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investigates the way economics moves, in other words we study the
characteristics of economic dynamics by itself that is by abstracting from the
single generating context, whatever this might be. We would like to concentrate
on the fundamental mechanism “moving” the economic system and determining its
business cycle, its crisis, its development and so on. In this way we are
offering an extremely new perspective about economic dynamics, as we do not consider
its elements as separate but we hold them as part of a single phenomenon, the
evolution of an economic system. We argue that by considering this point of view, economic dynamics
cannot be determined by a system in eternal equilibrium only occasionally
disturbed by some exogenous shock. We demonstrate that economics is evolving
continuously and economic phenomena (such as economic crisis) have to be
interpreted as a variation in its velocity.
carcinoma in-situ DCIS is a
heterogeneous entity in breast neoplasm with unpredictable biological behavior.
This poses challenge in the management of DCIS. Various trials on DCIS have
shown good outcome with integral treatment of adequate surgery, radiotherapy
and hormonal therapy. Identification of subgroup of DCIS for radiotherapy and
hormonal therapy could improve recurrence rate, contralateral tumours incidence
and perhaps overall survival. Various risk score calculations could help to
direct radiotherapy and hormonal treatment verses surgery alone and to avoid
over treatment. Oncotype DX
assay could be a new way of risk calculation to direct types of DCIS treatment.
The recent increased use of MRI could increase the detection of DCIS and a more
accurate extent of disease estimation. This article is a summary of major
literatures and major trials result for DCIS.
The current European Union (EU) is a highly institutionalized template for integration, equipped with a whole spectrum of different modes of regulation ranging from “hard” to “soft” which, particularly in recent years, have been pragmatically combined together to develop a hybrid and multi-tiered EU system. The dramatic expansion of the EU’s governance tool-kit and the variety of objectives and internal structures of these EU governance tools have relied on a non-clearly identifiable mix of legal and policy instruments. These changes in EU governance pose a challenge to the rule of law and its main tenets and do not sit well with the jurisprudence of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) because they occupy an unsettled constitutional space. This space is characterized by a range of possible encounters between constitutionalism and governance. In this context, New Governance forces European scholars to rethink the way the EU system operates and the way Europeanization is being pursued. The paper explores the relationship between New Governance, law and constitutionalism and the problems concerning their conceptualization and further understanding. Its main argument is that a stronger dialogue between what are known as “soft” and “hard” regulatory mechanisms may lead to a hybridized EU governance regime in which all governance tools are designed to achieve the same set of goals.
Time is a difficult topic for the scientist.
This paper investigates how this particular subject is considered in economics today
and what the implications are. We demonstrate that today orthodoxy has avoided
to treat the temporal element, creating a dangerous contradiction at its inside. A reconsideration of time has to be
formulated, since the reintegration of the chronological entity offers better
interpretations for several phenomena such as economic crisis.