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Microarray Analysis Reveals Higher Gestational Folic Acid Alters Expression of Genes in the Cerebellum of Mice Offspring—A Pilot Study
Subit Barua,Salomon Kuizon,Kathryn K. Chadman,W. Ted Brown,Mohammed A. Junaid
Brain Sciences , 2015, DOI: 10.3390/brainsci5010014
Abstract: Folate is a water-soluble vitamin that is critical for nucleotide synthesis and can modulate methylation of DNA by altering one-carbon metabolism. Previous studies have shown that folate status during pregnancy is associated with various congenital defects including the risk of aberrant neural tube closure. Maternal exposure to a methyl supplemented diet also can alter DNA methylation and gene expression, which may influence the phenotype of offspring. We investigated if higher gestational folic acid (FA) in the diet dysregulates the expression of genes in the cerebellum of offspring in C57BL/6 J mice. One week before gestation and throughout the pregnancy, groups of dams were supplemented with FA either at 2 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg of diet. Microarray analysis was used to investigate the genome wide gene expression profile in the cerebellum from day old pups. Our results revealed that exposure to the higher dose FA diet during gestation dysregulated expression of several genes in the cerebellum of both male and female pups. Several transcription factors, imprinted genes, neuro-developmental genes and genes associated with autism spectrum disorder exhibited altered expression levels. These findings suggest that higher gestational FA potentially dysregulates gene expression in the offspring brain and such changes may adversely alter fetal programming and overall brain development.
A Critical Tryptophan and Ca2+ in Activation and Catalysis of TPPI, the Enzyme Deficient in Classic Late-Infantile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis
Salomon Kuizon,Kathleen DiMaiuta,Marius Walus,Edmund C. Jenkins Jr,Marisol Kuizon,Elizabeth Kida,Adam A. Golabek,Daniel O. Espinoza,Raju K. Pullarkat,Mohammed A. Junaid
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0011929
Abstract: Tripeptidyl aminopeptidase I (TPPI) is a crucial lysosomal enzyme that is deficient in the fatal neurodegenerative disorder called classic late-infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (LINCL). It is involved in the catabolism of proteins in the lysosomes. Recent X-ray crystallographic studies have provided insights into the structural/functional aspects of TPPI catalysis, and indicated presence of an octahedrally coordinated Ca2+.
Increasing Maternal or Post-Weaning Folic Acid Alters Gene Expression and Moderately Changes Behavior in the Offspring
Subit Barua, Kathryn K. Chadman, Salomon Kuizon, Diego Buenaventura, Nathan W. Stapley, Felicia Ruocco, Umme Begum, Sara R. Guariglia, W. Ted Brown, Mohammed A. Junaid
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101674
Abstract: Background Studies have indicated that altered maternal micronutrients and vitamins influence the development of newborns and altered nutrient exposure throughout the lifetime may have potential health effects and increased susceptibility to chronic diseases. In recent years, folic acid (FA) exposure has significantly increased as a result of mandatory FA fortification and supplementation during pregnancy. Since FA modulates DNA methylation and affects gene expression, we investigated whether the amount of FA ingested during gestation alters gene expression in the newborn cerebral hemisphere, and if the increased exposure to FA during gestation and throughout the lifetime alters behavior in C57BL/6J mice. Methods Dams were fed FA either at 0.4 mg or 4 mg/kg diet throughout the pregnancy and the resulting pups were maintained on the diet throughout experimentation. Newborn pups brain cerebral hemispheres were used for microarray analysis. To confirm alteration of several genes, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot analyses were performed. In addition, various behavior assessments were conducted on neonatal and adult offspring. Results Results from microarray analysis suggest that the higher dose of FA supplementation during gestation alters the expression of a number of genes in the newborns’ cerebral hemispheres, including many involved in development. QRT-PCR confirmed alterations of nine genes including down-regulation of Cpn2, Htr4, Zfp353, Vgll2 and up-regulation of Xist, Nkx6-3, Leprel1, Nfix, Slc17a7. The alterations in the expression of Slc17a7 and Vgll2 were confirmed at the protein level. Pups exposed to the higher dose of FA exhibited increased ultrasonic vocalizations, greater anxiety-like behavior and hyperactivity. These findings suggest that although FA plays a significant role in mammalian cellular machinery, there may be a loss of benefit from higher amounts of FA. Unregulated high FA supplementation during pregnancy and throughout the life course may have lasting effects, with alterations in brain development resulting in changes in behavior.
Adaptive Pitch Transposition: Smart Auditory Spectral Shifts in Cochlear Implants  [PDF]
Kevin Struwe, Ralf Salomon
Engineering (ENG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2017.99045
Abstract: Patients with severe hearing loss have the option to get a cochlear implant device to regain their hearing. Yet, the implantation process is not always optimal, which in some cases results in a shallow insertion depth or an accidental insertion into the wrong cochlear duct. As a consequence, the patients' pitch discrimination ability is suboptimal, leading to an even more decreased vowel identification, which is vital for speech recognition. This paper presents a technical approach to solve this problem: the adaptive pitch transposition module modifies the frequency content in a fashion so that the pitch is fixed to an optimal value. To determine this value, a patient-individual best pitch is determined experimentally by evaluating speech recognition at different pitches. This best pitch is subsequently called the comfort pitch. As a result of the considerations a technical implementation is presented in principle. A system comprised of pitch detection, pitch transposition and an arbitrary chosen comfort pitch is described in depth. It has been implemented prototypically in Matlab/Octave and tested with an example audio file. The system?itself is designed as a preprocessing stage preceding cochlear implant processing.
Chungará (Arica) , 2003, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-73562003000200005
Abstract: the extensive "second lawsuit between antonio guamanyanac and geronimo caxayauri 1588" (agn / buenos aires 9-45-5-15), studied by espinoza soriano (1983-84), throws light on friction between two kurakazgos of the rímac river basin before, during, and after the spanish invasion. this essay proposes that two brothers who figure in the lawsuit, both of them khipukamayuq (khipu masters) and kurakas, namely, condorchagua and pomachagua of yaucha (resettlement of huánchor), are the same persons as the condor chaua and poma chaua whom guaman poma drew as imperial khipukamayuq of tawantinsuyu. this essay also focuses on d. gerónimo cancho guaman, a witness in the 1588 lawsuit. he is the same person as the old kuraka of san damián whose "idolatries" figure in chapter 20 of the anonymous quechua manuscript of huarochirí ([1608?] taylor 1987). the lawsuit thus forms common ground between two main sources of andean ethnohistorical tradition. the lawsuit clarifies interests and practices of the kuraka elite which have until now been overshadowed by the narrative works' ideological content.
Seinen Tod verschlafen? Sedierung am Lebensende im Spannungsfeld zwischen Abschiednehmen und Verdr ngen
Salomon F
Journal für Neurologie, Neurochirurgie und Psychiatrie , 2007,
Abstract: Die Einstellung zu Sterben und Tod hatte im Laufe der Geschichte viele Auspr gungen. Heute ist die unmittelbare Erfahrung mit Sterben und Tod durch die gestiegene Lebenserwartung, die angewachsene Leistungsf higkeit der Medizin und die ver nderten Familienstrukturen selten geworden. Dennoch bleibt der Mensch sterblich. Damit kann er unterschiedlich umgehen. Es gibt Wege der Leugnung und Verdr ngung, aber auch eine bejahende Haltung, die den Abschied erleichtern kann. Sowohl kurative als auch palliative Medizin sind gleichwertige Ziele rztlichen Handelns, soda auch Sterbebegleitung zur rztlichen Aufgabe wird. Neben den Wünschen nach einem bestimmten Ort und einer unbelastenden Art des Sterbens tritt zunehmend der Wunsch nach Sedierung am Lebensende. Terminale Sedierung kann zum einen der Todesleugnung und -verdr ngung dienen, aber auch eine Hilfe sein, die Sterblichkeit anzuerkennen. Es werden Anregungen gegeben, sie positiv zur Sterbebegleitung und menschenwürdigen Gestaltung des Lebensendes zu nutzen.
El papel de la autoridad reguladora en la alfabetización mediática The Role of Broadcasting Regulation in Media Literacy
Eve Salomon
Comunicar , 2009, DOI: doi:10.3916/c32-2009-02-013
Abstract: La autora presenta una perspectiva global sobre las razones por las que la televisión está regulada, los mecanismos utilizados para la regulación, y qué es lo que abarca esa regulación, particularmente en sus propósitos culturales. La autora concluye con sugerencias acerca de cómo se podría tender en las naciones hacia un futuro digital convergente, incluyendo un papel más preponderante de los consejos reguladores en la promoción de la alfabetización mediática. OFCOM, el regulador del Reino Unido es un ejemplo de cómo una autoridad reguladora puede tener un papel destacado en la alfabetización mediática y la información, agregando éstas a sus actuales objetivos de adjudicación y regulación del espectro, en preparación de la convergencia digital. La regulación y auto-regulación, para ser efectivas, tendrán que apoyarse sobre una integral educación en medios. The author presents a global perspective on the reasons why television is regulated, the mechanisms used for regulation, and what regulation covers, particularly its cultural purposes. The author concludes with suggestions about how this might change as nations move to wards a converged, digital future, including an increased role for the regulator in the promotion of media literacy. The UK’s regulator, OFCOM, is used as an example of how a regulatory authority can take a leading role in media and information literacy, adding to its existing missions of allocating and regulating spectrum, in preparation for the digital switchover. Regulation and self-regulation, to be truly effective, will need to rely on extensive media literacy.
Produzindo concretos ecologica e politicamente corretos
Salomon Levy
Exacta , 2006,
Abstract: Neste trabalho, objetivou-se apresentar ao meio técnico a síntese de uma pesquisa desenvolvida para avaliar a durabilidade de concretos produzidos de forma mais sustentável que os confeccionados com a utiliza o de agregados convencionais. Para isso, foram preparados concretos, utilizando-se reciclados, em teores crescentes na substitui o dos agregados naturais. Em seguida, estudou-se seu grau de influência nas propriedades relacionadas à durabilidade. No concreto com agregados reciclados desenvolvido neste estudo, a profundidade de carbonata o diminuiu de 20% para 50% com o aumento do teor de reciclados. Já para família de concreto com agregado graúdo de alvenaria, a menor profundidade de carbonata o foi atingida com a substitui o de 100% do agregado natural, embora seja importante ressaltar que, dependendo da resistência desejada, para alcan á-la, seria necessária a utiliza o de mais de 550 kg de cimento por m3 de concreto. Esse comportamento ilustra que a profundidade de carbonata o depende fortemente da composi o química do concreto, e n o somente de seus aspectos físicos. Quando o agregado natural foi substituído por 20% de agregado reciclado de concreto ou de alvenaria, o sólido produzido a partir desses agregados apresentou o mesmo desempenho e, por vezes, até melhor comportamento que o concreto de referência, para as propriedades estudadas nesta pesquisa.
Frank Salomon
Chungará (Arica) - Revista de Antropología Chilena , 2003,
Abstract: El extenso "Segundo pleito entre Antonio Guamanyanac y Geronimo Caxayauri 1588" (AGN/ Buenos Aires 9-45-5-15), estudiado por Espinoza Soriano (1983-84), arroja luz sobre las fricciones entre dos kurakazgos de la cuenca del río Rímac antes, durante y después de la invasión espa ola. El presente ensayo propone que dos hermanos, ambos kurakas y maestros de khipu (khipukamayuq) que figuran en dicho pleito, a saber Condorchagua y Pomachagua de Yaucha (reducción de Huánchor), son las mismas personas Condor Chaua y Poma Chaua, dibujados por Guaman Poma, en la Nueva Corónica, como khipukamayuq imperiales del Tawantinsuyu. Enfocamos adicionalmente a la persona de D. Gerónimo Cancho Guaman, testigo en el pleito de 1588, que identificamos con el viejo kuraka de San Damián cuyas "idolatrías" figuran en el capítulo 20 del manuscrito anónimo quechua de Huarochirí ([1608?] Taylor 1987). El pleito forma un lugar común entre dos fuentes principales de la tradición etnohistórica. En ambos casos, el pleito aclara intereses y prácticas de la élite kurakal hasta ahora poco claros debido al contenido ideológico de estas dos obras narrativas, centrales de la etnohistoria andina. The extensive "Second lawsuit between Antonio Guamanyanac and Geronimo Caxayauri 1588" (AGN / Buenos Aires 9-45-5-15), studied by Espinoza Soriano (1983-84), throws light on friction between two kurakazgos of the Rímac River basin before, during, and after the Spanish invasion. This essay proposes that two brothers who figure in the lawsuit, both of them khipukamayuq (khipu masters) and kurakas, namely, Condorchagua and Pomachagua of Yaucha (resettlement of Huánchor), are the same persons as the Condor Chaua and Poma Chaua whom Guaman Poma drew as imperial khipukamayuq of Tawantinsuyu. This essay also focuses on D. Gerónimo Cancho Guaman, a witness in the 1588 lawsuit. He is the same person as the old kuraka of San Damián whose "idolatries" figure in chapter 20 of the anonymous Quechua manuscript of Huarochirí ([1608?] Taylor 1987). The lawsuit thus forms common ground between two main sources of Andean ethnohistorical tradition. The lawsuit clarifies interests and practices of the kuraka elite which have until now been overshadowed by the narrative works' ideological content.
Huayra huayra pichcamanta!: augurio, risa y regeneración en la política tradicional (Pacota, Huarochirí)
Salomon, Frank
Bulletin de l'Institut Francais d'études Andines , 2002,
Abstract: HUAYRA HUAYRA PICHCAMANTA! : AUGURE, RIRES ET RéGéNéRATION DANS LA POLITIQUE TRADITIONNELLE (PACOTA, HUAROCHIRí) Une variante du jeu d oracle pichca, différente de celles décrites par Gentile Lafaille (1998), procure une augure annuelle pour l agropastoralisme dans la région centrale de Huarochirí (département de Lima, Pérou). L aspect ludique prédomine, mais les croyances et agissements associés à ce jeu ont également des conséquences pratiques. Aujourd hui, comme dans le manuscrit quechua de Huarochirí de 1608 [?], un schéma de dualisme alternant sert à régénérer l ordre politique face aux impondérables climatiques et historiques. Una variante del juego-oráculo de la pichca, diferente de las versiones estudiadas por Gentile Lafaille (1998), facilita el augurio anual para el agropastoralismo en el centro de la provincia de Huarochirí (departamento de Lima, Perú). La nota lúdica predomina, pero las prácticas y creencias en torno al juego también traen consecuencias prácticas. En la actualidad, como en el manuscrito quechua de Huarochirí de 1608 [?], el padrón llamado dualismo alternante sirve para regenerar el orden político frente a los imponderables del clima y de la historia. HUAYRA HUAYRA PICHCAMANTA! AUGURY, LAUGHTER, AND REGENERATION IN AN ANDEAN POLITICAL REGIME (PACOTA, HUAROCHIRí) A variant of the oracular game pichca, different from variants described by Gentile Lafaille (1998), provides an annual augury for agropastoralism in central Huarochirí (Department of Lima, Peru). It is playful, but beliefs and practices around it also have practical consequence. Today as in the Huarochirí Quechua manuscript of 1608 [?], a pattern of alternating dualism serves to regenerate political order in the face of climatic and historical imponderables.
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