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Evaluation of the effects of botulinum toxin A injections when used to improve ease of care and comfort in children with cerebral palsy whom are non-ambulant: a double blind randomized controlled trial
Megan Thorley, Samantha Donaghey, Priya Edwards, Lisa Copeland, Megan Kentish, Kim McLennan, Jayne Lindsley, Laura Gascoigne-Pees, Leanne Sakzewski, Roslyn N Boyd
BMC Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-12-120
Abstract: This study is a double blind randomized controlled trial. Forty participants will be recruited. In cycle I, participants will be randomized to either a treatment group who will receive BoNT-A injections into selected upper and/or lower limb muscles, or a control group who will undergo sham injections. Both groups will receive occupational therapy and /or physiotherapy following injections. Groups will be assessed at baseline then compared at 4 and 16 weeks following injections or sham control. Parents, treating clinicians and assessors will be masked to group allocation. In cycle II, all participants will undergo intramuscular BoNT-A injections to selected upper and/or lower limb muscles, followed by therapy.The primary outcome measure will be change in parent ratings in identified areas of concern for their child’s care and comfort, using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). Secondary measures will include the Care and Comfort Hypertonicity Scale (ease of care), the Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life Questionnaire (CP QoL–Child) (quality of life), the Caregiver Priorities and Child Health Index of Life with Disabilities Questionnaire (CPCHILD?) (health status) and the Paediatric Pain Profile (PPP) (pain). Adverse events will be carefully monitored by a clinician masked to group allocation.This paper outlines the theoretical basis, study hypotheses and outcome measures for a trial of BoNT-A injections and therapy for children with non-ambulant CP.Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry:N12609000360213Cerebral palsy (CP) is “a group of permanent disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation, that are attributed to non-progressive disturbances that occurred in the developing fetal or infant brain”. [1] p.9 Classification systems have been developed to indicate the severity of functional limitations in CP. The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), developed by Palisano and colleagues in 1997, has bec
Exploring Possible Encounters between New Governance, Law and Constitutionalism in the European Union  [PDF]
Samantha Velluti
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2013.41002

The current European Union (EU) is a highly institutionalized template for integration, equipped with a whole spectrum of different modes of regulation ranging from “hard” to “soft” which, particularly in recent years, have been pragmatically combined together to develop a hybrid and multi-tiered EU system. The dramatic expansion of the EU’s governance tool-kit and the variety of objectives and internal structures of these EU governance tools have relied on a non-clearly identifiable mix of legal and policy instruments. These changes in EU governance pose a challenge to the rule of law and its main tenets and do not sit well with the jurisprudence of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) because they occupy an unsettled constitutional space. This space is characterized by a range of possible encounters between constitutionalism and governance. In this context, New Governance forces European scholars to rethink the way the EU system operates and the way Europeanization is being pursued. The paper explores the relationship between New Governance, law and constitutionalism and the problems concerning their conceptualization and further understanding. Its main argument is that a stronger dialogue between what are known as “soft” and “hard” regulatory mechanisms may lead to a hybridized EU governance regime in which all governance tools are designed to achieve the same set of goals.

Reviewing the trends of nursing doctoral thesis research in Hong Kong  [PDF]
Yingchun Zeng, Samantha Pang
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2012.24051
Abstract: This review aimed to analyze the trends and contributions of nursing doctoral theses produced in Hong Kong. A total of 56 nursing doctoral theses were included in this review. The most often studied topic was cardiovascular rehabilitation care (n = 9, 16%). More recently, the most often studied topics has been health technology advancements in nursing care (n = 6, 10.7%). The common trend of study methods was to be quantitative in nature. Of the total, 35 out of 56 were quantitative studies. Half were experimental/ quasi-experimental research studies (n = 28, 50%). For theoretical foundations or applications, the majority (n = 21, 36%) of doctoral theses had no specific theoretical/conceptual models as study frameworks. This trend indicates that there is space for improving the theoretical and philosophical foundation of nursing research in Hong Kong. For the contributions of doctoral thesis research, Hong Kong nursing scholars place more emphasis on direct enhancement of clinical practice or the improvement of patient outcomes. This review provides concrete evidence of the status of nursing research and knowledge development in Hong Kong nursing.
Baseline Levels of Siderastrea siderea Bleaching under Normal Environmental Conditions in Little Cayman  [PDF]
Samantha Banks, Kristi Foster
Open Journal of Marine Science (OJMS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojms.2017.71011
Abstract: This study describes the health status of Siderastrea siderea in Little Cayman before, during, and after the 2015 Caribbean-wide elevated temperature anomaly. Colony color was used as a proxy for health during snorkel and scuba surveys of shallow (<2 m depth) and deep (6 - 16 m depth) reefs. Baseline demographics indicated that 6% of this species were pale or blue pre-disturbance. When seawater temperatures exceeded 30.5°C, S. siderea were early indicators of reef stress and among the first corals to bleach. Depth and site resilience did not significantly impact temperature susceptibility; however, smaller colonies (<200 cm2 surface area) were more likely to change color than the larger size classes. Little Cayman’s S. siderea were capable of surviving large-scale (>80%) bleaching: mortality was observed for only one colony. Resilience rates varied considerably: one-third of the impacted population returned to the normal brown color within two months, one-third required 3 - 9 months to recover, and the fates of the remaining one-third remain to be determined. If the return to normal color is indicative of resistance to reef disturbances, S. siderea may be among the “winning” coral species following elevated temperature anomalies which are predicted to occur with increasing frequency and severity as a result of climate change.
Osteoporosis: A Disease of Men  [PDF]
Anu Garg, Samantha Kay
Health (Health) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/health.2018.101005
Abstract: Objective: The goal of this study was to evaluate osteoporosis screening practices in male patients aged 70 and older. Methods: A survey-based study was carried out over six months at an academic primary care institution in the Midwest. Results: Seventy-nine male patients and fifteen primary care physicians were surveyed. Less than 10% of males recalled being screened for osteoporosis. Two-thirds of physicians reported regularly screening males for osteoporosis. Conclusion: Elderly male patients are overwhelmingly under-screened and undertreated for osteoporosis.
Improving RNA-Seq expression estimates by correcting for fragment bias
Adam Roberts, Cole Trapnell, Julie Donaghey, John L Rinn, Lior Pachter
Genome Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2011-12-3-r22
Abstract: RNA-Seq technology offers the possibility of accurately measuring transcript abundances in a sample of RNA by sequencing of double stranded cDNA [1]. Unfortunately, current technological limitations of sequencers require that the cDNA molecules represent only partial fragments of the RNA being probed. The cDNA fragments are obtained by a series of steps, often including reverse transcription primed by random hexamers (RH), or by oligo (dT). Most protocols also include a fragmentation step, typically RNA hydrolysis or nebulization, or alternatively cDNA fragmentation by DNase I treatment or sonication. Many sequencing technologies also require constrained cDNA lengths, so a final gel cutting step for size selection may be included. Figure 1 shows how some of these procedures are combined in a typical experiment.The randomness inherent in many of the preparation steps for RNA-Seq leads to fragments whose starting points (relative to the transcripts from which they were sequenced) appear to be chosen approximately uniformly at random. This observation has been the basis of assumptions underlying a number of RNA-Seq analysis approaches that, in computer science terms, invert the 'reduction' of transcriptome estimation to DNA sequencing [2-6]. However, recent careful analysis has revealed both positional [7] and sequence-specific [8,9] biases in sequenced fragments. Positional bias refers to a local effect in which fragments are preferentially located towards either the beginning or end of transcripts. Sequence-specific bias is a global effect where the sequence surrounding the beginning or end of potential fragments affects their likelihood of being selected for sequencing. These biases can affect expression estimates [10], and it is therefore important to correct for them during RNA-Seq analysis.Although many biases can be traced back to specifics of the preparation protocols (see Figure 2 and [8]), it is currently not possible to predict fragment distributions directl
Critical Care Nursing: science and practice, 2nd edition
Samantha Fox
Critical Care , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/cc5060
Abstract: This textbook is ideal for nurses who want to understand practical issues that may be experienced while caring for the critically ill at the bedside.The authors obviously have great knowledge and experience in this arena, and have ensured that they have updated topics from the first edition such as sepsis and neurointensive care.All chapters have sections on trouble shooting, such as resolving outflow problems in peritoneal dialysis and problems associated with electrocardiogram monitoring. These are the sorts of clinical problem that inexperienced nurses have concerns about and want to be able to remedy systematically at the bed space.This book will also appeal to experienced critical care nurses, especially as a reminder if they have not made use of certain skills or experienced certain illnesses for a long time. It will also appeal to pre-registration and post-registration courses in intensive care nursing, especially as it has a 'test yourself' section at the end of each chapter – but it is very easy to cheat because the answers are just under the questions!The book is in a logical order, and highlights the need for critical care skills to be expanded outside the geographical area, improving early recognition of critical illness and improving ward care of the critically ill. As a critical care outreach Clinical Nurse Specialist, this is music to my ears.All critical care nurses need to be aware of the bigger picture, and not isolate themselves from the rest of the hospital.Each chapter discusses care of the critical care patient but further reading would be needed to have in-depth knowledge. It will definitely give all readers a good foundation in critical care nursing.You will need to have a great love of pink and red, as there really is a lack of colour and pictures in the text.I felt the book was easy to read and kept me interested, and I would recommend it to my colleagues.The author declares that they have no competing interests.
Regionalización de los mercados y mercados de lenguas: el caso del Mercosur y Chile
Literatura y lingüística , 2004, DOI: 10.4067/S0716-58112004001500011
Abstract: in this article, information is given and reflection is encouraged on the recognition of the cultural diversity as an important factor to validate the multilingualism in the region of the mercosur. languages allow us to communicate, to exclude oneself socially, and to differentiate their identities. in this area, spanish and portuguese as latin inheritance, and re-appropriated by the racially mixed world, do not create problems, such as what linguistic truths should we be teaching? what role does the racially mixed world play in this diversity? what is truly the essential of the accessories? how to teach them?
Regionalización de los mercados y mercados de lenguas: el caso del Mercosur y Chile
Samantha Chareille
Literatura y lingüística , 2004,
Abstract: En este artículo se entrega información y se reflexiona sobre el reconocimiento de la diversidad cultural como factor importante para validar el plurilingüísmo en la región del MERCOSUR. Las lenguas permiten comunicarse, excluirse socialmente y diferenciar identidades. En este marco, lo espa ol y lo portugués como herencia latina y reapropiado por el mundo mestizo, no plantean problemas ;Qué verdades lingüísticas ense ar? Qué papel le cabe al mundo mestizo en esta diversidad. Qué es en verdad lo esencial de los accesorios Cómo ense arlas? In this article, information is given and reflection is encouraged on the recognition of the cultural diversity as an important factor to validate the multilingualism in the region of the MERCOSUR. Languages allow us to communicate, to exclude oneself socially, and to differentiate their identities. In this area, Spanish and Portuguese as Latin inheritance, and re-appropriated by the racially mixed world, do not create problems, such as What linguistic truths should we be teaching? What role does the racially mixed world play in this diversity? What is truly the essential of the accessories? How to teach them?
The Legacy of Johnson’s War on Poverty
Samantha Mazzuca
Libertarian Papers , 2010,
Abstract: The 1960s was a decade dedicated to experimentation within the Kennedy and Johnson administrations. Americans witnessed many significant changes and advancements in those ten short years, including the first man on the moon, a war in Vietnam, and successes in the automobile industry. Probably the most important of these changes was the War on Poverty, introduced by John Fitzgerald Kennedy and continued by Lyndon Baines Johnson and subsequent administrations. This paper examines the creation of a new class of reliance on government handouts, as well as a misallocation of resources.Poverty was a well-known tragedy in third world countries. It was hard to believe that the United States, a leading nation of the world, was hit just as badly as those other countries. In fact, many Americans denied the problem for fear of the reaction from the rest of the world. In reality, though, many American families were struggling every day to provide food, shelter, and education for their children. Once this devastating misfortune was acknowledged, Kennedy dedicated his 1960 campaign to the New Frontier, which would encourage Americans to regain faith in their country by implementing programs to eradicate poverty. To succeed, Kennedy knew that the key to recovery centered on education. Improved education would provide the youth with better job opportunities, which would increase productivity, and therefore decrease poverty. Unfortunately, Kennedy was unable to follow through with his plans. After he was assassinated, Johnson took office ready to expand on Kennedy’s drafted plan. He wanted to look at poverty in a more positive way, as an opportunity to effectively change society. Continuing with Kennedy’s ideas, Johnson felt this change would best be accomplished through publics works programs. In his State of the Union Address, Johnson declared a “war on poverty” in which he would provide Americans with the tools needed to escape the world of poverty and make a living for themselves.Under the provision of the Office of Economic Opportunity, created specifically to abolish poverty, programs were created to begin the process of recovery. Community action programs, the Jobs Corps, and Head Start are just three programs put into action to improve the status of the poor. Job training and education were the main functions of these programs, but the effectiveness is heavily debated amongst historians.Though many claim that the War on Poverty was indeed successful, evidence shows otherwise. In viewing statistics from Congressional Records and other government documents, it is c
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