potential (ODP). Findings show that the overall mean percent (%) wastes composition for biodegradable, metal, textile, paper, plastic, glass and wood were respectively found to be 55.9, 9.5, 2.4, 6.5, 6.7, 6.6, and 12.2. From the results of LCIA methods studied, landfilling of wastes poses a lesser burden on the environment, using the ODP index, as compared to incineration. It is concluded that of the management scenarios considered, landfilling of wastes is more environmentally friendly and therefore recommended for use in the study area.