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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1799 matches for " Samantha Low Choy "
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Bayesian Classification and Regression Trees for Predicting Incidence of Cryptosporidiosis
Wenbiao Hu, Rebecca A. O'Leary, Kerrie Mengersen, Samantha Low Choy
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023903
Abstract: Background Classification and regression tree (CART) models are tree-based exploratory data analysis methods which have been shown to be very useful in identifying and estimating complex hierarchical relationships in ecological and medical contexts. In this paper, a Bayesian CART model is described and applied to the problem of modelling the cryptosporidiosis infection in Queensland, Australia. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the results of a Bayesian CART model with those obtained using a Bayesian spatial conditional autoregressive (CAR) model. Overall, the analyses indicated that the nature and magnitude of the effect estimates were similar for the two methods in this study, but the CART model more easily accommodated higher order interaction effects. Conclusions/Significance A Bayesian CART model for identification and estimation of the spatial distribution of disease risk is useful in monitoring and assessment of infectious diseases prevention and control.
Homozygous N396T mutation in Gaucher disease: Portuguese sisters with markedly different phenotypes
Samantha Kimball, Francis Choy, Agnes Zay, et al
International Medical Case Reports Journal , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IMCRJ.S17144
Abstract: mozygous N396T mutation in Gaucher disease: Portuguese sisters with markedly different phenotypes Case report (2453) Total Article Views Authors: Samantha Kimball, Francis Choy, Agnes Zay, et al Published Date March 2011 Volume 2011:4 Pages 17 - 20 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IMCRJ.S17144 Samantha Kimball1,2, Francis Choy4, Agnes Zay5, Dominick Amato3 1Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Canada; 2Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, 3Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Mt Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada; 4Department of Biology, University of Victoria, Victoria, Canada; 5MRC Center for Regenerative Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland Abstract: Gaucher disease (GD) is characterized by reduced activity of glucocerebrosidase leading to complications in the reticuloendothelial system. N396T, a rarer mutation of the glucocerebrosidase gene, has been encountered in Portuguese populations and has generally been associated with milder phenotypes. This report presents brief histories of two Portuguese sisters, both with homozygous N396T mutations. These patients are phenotypically very different despite the fact that in both patients residual enzyme activity is very low. The case of patient 1 is complicated by comorbid diabetes mellitus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) improved this patient's clinical picture sufficiently to enable antiretroviral treatment to proceed for the HIV. This report demonstrates the poor correlation of clinical GD with genotype as well as with residual enzyme activity. It further illustrates how treatment of the underlying GD with ERT improved symptoms allowing for antiretroviral therapy thereby improving both the GD and HIV.
Homozygous N396T mutation in Gaucher disease: Portuguese sisters with markedly different phenotypes
Samantha Kimball,Francis Choy,Agnes Zay,et al
International Medical Case Reports Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Samantha Kimball1,2, Francis Choy4, Agnes Zay5, Dominick Amato31Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Canada; 2Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, 3Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Mt Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada; 4Department of Biology, University of Victoria, Victoria, Canada; 5MRC Center for Regenerative Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, ScotlandAbstract: Gaucher disease (GD) is characterized by reduced activity of glucocerebrosidase leading to complications in the reticuloendothelial system. N396T, a rarer mutation of the glucocerebrosidase gene, has been encountered in Portuguese populations and has generally been associated with milder phenotypes. This report presents brief histories of two Portuguese sisters, both with homozygous N396T mutations. These patients are phenotypically very different despite the fact that in both patients residual enzyme activity is very low. The case of patient 1 is complicated by comorbid diabetes mellitus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) improved this patient's clinical picture sufficiently to enable antiretroviral treatment to proceed for the HIV. This report demonstrates the poor correlation of clinical GD with genotype as well as with residual enzyme activity. It further illustrates how treatment of the underlying GD with ERT improved symptoms allowing for antiretroviral therapy thereby improving both the GD and HIV.Keywords: Gaucher disease, N396T mutation, glucocerebrosidase, HIV
A Bayesian spatio-temporal model of panel design data: airborne particle number concentration in Brisbane, Australia
Sam Clifford,Sama Low Choy,Mandana Mazaheri,Farhad Salimi,Lidia Morawska,Kerrie Mengsersen
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: This paper outlines a methodology for semi-parametric spatio-temporal modelling of data which is dense in time but sparse in space, obtained from a split panel design, the most feasible approach to covering space and time with limited equipment. The data are hourly averaged particle number concentration (PNC) and were collected, as part of the Ultrafine Particles from Transport Emissions and Child Health (UPTECH) project. Two weeks of continuous measurements were taken at each of a number of government primary schools in the Brisbane Metropolitan Area. The monitoring equipment was taken to each school sequentially. The school data are augmented by data from long term monitoring stations at three locations in Brisbane, Australia. Fitting the model helps describe the spatial and temporal variability at a subset of the UPTECH schools and the long-term monitoring sites. The temporal variation is modelled hierarchically with penalised random walk terms, one common to all sites and a term accounting for the remaining temporal trend at each site. Parameter estimates and their uncertainty are computed in a computationally efficient approximate Bayesian inference environment, R-INLA. The temporal part of the model explains daily and weekly cycles in PNC at the schools, which can be used to estimate the exposure of school children to ultrafine particles (UFPs) emitted by vehicles. At each school and long-term monitoring site, peaks in PNC can be attributed to the morning and afternoon rush hour traffic and new particle formation events. The spatial component of the model describes the school to school variation in mean PNC at each school and within each school ground. It is shown how the spatial model can be expanded to identify spatial patterns at the city scale with the inclusion of more spatial locations.
Bayesian semi-parametric forecasting of ultrafine particle number concentration with penalised splines and autoregressive errors
Sam Clifford,Bjarke M?lgaard,Sama Low Choy,Jukka Corander,Kaarle H?meri,Kerrie Mengersen,Tareq Hussein
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: Observational time series data often exhibit both cyclic temporal trends and autocorrelation and may also depend on covariates. As such, there is a need for flexible regression models that are able to capture these trends and model any residual autocorrelation simultaneously. Modelling the autocorrelation in the residuals leads to more realistic forecasts than an assumption of independence. In this paper we propose a method which combines spline-based semi-parametric regression modelling with the modelling of auto-regressive errors. The method is applied to a simulated data set in order to show its efficacy and to ultrafine particle number concentration in Helsinki, Finland, to show its use in real world problems.
The Economic Motion  [PDF]
Li Choy Chong
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2013.34042
Abstract:

This paper investigates the way economics moves, in other words we study the characteristics of economic dynamics by itself that is by abstracting from the single generating context, whatever this might be. We would like to concentrate on the fundamental mechanism “moving” the economic system and determining its business cycle, its crisis, its development and so on. In this way we are offering an extremely new perspective about economic dynamics, as we do not consider its elements as separate but we hold them as part of a single phenomenon, the evolution of an economic system. We argue that by considering this point of view, economic dynamics cannot be determined by a system in eternal equilibrium only occasionally disturbed by some exogenous shock. We demonstrate that economics is evolving continuously and economic phenomena (such as economic crisis) have to be interpreted as a variation in its velocity.

Current Treatment of DCIS  [PDF]
Christina Choy, Kefah Mokbel
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2014.52022
Abstract:

Abstract: Ductal carcinoma in-situ DCIS is a heterogeneous entity in breast neoplasm with unpredictable biological behavior. This poses challenge in the management of DCIS. Various trials on DCIS have shown good outcome with integral treatment of adequate surgery, radiotherapy and hormonal therapy. Identification of subgroup of DCIS for radiotherapy and hormonal therapy could improve recurrence rate, contralateral tumours incidence and perhaps overall survival. Various risk score calculations could help to direct radiotherapy and hormonal treatment verses surgery alone and to avoid over treatment. Oncotype DX assay could be a new way of risk calculation to direct types of DCIS treatment. The recent increased use of MRI could increase the detection of DCIS and a more accurate extent of disease estimation. This article is a summary of major literatures and major trials result for DCIS.

Exploring Possible Encounters between New Governance, Law and Constitutionalism in the European Union  [PDF]
Samantha Velluti
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2013.41002
Abstract:

The current European Union (EU) is a highly institutionalized template for integration, equipped with a whole spectrum of different modes of regulation ranging from “hard” to “soft” which, particularly in recent years, have been pragmatically combined together to develop a hybrid and multi-tiered EU system. The dramatic expansion of the EU’s governance tool-kit and the variety of objectives and internal structures of these EU governance tools have relied on a non-clearly identifiable mix of legal and policy instruments. These changes in EU governance pose a challenge to the rule of law and its main tenets and do not sit well with the jurisprudence of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) because they occupy an unsettled constitutional space. This space is characterized by a range of possible encounters between constitutionalism and governance. In this context, New Governance forces European scholars to rethink the way the EU system operates and the way Europeanization is being pursued. The paper explores the relationship between New Governance, law and constitutionalism and the problems concerning their conceptualization and further understanding. Its main argument is that a stronger dialogue between what are known as “soft” and “hard” regulatory mechanisms may lead to a hybridized EU governance regime in which all governance tools are designed to achieve the same set of goals.

The Problem of Time  [PDF]
Li Choy Chong, Luisella Balestra
Modern Economy (ME) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/me.2014.53026
Abstract:

Time is a difficult topic for the scientist. This paper investigates how this particular subject is considered in economics today and what the implications are. We demonstrate that today orthodoxy has avoided to treat the temporal element, creating a dangerous contradiction at its inside. A reconsideration of time has to be formulated, since the reintegration of the chronological entity offers better interpretations for several phenomena such as economic crisis.

Effective Listings of Function Stop words for Twitter
Murphy Choy
International Journal of Advanced Computer Sciences and Applications , 2012,
Abstract: Many words in documents recur very frequently but are essentially meaningless as they are used to join words together in a sentence. It is commonly understood that stop words do not contribute to the context or content of textual documents. Due to their high frequency of occurrence, their presence in text mining presents an obstacle to the understanding of the content in the documents. To eliminate the bias effects, most text mining software or approaches make use of stop words list to identify and remove those words. However, the development of such top words list is difficult and inconsistent between textual sources. This problem is further aggravated by sources such as Twitter which are highly repetitive or similar in nature. In this paper, we will be examining the original work using term frequency, inverse document frequency and term adjacency for developing a stop words list for the Twitter data source. We propose a new technique using combinatorial values as an alternative measure to effectively list out stop words.
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