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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1703 matches for " Salvatore Giampà "
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MicroRNA-1 Downregulation Increases Connexin 43 Displacement and Induces Ventricular Tachyarrhythmias in Rodent Hypertrophic Hearts
Antonio Curcio, Daniele Torella, Claudio Iaconetti, Eugenia Pasceri, Jolanda Sabatino, Sabato Sorrentino, Salvatore Giampà, Mariella Micieli, Alberto Polimeni, Beverley J. Henning, Angelo Leone, Daniele Catalucci, Georgina M. Ellison, Gianluigi Condorelli, Ciro Indolfi
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070158
Abstract: Downregulation of the muscle-specific microRNA-1 (miR-1) mediates the induction of pathologic cardiac hypertrophy. Dysfunction of the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43), an established miR-1 target, during cardiac hypertrophy leads to ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VT). However, it is still unknown whether miR-1 and Cx43 are interconnected in the pro-arrhythmic context of hypertrophy. Thus, in this study we investigated whether a reduction in the extent of cardiac hypertrophy could limit the pathological electrical remodeling of Cx43 and the onset of VT by modulating miR-1 levels. Wistar male rats underwent mechanical constriction of the ascending aorta to induce pathologic left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and afterwards were randomly assigned to receive 10mg/kg valsartan, VAL (LVH+VAL) delivered in the drinking water or placebo (LVH) for 12 weeks. Sham surgery was performed for control groups. Programmed ventricular stimulation reproducibly induced VT in LVH compared to LVH+VAL group. When compared to sham controls, rats from LVH group showed a significant decrease of miR-1 and an increase of Cx43 expression and its ERK1/2-dependent phosphorylation, which displaces Cx43 from the gap junction. Interestingly, VAL administration to rats with aortic banding significantly reduced cardiac hypertrophy and prevented miR-1 down-regulation and Cx43 up-regulation and phosphorylation. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments in neonatal cardiomyocytes (NCMs) in vitro confirmed that Cx43 is a direct target of miR-1. Accordingly, in vitro angiotensin II stimulation reduced miR-1 levels and increased Cx43 expression and phosphorylation compared to un-stimulated NCMs. Finally, in vivo miR-1 cardiac overexpression by an adenoviral vector intra-myocardial injection reduced Cx43 expression and phosphorylation in mice with isoproterenol-induced LVH. In conclusion, miR-1 regulates Cx43 expression and activity in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of pressure overload-induced myocyte hypertrophy reduces the risk of life-threatening VT by normalizing miR-1 expression levels with the consequent stabilization of Cx43 expression and activity within the gap junction.
Revisiting a Celebrated Bakerian Lecture  [PDF]
Salvatore Ganci
Optics and Photonics Journal (OPJ) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/opj.2019.94005
Abstract: This paper revisits the optical contributions of Thomas Young to the theory of diffraction and, in particular, some experiments presented in his celebrated “Bakerian Lecture” of 1803. The major input to re-analyze some of Young’s experiments came by a recent paper appeared on an instructional and pedagogical journal. Diffraction experiments of Thomas Young are here revisited with particular reference to the coherence requirements of the white light source to see and measure diffraction fringes by pins, and in general to consider the difficulties in working in a “camera obscura”. If at the beginning of the nineteenth century, the experiments of Optics in a darkroom were considered “simple”, however they needed rooms about 7 meters long, completely darkened out, with a window mostly exposed to south, a darkened window and a small hole practiced on a dark sheet applied to a hole in the window shutter. Often a heliostat should be placed outside and a mirror inside the room to direct the cone of sunlight. Thomas Young worked only with a mirror interior to the darkened room in order to have a cone of light horizontally directed and moving the mirror at each observation. Today, these requirements are not easy to implement. However, only a single measure by Thomas Young will be repeated under his own conditions with a “reduced darkroom” using internally blackened cardboard tubes.
águas subterraneas e po os tubulares profundos
Válter Galdiano Gon?alves,Carlos Eduardo Quaglia Giampá
Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/s1413-41522009000300002
Monitoring Electromagnetic Field Emitted by High Frequencies Home Utilities  [PDF]
Emanuele Calabrò, Salvatore Magazù
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2010.29074
Abstract: The aim of this study is to provide measurements of the electromagnetic field due to the ‘electrosmog’ emitted by some home electronic devices in the range of microwaves frequencies. The enormous increase in the use of mobile telephony throughout the world, microwave ovens, cordless phones and other high frequency home utilities suggests accurate measures of microwaves power density emitted by such devices to check that the exposure limits suggested by the In-ternational Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection are not exceeded. Measurements were carried out by a Narda SRM 3000. Spectrum analysis mode was chosen as a preliminary analysis to quantify the frequencies intensities of electromagnetic waves. Time analysis was successively conducted to operate selective and continuous measurements at a fixed frequency, allowing temporal check of power density and the related electromagnetic field components emitted by high frequencies home electronic devices.
Entangled States and Observables in Open Quantum Relativity  [PDF]
Salvatore Capozziello, Giuseppe Basini
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2010.15041
Abstract: In the framework of the so called Open Quantum Relativity, we investigate a quantum universe, starting from a minimal set of variables defining the given quantum state. Entanglement between quantum states is the way to link different regions of the universe, even if (apparently) causally disconnected. As a consequence, the concept of causality results recovered and enlarged. Besides, the observed CDM model emerges from this picture, giving the possibility to realize a statistical and quantum interpretation of the cosmological constant. In particular, the novelty consists in the fact that the presently observed universe could be the result of several entanglement phenomena giving rise to a certain amount of entropy directly related to the value of cosmological constant.
Inspections of Mobile Phone Microwaves Effects on Proteins Secondary Structure by Means of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy  [PDF]
Emanuele Calabrò, Salvatore Magazù
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2010.211080
Abstract: In this study the effects of microwaves on the secondary structure of three typical proteins have been investigated. A set of samples of lysozyme, bovine serum albumin and myoglobin in D2O solutions were exposed for 8 hours to mobile phone microwaves at 900 MHz at a magnetic field intensity around 16 mA/m. The relative effects on the secondary structure of the proteins were studied by means of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. An increase of the amide I band intensity in the secondary structure of the proteins was observed after the microwaves exposure. Furthermore, a weak shift of the amide I mode of bovine serum albumin and a heavier shift of the amide I of myoglobin occurred after the exposure. In addition, a clear increasing of the β-sheet components with respect to the α-helix content was observed in the spectra of bovine serum albumin and myoglobin after the exposure, suggesting the hypothesis of the formation of aggregates.
Comparison Between Conventional Convective Heating and Microwave Heating: An FTIR Spectroscopy Study of the Effects of Microwave Oven Cooking of Bovine Breast Meat  [PDF]
Emanuele Calabrò, Salvatore Magazù
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2012.411060
Abstract: The effects of microwave energy and conventional convective heating on bovine meat were studied in the mid-infrared region by FTIR spectroscopy, to highlight the differences between the two cooking methods. Samples of 100 g of bovine breast meat were cooked using three treatments: heating in a conventional electric oven at the temperature of 165°C for 16 min, heating in a microwave oven at 800 W for 95 sec, and heating in the same microwave oven at 650 W for 160 sec. Significant decreases in intensity of vibration bands of CH2 methylene group at 1921 and 1853 cm-1 and of the carbonyl band at 1742 cm-1 were observed after microwave heating with respect to heating in a conventional oven, showing that Maillard reaction occurs partially using microwave oven. Spectral analysis in the amide I region after microwave cooking at 800 W for 95 sec showed that an increase in intensity occurred in the region from 1665 to 1690 cm-1 which can be attributed to β-turns, characteristic of disorder processes in the protein. Further analysis after microwave cooking at 650 W for 160 sec evidenced major increase in intensity of β-turns content and the appearance of significant increases of β-sheet component at 1635 cm-1 and 1695 cm-1 that can be attributed to aggregated β-sheets structures.
Spreading Newtonian Philosophy with Instruments: The Case of Atwood’s Machine  [PDF]
Salvatore Esposito, Edvige Schettino
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2014.31007
Abstract: We study how the paradigm of Newton’s science, based on the organization of scientific knowledge as a series of mathematical laws, was definitively accepted in science courses—in the last decades of the XVIII century, in England as well as in the Continent—by means of the “universal” dynamical machine invented by George Atwood in late 1770s just for this purpose. The spreading of such machine, occurring well before the appearance of Atwood’s treatise where he described the novel machine and the experiments to be performed with it, is a quite interesting historical case, which we consider in some detail. In particular, we focus on the “improvement” introduced by the Italian Giuseppe Saverio Poli and the subsequent “simplifications” of the machine, underlying the ongoing change of perspective after the definitive success of Newtonianism. The case studied here allows recognizing the relevant role played by a properly devised instrument in the acceptance of a new paradigm by nonerudite scholars, in addition to the traditional ways involving erudite scientists, and thus the complementary role of machine philosophy with respect to mathematical, philosophical or even physical reasoning.
The Genesis of the Quantum Theory of the Chemical Bond  [PDF]
Salvatore Esposito, Adele Naddeo
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2014.35020
Abstract: An historical overview is given of the relevant steps that allowed the genesis of the quantum theory of the chemical bond, starting from the appearance of the new quantum mechanics and following later developments till approximately 1931. General ideas and some important details are discussed concerning molecular spectroscopy, as well as quantum computations for simple molecular systems performed within perturbative and variational approaches, for which the Born- Oppenheimer method provided a quantitative theory accounting for rotational, vibrational and electronic states. The novel concepts introduced by the Heitler-London theory, complemented by those underlying the method of the molecular orbitals, are critically analyzed along with some of their relevant applications. Further improvements in the understanding of the nature of the chemical bond are also considered, including the ideas of one-electron and three-electron bonds introduced by Pauling, as well as the generalizations of the Heitler-London theory firstly performed by Majorana, which allowed the presence of ionic structures into homopolar compounds and provided the theoretical proof of the stability of the helium molecular ion. The study of intermolecular interactions, as developed by London, is finally examined.
Inhibition of the Striatal Specific Phosphodiesterase PDE10A Ameliorates Striatal and Cortical Pathology in R6/2 Mouse Model of Huntington's Disease
Carmela Giampà,Daunia Laurenti,Serenella Anzilotti,Giorgio Bernardi,Frank S. Menniti,Francesca Romana Fusco
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013417
Abstract: Huntington's disease is a devastating neurodegenerative condition for which there is no therapy to slow disease progression. The particular vulnerability of striatal medium spiny neurons to Huntington's pathology is hypothesized to result from transcriptional dysregulation within the cAMP and CREB signaling cascades in these neurons. To test this hypothesis, and a potential therapeutic approach, we investigated whether inhibition of the striatal-specific cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase PDE10A would alleviate neurological deficits and brain pathology in a highly utilized model system, the R6/2 mouse.
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