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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2189 matches for " Salt – affected "
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Fitoextra??o de sais pela Atriplex nummularia lindl. sob estresse hídrico em solo salino sódico
Souza, Edivan R. de;Freire, Maria B. G. dos S.;Nascimento, Clístenes W. A. do;Montenegro, Abelardo A. de A.;Freire, Fernando J.;Melo, Hidelblandi F. de;
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-43662011000500007
Abstract: this study aims to evaluate the growth, production and extraction of salts by atriplex grown on saline-sodic soil under water stress conditions and to compare soil properties before and after their cultivation. the experiment was carried out in a greenhouse during 134 days growing atriplex nummularia in pots with 20 kg of saline sodic soil with four levels of soil moisture (35, 55, 75 and 95% of field capacity) with a control (soil without plant). the experiment was performed in a randomized block with eight replications. the high concentrations of ca2+, mg2+, k+, and especially na+ and cl- in leaves of atriplex nummularia, associated with high dry matter production characterizes this species as phytoextraction of salts, extracting through leaf and stem: 644, 758, 1059 and 1182 kg ha-1 at 35, 55, 75 e 95% of field capacity, respectively. the variables of the exchangeable cations (ca2+, mg2+, k+, sum of bases) and total organic carbon remained stable between the beginning and end of the experiment in all treatments, while na+ and exchangeable sodium percentage decreased after cultivation of the plant. the atriplex responded to soil moisture with respect to biomass production and salts extraction.
Gypsum-saturated water to reclaim alluvial saline sodic and sodic soils
Silveira, Karien Rodrigues da;Ribeiro, Mateus Rosas;Oliveira, Luiz Bezerra de;Heck, Richard John;Silveira, Rachel Rodrigues da;
Scientia Agricola , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-90162008000100010
Abstract: inadequate management of soil and irrigation water contribute to soil degradation, particularly in the alluvial areas of northeast brazil, where salinity and sodicity are already common features. this study evaluates the effects of the addition of gypsum in the irrigation water on physical and chemical properties of soils with different levels of salinity and sodicity. samples were collected at the custódia irrigation area of brazil, predominantly covered by alluvial soils. leaching tests using simulated irrigation water classified as c3s1, and gypsum-saturated irrigation water were carried out in soil columns of 20 and 50 cm depth. soil leaching with gypsum saturated water (t2) resulted in an increase in the amounts of exchangeable calcium and potassium, and in a decrease of soil ph, in relation to the original soil (t0), with significant statistical differences to the treatment using only water (t1). there was a reduction in the electrical conductivity, exchangeable sodium and exchangeable sodium percentage in both treatments (t1 and t2), with treatment t2 being more effective in the leaching of soil sodium. no changes of electrical conductivity, calcium and ph in depth were observed, but the 20 - 50 cm layer presented higher amounts of magnesium, sodium and exchangeable sodium percentage. gypsum saturated water improved the hydraulic conductivity in both layers. the use of gypsum in the irrigation water improved soil physical and chemical properties and should be considered as an alternative in the process of reclamation of saline-sodic and sodic soils in northeast brazil.
Fruit yield improvement of deteriorated guava plants in salt affected soil
Muhammad Jamil, Muhammad Sadiq, Shahzada Munawar Mehdi and Syed Saqlain Hussian
Soil & Environment , 2011,
Abstract: Soil Salinity is a common problem throughout the world. However, it is seriously affecting the economy of Pakistan by limiting crop productivity on a large area of 6.68 m ha. Various salt tolerant crop / plant varieties are grown in salt affected soil. Guava (Psidium Guajava L.) is a salt tolerant fruit plant and is one of the most popular fruits in Pakistan. Guava has attained commercial importance in tropics and sub-tropics because of its adaptability to varied soil and climatic conditions. Most of the plants grown in salt affected soils lose their bearing after some time. The present study was conducted to improve the fruit bearing of guava plants grown through modified rhizosphere technique. For this purpose five years old guava plants growing in saline sodic field [pHs, 8.8; ECe, 4.70 dS m-1; SAR, 32.30 (m mol L-1) and GR, 7.56 t ha-1] were selected. The treatments applied were: T1 = control; T2 =gypsum @ 100% GR; T3 = gypsum @ 100% GR + FYM @ 40 kg plant-1; T4 = gypsum @ 100% GR + FYM @ 40 kg + urea @ 1.0 kg plant-1; T5 = gypsum @ 100% GR + FYM @ 40 kg + urea @ 1.5 kg plant-1 and T6 = gypsum @ 100% GR + FYM @ 40 kg + urea @ 2.0 kg plant-1. All the gypsum, phosphorus, potash and half of the urea were applied in the month of February, and the remaining half of urea was applied in the month of August. Maximum fruit yield (28.13 kg plant-1) was obtained with the application of treatment T6 (gypsum @ 100% GR + FYM @ 40 kg + urea @ 2.0 kg plant-1) followed by the treatment T5 (gypsum 100% GR + FYM @ 40 kg + 1.5 kg urea plant-1) giving fruit yield of 22.35 kg plant-1 and least in control (4.29 kg plant-1).
Atriplex Nummularia (Old Man Saltbush) : A Potential Forage Crop for Arid Regions of Botswana
A. A. Aganga,J. K. Mthetho,S. Tshwenyane
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2003,
Abstract: Atriplex nummularia (Old man saltbush) is widely planted on salt affected land to provide a vegetative cover, which can be used as fodder reserve. Such plantations are also perceived as having the capacity to use saline groundwater and hence affect the extent of shallow water tables. Atriplex spp. contains high concentrations of nitrogen (N) in winter as compared to summer when it has high concentrations of sodium. The sum of soluble protein-N, amino acid-N, nucleic acid-N and nitrate-N is about half of the total nitrogen. The remainder includes non-soluble protein-N and other N associated with cell membranes and walls. Phosphorus is known to uniformly distribute among pools of inorganic-P, phytate-P, nucleic acid-P and other (residual) fractions. This paper reviews the potentials of A. nummularia as a forage for arid areas of Botswana with saline ground water.
Optimum Transplanting Date for Rice Production
M. Asghar,M. Sadiq,S. M. Mehdi,M. Sarfraz
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2001,
Abstract: The results indicated that maximum yield of paddy was obtained from those plots which were transplanted on 20th July except 1997 where 5th August date gave the maximum but non-significant yield. Among the varieties Shaheen performed better than others. Straw yield decreased with the delay in transplanting irrespective of season. Maximum straw was produced when the lines/varieties were transplanted on 20th June followed by 5th July, 20th July and 5th August in all the years. Among the lines/varieties tested Shaheen produced the least straw. The results indicated that maximum yield of paddy was obtained from those plots which were transplanted on 20th July except 1997 where 5th August date gave the maximum but non-significant yield. Among the varieties Shaheen performed better than others. Straw yield decreased with the delay in transplanting irrespective of season. Maximum straw was produced when the lines/varieties were transplanted on 20th June followed by 5th July, 20th July and 5th August in all the years. Among the lines/varieties tested Shaheen produced the least straw.
Leptochloa fusca cultivation for utilization of salt - affected soil and water resources in Cholistan Desert
Ahmad, Farooq;
Sociedade & Natureza , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1982-45132010000100010
Abstract: in the cholistan desert, 0.44 million hectares are salt - affected low lying and clayey in nature locally known as 'dhars', where rainwater as well as saline groundwater could be utilized for growing salt tolerant grasses like leptochloa fusca as forage during summer. l. fusca is a promising candidate grass for economic utilization and better management of sodic, high ph, saline soil and saline water resources of the cholistan desert. l. fusca is known to be a versatile, halophytic, primary colonizer, easily propagatable, perennial, nutritive and palatable forage plant species. the grass has the good biomass producing potential and can grow equally well both under upland and submerged saline soil environment.
Reclamation of salt-affected soils using amendments and growing wheat crop
Behzad Murtaza*, Ghulam Murtaza, Muhammad Zia-ur-Rehman, Abdul Ghafoor, Saqib Abubakar and Muhammad Sabir
Soil & Environment , 2011,
Abstract: With more pressing demands for non-agricultural sectors, availability of good-quality water is falling short of the crop water requirement, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions of the world, like Pakistan. Studies were conducted at three sites following randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The treatments employed were: Tube well water (TW) alone; TW + Gypsum @ 50% soil gypsum requirement (TW + G50); TW–Canal water (CW) + G50; TW–CW + farm manure (FM) @ 25 Mg ha-1 (TW-CW + FM) before sowing wheat. After the harvest of wheat 2008-09, non-significant decrease in bulk density was recorded with applied treatments while infiltration rate remained unchanged. There was maximum and significant decrease in ECe and SAR with TW–CW + FM at all the three sites. Maximum decrease in ECe (72.65%) at 0-15 cm soil depth was at site 2, while maximum decrease in ECe (77.62%) at 15-30 cm soil depth was at site 1. Maximum percent decrease in SAR was 75.76% at 0-15 cm followed by 63.93% at15-30 cm at sites 2 and 3, respectively, with TW–CW + FM. Maximum wheat grain yields (3656, 3531 and 3826 kg ha-1) and straw yields (4826, 4624 and 4707 kg ha-1) were recorded at sites 1, 2 and 3, respectively, with TW–CW + FM. The net benefit was maximum with TW–CW + FM at all the three sites.
Survival and Growth Rate of Tree Saplings Planted under Salt Affected and Hypoxia Conditions
S.M. Mehdi,M.Sarfraz,G.Hassan,A.B. Sufi
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2003,
Abstract: An Investigation was carried out to note the survival and growth rate of eucalyptus saplings planted in salt affected and hypoxia areas with plastic container bags totally removed compared to base only removed. The soil used was highly saline sodic in nature with wide variation in electrical conductivity of the saturation extract (ECe), pHs and sodium adsorption rate (SAR) within the field. At Basti Thabal, Pindi Bhattian site half acre of eucalyptus was transplanted with bigger bags, half acre with original smaller bags and three and half kanals of eucalyptus were transplanted at Jalalpur Kangra. Survival rate data was collected fifteen days after transplanting of tree seedlings. While height and girth data was recorded within 15-25 days after transplantation. The results showed that survival rate of eucalyptus was more than 82% at Jalalpur Kangra while survival rate was more in smaller bags than bigger bags at Pindi Bhattian site. The treatment effect remained nonsignificant. The gain in height was more than 84 cm in case of bigger bags at Pindi Bhattian, more than 73 cm at Jalalpur Kangra and more than 47 cm incase of smaller bags at Pindi Bhattian site. However treatment effect remained nonsignificant at all the sites. The gain in girth was more than 1.20 cm at Jalalpur Kangra, 0.90 cm in case of bigger bags while more than 0.34 cm in case of smaller bags at Pindi Bhattian site. The treatment effect was again nonsignificant at all the sites. In case of root proliferation, tap root length was more at Jalalpur Kangra and Pindi Bhattian (bigger bags) while lateral root length was more in case of smaller bags at Pindi Bhattian site and treatment was observed nonsignificant. There was a slight improvement in ECe, pHs and SAR of soil in the plough layer only indicating that salts were leached down only at Jalalpur Kangra. While at Pindi Bhattian site the ECe, pHs and SAR were increased due to the eroded soil by rain that brought salt to this low lying area. The results lead to conclude that eucalyptus plantation in salt affected soils has some ameliorative effects on soil chemical characteristics.
Leptochloa Fusca Cultivation for Utilization of Salt – affected Soil and Water Resources in Cholistan Desert / Cultivo de Leptochloa Fusca para a utiliza o de solos afetados por sais e recursos hídricos no Deserto de Cholistan
Farooq Ahmad
Revista Sociedade & Natureza , 2010,
Abstract: In the Cholistan Desert, 0.44 million hectares are salt – affected low lying and clayey in nature locally known as ‘dhars’, where rainwater as well as saline groundwater could be utilized for growing salt tolerant grasses like Leptochloa fusca as forage during summer. L. fusca is a promising candidate grass for economic utilization and better management of sodic, high pH, saline soil and saline water resources of the Cholistan desert. L. fusca is known to be a versatile, halophytic, primary colonizer, easily propagatable, perennial, nutritive and palatable forage plant species. The grass has the good biomass producing potential and can grow equally well both under upland and submerged saline soil environment
Induction of Salt Tolerance in Rice Through Mutation Breeding
Abdul Wahid Baloch,Ali Mohammed Soomro,Mohammed Aslam Javed,Hafeez-ur-Rahman Bughio
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2003,
Abstract: One mutant variety Shua-92 and two mutants of rice, derived through mutation breeding from the two standard varieties IR8 and Pokkali, were evaluated for two years for their yield performance in salt affected soils with pH 7.63 to 7.68 and EC 7.11 to 8.0 dSm-1. The mutant variety Shua-92 produced 40 and 49% higher paddy yield on salt affected soils than the famous salt tolerant varieties Nona Bokra and Pokkali.
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