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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1783 matches for " Salvatore Valiante "
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Presence of Illicit Drugs in the Sarno River (Campania Region, Italy)  [PDF]
Massimo Maddaloni, Sara Castiglioni, Ettore Zuccato, Flaminia Gay, Anna Capaldo, Vincenza Laforgia, Salvatore Valiante, Maria De Falco, Marco Guida
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2014.57085

The presence of illicit drugs and their metabolites in surface waters has to be considered a new type of hazard, still unknown, for both the human health and the aquatic ecosystem, due to the potent pharmacological activities of all the illicit drugs. Our research was aimed at evaluating the presence of illicit drugs in the Sarno River (Campania region, Italy), crossing a densely populated area, the basin of the Sarno River, one of the largest and most important economic areas in Campania region, famous for the presence of zones with high landscape-environmental value. The drugs selected for this study were the most used in Campania region. The presence of illicit drugs in surface water was analyzed by a selective multi-residue assay based on liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry. The analysis showed the presence of all the illicit drugs investigated: cocaine and its main metabolites (benzoylecgonine, nor-benzoylecgonine), morphine, THC-COOH and codeine; cocaine was the most abundant illicit drug. The presence of illicit drugs and their metabolites in the Sarno River suggests new potential risk for the basin’s inhabitants, using water in the food chain, via field irrigation and animal feed, and for the health of the aquatic fauna.

Revisiting a Celebrated Bakerian Lecture  [PDF]
Salvatore Ganci
Optics and Photonics Journal (OPJ) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/opj.2019.94005
Abstract: This paper revisits the optical contributions of Thomas Young to the theory of diffraction and, in particular, some experiments presented in his celebrated “Bakerian Lecture” of 1803. The major input to re-analyze some of Young’s experiments came by a recent paper appeared on an instructional and pedagogical journal. Diffraction experiments of Thomas Young are here revisited with particular reference to the coherence requirements of the white light source to see and measure diffraction fringes by pins, and in general to consider the difficulties in working in a “camera obscura”. If at the beginning of the nineteenth century, the experiments of Optics in a darkroom were considered “simple”, however they needed rooms about 7 meters long, completely darkened out, with a window mostly exposed to south, a darkened window and a small hole practiced on a dark sheet applied to a hole in the window shutter. Often a heliostat should be placed outside and a mirror inside the room to direct the cone of sunlight. Thomas Young worked only with a mirror interior to the darkened room in order to have a cone of light horizontally directed and moving the mirror at each observation. Today, these requirements are not easy to implement. However, only a single measure by Thomas Young will be repeated under his own conditions with a “reduced darkroom” using internally blackened cardboard tubes.
Assessment of Posidonia Oceanica (L.) Delile conservation status by standard and putative approaches: the case study of Santa Marinella meadow (Italy, W Mediterranean)  [PDF]
Alice Rotini, Carla Micheli, Luigi Valiante, Luciana Migliore
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2011.12006
Abstract: The conservation status of the Posidonia oceanica meadow at Santa Marinella (Rome) was evaluated through both standard (bed density, leaf biometry, \"A\" coefficient, Leaf Area Index, rhizome production) and biochemical/genetic approaches (total phenol content and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA marker). The bio-chemical/genetic results are in agreement with those obtained by standard approaches. The bed under study was ranked as a disturbed one, due to its low density, and high heterogeneity in leaf biometry, LAI values, \"A\" coefficient and primary production. This low quality ranking is confirmed by both mean phenol content in plants, quite high and scattered, and by the low genetic variability in the meadow, with a very high similarity of specimen at a local scale. Hence, these two putative approaches clearly identify the endangered conservation status of the meadow. They link plant biodiversity and ecophysiology to ecosystem 'health'. Furthermore, they are repeatable and standardizable and could be usefully introduced in meadows monitoring to check environmental quality.
Monitoring Electromagnetic Field Emitted by High Frequencies Home Utilities  [PDF]
Emanuele Calabrò, Salvatore Magazù
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2010.29074
Abstract: The aim of this study is to provide measurements of the electromagnetic field due to the ‘electrosmog’ emitted by some home electronic devices in the range of microwaves frequencies. The enormous increase in the use of mobile telephony throughout the world, microwave ovens, cordless phones and other high frequency home utilities suggests accurate measures of microwaves power density emitted by such devices to check that the exposure limits suggested by the In-ternational Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection are not exceeded. Measurements were carried out by a Narda SRM 3000. Spectrum analysis mode was chosen as a preliminary analysis to quantify the frequencies intensities of electromagnetic waves. Time analysis was successively conducted to operate selective and continuous measurements at a fixed frequency, allowing temporal check of power density and the related electromagnetic field components emitted by high frequencies home electronic devices.
Entangled States and Observables in Open Quantum Relativity  [PDF]
Salvatore Capozziello, Giuseppe Basini
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2010.15041
Abstract: In the framework of the so called Open Quantum Relativity, we investigate a quantum universe, starting from a minimal set of variables defining the given quantum state. Entanglement between quantum states is the way to link different regions of the universe, even if (apparently) causally disconnected. As a consequence, the concept of causality results recovered and enlarged. Besides, the observed CDM model emerges from this picture, giving the possibility to realize a statistical and quantum interpretation of the cosmological constant. In particular, the novelty consists in the fact that the presently observed universe could be the result of several entanglement phenomena giving rise to a certain amount of entropy directly related to the value of cosmological constant.
Inspections of Mobile Phone Microwaves Effects on Proteins Secondary Structure by Means of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy  [PDF]
Emanuele Calabrò, Salvatore Magazù
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2010.211080
Abstract: In this study the effects of microwaves on the secondary structure of three typical proteins have been investigated. A set of samples of lysozyme, bovine serum albumin and myoglobin in D2O solutions were exposed for 8 hours to mobile phone microwaves at 900 MHz at a magnetic field intensity around 16 mA/m. The relative effects on the secondary structure of the proteins were studied by means of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. An increase of the amide I band intensity in the secondary structure of the proteins was observed after the microwaves exposure. Furthermore, a weak shift of the amide I mode of bovine serum albumin and a heavier shift of the amide I of myoglobin occurred after the exposure. In addition, a clear increasing of the β-sheet components with respect to the α-helix content was observed in the spectra of bovine serum albumin and myoglobin after the exposure, suggesting the hypothesis of the formation of aggregates.
Comparison Between Conventional Convective Heating and Microwave Heating: An FTIR Spectroscopy Study of the Effects of Microwave Oven Cooking of Bovine Breast Meat  [PDF]
Emanuele Calabrò, Salvatore Magazù
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2012.411060
Abstract: The effects of microwave energy and conventional convective heating on bovine meat were studied in the mid-infrared region by FTIR spectroscopy, to highlight the differences between the two cooking methods. Samples of 100 g of bovine breast meat were cooked using three treatments: heating in a conventional electric oven at the temperature of 165°C for 16 min, heating in a microwave oven at 800 W for 95 sec, and heating in the same microwave oven at 650 W for 160 sec. Significant decreases in intensity of vibration bands of CH2 methylene group at 1921 and 1853 cm-1 and of the carbonyl band at 1742 cm-1 were observed after microwave heating with respect to heating in a conventional oven, showing that Maillard reaction occurs partially using microwave oven. Spectral analysis in the amide I region after microwave cooking at 800 W for 95 sec showed that an increase in intensity occurred in the region from 1665 to 1690 cm-1 which can be attributed to β-turns, characteristic of disorder processes in the protein. Further analysis after microwave cooking at 650 W for 160 sec evidenced major increase in intensity of β-turns content and the appearance of significant increases of β-sheet component at 1635 cm-1 and 1695 cm-1 that can be attributed to aggregated β-sheets structures.
Spreading Newtonian Philosophy with Instruments: The Case of Atwood’s Machine  [PDF]
Salvatore Esposito, Edvige Schettino
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2014.31007
Abstract: We study how the paradigm of Newton’s science, based on the organization of scientific knowledge as a series of mathematical laws, was definitively accepted in science courses—in the last decades of the XVIII century, in England as well as in the Continent—by means of the “universal” dynamical machine invented by George Atwood in late 1770s just for this purpose. The spreading of such machine, occurring well before the appearance of Atwood’s treatise where he described the novel machine and the experiments to be performed with it, is a quite interesting historical case, which we consider in some detail. In particular, we focus on the “improvement” introduced by the Italian Giuseppe Saverio Poli and the subsequent “simplifications” of the machine, underlying the ongoing change of perspective after the definitive success of Newtonianism. The case studied here allows recognizing the relevant role played by a properly devised instrument in the acceptance of a new paradigm by nonerudite scholars, in addition to the traditional ways involving erudite scientists, and thus the complementary role of machine philosophy with respect to mathematical, philosophical or even physical reasoning.
The Genesis of the Quantum Theory of the Chemical Bond  [PDF]
Salvatore Esposito, Adele Naddeo
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2014.35020
Abstract: An historical overview is given of the relevant steps that allowed the genesis of the quantum theory of the chemical bond, starting from the appearance of the new quantum mechanics and following later developments till approximately 1931. General ideas and some important details are discussed concerning molecular spectroscopy, as well as quantum computations for simple molecular systems performed within perturbative and variational approaches, for which the Born- Oppenheimer method provided a quantitative theory accounting for rotational, vibrational and electronic states. The novel concepts introduced by the Heitler-London theory, complemented by those underlying the method of the molecular orbitals, are critically analyzed along with some of their relevant applications. Further improvements in the understanding of the nature of the chemical bond are also considered, including the ideas of one-electron and three-electron bonds introduced by Pauling, as well as the generalizations of the Heitler-London theory firstly performed by Majorana, which allowed the presence of ionic structures into homopolar compounds and provided the theoretical proof of the stability of the helium molecular ion. The study of intermolecular interactions, as developed by London, is finally examined.
Determining Surgical Candidacy in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
Alireza Mansouri,Aria Fallah,Taufik A. Valiante
Epilepsy Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/706917
Abstract: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of adult epilepsy that is amenable to surgical treatment. In the carefully selected patient, excellent seizure outcome can be achieved with minimal or no side effects from surgery. This may result in improved psychosocial functioning, achieving higher education, and maintaining or gaining employment. The objective of this paper is to discuss the surgical selection process of a patient with TLE. We define what constitutes a patient that has medically refractory TLE, describe the typical history and physical examination, and distinguish between mesial TLE and neocortical TLE. We then review the role of routine (ambulatory/sleep-deprived electroencephalography (EEG), video EEG, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), neuropsychological testing, and Wada testing) and ancillary preoperative testing (positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), subtraction ictal SPECT correlated to MRI (SISCOM), magnetoencephalography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and functional MRI) in selecting surgical candidates. We describe the surgical options for resective epilepsy surgery in TLE and its commonly associated risks while highlighting some of the controversies. Lastly, we present teaching cases to illustrate the presurgical workup of patients with medically refractory TLE. 1. Introduction 1.1. History of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Surgery Cerebral localization and electroencephalography (EEG) have together been two fundamental advances that have been paramount in the diagnosis and management of epilepsy. The clinical observations of Broca [1] and Jackson and Colman [2], along with the landmark observations of Fritsch and Hitzig [3], the electrical excitability of the human brain, and discrete localization of brain functions, began to be established. Through experiments of electrical stimulation on narcotized dogs, Fritsch and Hitzig were able to differentiate the motor from the nonmotor cortex [3]. Drawn to these findings, Sir Horsley was likely the first to attempt amelioration of epilepsy in a patient with posttraumatic seizures via a craniotomy [4]. Not long after this, in 1875, Caton was able to measure electrical activity from the cat brain [5], and this was followed by EEG recordings in humans by Berger in 1929 [6]. Thereafter, Bailey and Gibbs proceeded to operate on individuals with psychomotor epilepsy solely based on anterior temporal spikes on EEG [7]. Penfield later observed that patients failing neocortical resection could benefit from resection of the mesial temporal lobe
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