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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2266 matches for " Salma Khalid "
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An Insight of Ecosystem Capitals and Services of the Kaghan Valley: The Himalayan Region of Pakistan  [PDF]
Muhammad Qasim, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan, Alia Naz, Salma Khalid
Natural Resources (NR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2013.42021

The Kaghan Valley is in the territorial jurisdiction of Mansehera District, named after a tiny village Kaghan, at the end of the valley. The valley culminates in the tree-clad high mountains and glaciers in the North-East with varying altitudes from 1 to 5 thousand meters above sea level. The region is relatively active geophysically, hydrologically and biologically diverse by virtue of the altitude and aspect-driven variability in energy and moisture. In such region a better understanding of changes in land resources, production of agronomic and horticultural crops, use of timber and non-timber products, and livestock structure/composition have important implications and understanding these changes along with the indigenous knowledge of mountain people which, is key to sustainable development of the Himalayan region. Our results showed that the main causes of lowest agriculture production in the area are poor crop management in context of the mountains, drought spells, low soil fertility, land fragmentation and tenancy status of the agricultural land. Off season vegetables cultivation on the sloppy land leads to sever soil erosion and soil land degradation of this mountain ecosystem. Overgrazing during the summer season is another problem as the pastures are visited both by the Afghan and local nomads without relating with carrying capacity of the alpine meadows. The overgrazed soil is usually subject to rainfalls and severe soil erosion. Any use of resources of such fragile rare high mountain ecosystem requires a great sense of responsibility but in this case the forest resources are being plundered and are used roughly. We recommend adequate use of agricultural inputs, specific crop management practices for mountain agriculture. Local social welfare organizations should work to create awareness about the sustainable use of natural

Metals toxicity and its bioaccumulation in purslane seedlings grown in controlled environment  [PDF]
Alia Naz, Sardar Khan, Muhammad Qasim, Salma Khalid, Said Muhammad, Muhammad Tariq
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.55073
Abstract: We aimed to find the toxicological impacts of Cd, Pb and Zn in single dozes and in combinations on Purslane (Portulaca oleracea) seedling. The Pursolane seedlings  grown in pots in a green house were treated with different soil treatments spiked (mg/kg) with Pb (300, 400 and 500), Cd (0.5, 1 and 1.5), and Zn (250, 500, 700) alone and then in specified combinations/concentrations i.e., Cd/Pb (0.5/300, 1/400, 1.5/500), Cd/Zn (0.5/250, 1/500, 1.5/700) and Pb/Zn (300/250, 400/500, 500/ 700). The results indicated that increasing concentrations of the studied HMs in seedlings tissues significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the seedlings growth. Cd was more toxic to P. oleracea seedling, compared to Pb and Zn. Roots of P. oleracea seedlings were more sensitive to the studied HMs in comparison with shoot. The uptake patterns showed antagonistic impacts on each other and were reflected in response to growth parameters. The combine toxicities of Cd, Pb and Zn (Cd/Pb, Cd/Zn and Pb/Zn) were more than the toxicity due to single dose of each element but less than their additive sums.
Effects of different planting systems on yield of potato crop in Kaghan Valley: A mountainous region of Pakistan  [PDF]
Muhammad Qasim, Salma Khalid, Alia Naz, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan, Sohail Ahmad Khan
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.44025

Conversion of potato from conventional methods to wide bed planting systems may increase water and nitrogen use efficiency in commercial potato production system by reducing the amount of irrigation water and water applied nitrogen fertilizer bypassing the potato root zone. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L) cv. Desiree was tested against different planting system for yield and yield components at Kaghan, a high mountainous Himalayan region ofPakistan. The experiment was carried out at Himalayan Agricultural Research Station (HARS), Kaghan during the summer season of 2005. The results showed that maximum tuber growth (88.7%), number of stems per plant (3.5), plant expansion (45.5 cm), average number of tubers per plant (10.1) and yield per hectare (12.4 t/ha) were significantly different and higher when potatoes were planted on wide bed and covered with soil from one side. Tallest plants (53.4 cm) were observed when potatoes were sown on the ridges. Maximum number of green potatoes (12.5) and injured potatoes (5.3%) were observed when the tubers were planted following local farmers’ method. Keeping in view the soil type, land slopping, we recommend sowing potatoes on relatively plain wide beds and covering it with soil from one side, for potato cultivation in the area.

Prevelance of total coliforms, faecal coliforms and E. coli in Rawalpindi vegetable markets  [PDF]
Sadia Alam, Samina Khalil, Najma Ayub, Abida Bibi, Beena Saeed, Salma Khalid, Sumaira Siddiq
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.512158

Nutritional value of vegetables and high prices of meat and meat originated food compel common people to consume plant originated food particularly salad vegetables. Microbial population of vegetable surfaces contains a large number of pathogenic bacteria including members of Enterobactereace like Escherichia coli (E. coli). A survey was conducted in three major markets of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Tomato, lettuce, cabbage and cucumber samples were collected from three shops of each market. Each vegetable was analysed as unwashed and washed for total coliforms, faecal coliforms and E. coli by FAO (Food Quality Manual). About two hundred and fifty E. coli isolates were preserved, serotyped for presence of O157 serotype. Total coliforms, faecal coliforms and E. coli count exceeded the permissible limits in most samples. The highest Total coliforms were associated with cabbage (3.78 log10 cfu/g). Cucumber was the least contaminated by Total coliforms (2.15 log10 cfu/g). E. coli was detected in tomato, lettuce, cucumber and cabbage. Washed samples showed reduced bacterial population. Seventy six isolates of E. coli were biochemically characterized and serotyped for O157 antigen. A majority of strains could not be identified by serotyping. These findings conclude with high potentially pathogenic microbial load on salad vegetables and urge for preventive action on priority basis.

Hydro-meteorological characteristics of Chitral River basin at the peak of the Hindukush range  [PDF]
Salma Khalid, Shafiq Ur Rehman, Syed Mushtaq Ali Shah, Alia Naz, Beena Saeed, Sadia Alam, Farman Ali, Hasina Gul
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.59120

This paper presents the impact of mean maximum temperature on Chitral river basin situated at Chitral district and high altitude (>6000 m) peaks of the Hindukush range under changing climate in Pakistan. The analysis of Chitral River as one of the tributary of Kabul River—the second largest river of Pakistan—revealed that change in temperature has a profound influence on the snow/glacial melt in comparison to the mean monthly rainfall. This is because the studied river is faded by the snow and glacial melt and receives a lot of snowfall from winter (DecFeb) to pre-monsoon (April-May). In monsoon period (Jul-Sep), 30% of the time the discharge rate remains above the mean while 60% of the time the discharge is less than the mean in the pre-monsoon (April-May) period. It means that 10% of the time the discharge is in reach of 300% to 900% of the mean flow, showing a rise in water yield and river discharge rate due to increase in mean monthly maximum temperature. Due to this significant increase (p < 0.05), the glaciers start melting faster and disappear in early summer, hence, reducing their residency period to convert into ice. This shows the signals of changing climate transfer into hydrological changes in Pakistan. Our findings are important for agriculture, hydropower and water management sectors for future planning especially in dry season for sustainable food security and for operation of ydrological installations in the country.

Case Report on Hiccup and Lateral Medullary Syndrome  [PDF]
Mohamed Hamdy Ibrahim, Alyaa Fadhil, Sameh Saied Ali, Salma Fathy Abdel Kader, Mohamed Khalid, Kiran Kumar, Shivram Kumar, Janhavi Sirsat
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2015.62010
The case study is aimed at providing a more thorough analysis of a case of lateral medullary syn-drome presented only with persistent hiccup after eating lunch the study hopes to generate an interest for further studies into the topic and focuses on abnormal unusual presentations of lateral medullary syndrome. Ethical committee has approved this case after taking consent from the patient and explaining to him the importance of the case in clinical practice.
Could Dystonia Be Initial Presentation of Corpus Callosum Infarction in Young Age Patients? A Case Report Study  [PDF]
Mohamed Hamdy Ibrahim, Alyaa Fadhil, Sameh Saied Ali, Salma Fathy Abdel Kader, Mohamed Khalid, Kiran Kumar, Shivram Kumar, Janhavi Sirsat
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2015.62011
Focal dystonia in young aged patients is considered to be the uncommon clinical presentation, unless a secondary cause is to be considered. Infarcts of the corpus callosum are rare and have not been well documented previously. As for a variety of signs and symptoms due to corpus callosum lesion, focal dystonia can be easily overlooked. The case is approved by ethical committee and explained to the patient with patient approval.
A review on phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of miswak (Salvadora persica Linn)
Akhtar Jamal,Siddique Khalid,Bi Salma,Mujeeb Mohd
Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The miswak is a natural toothbrush made from the twigs of the Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). Its use predates the inception of Islam and is frequently advocated in the Hadith (the traditions relating to the life of Prophet Muhammad PBUH ). In addition to strengthening the gums, it prevents tooth decay, eliminating toothaches and halt further increase in decay that has already set in. It creates a fragrance in the mouth, eliminates bad odor, improves the sense of taste, and causes the teeth to glow and shine. The other parts of the tree have therapeutic values as corrective, deobstruent, liver tonic, diuretic, analgesic, anthelmintic, astringent, lithontriptic, carminative, diuretic, aphrodisiac, and stomachic. The present review is therefore an effort to give detailed survey of the literature on phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of miswak.
Contribution of soil and foliar fertilization of nitrogen and sulfur on physiological and quality assessment of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)  [PDF]
Beena Saeed, Hasina Gul, Farman Ali, Amir Zaman Khan, Shazma Anwar, Nasrullah  , Sadia Alam, Salma Khalid, Alia Naz, Hina Fayyaz, Azra  
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.59125

Nitrogen and sulfur supplies have a strong influence on the physical characteristics of crop as well as on the quality and quantity of wheat storage proteins, which play an important role in bread-making process. In order to evaluate the contribution of soil and foliar fertilization of nitrogen and sulfur on physiological and quality assessment of wheat, a field trail was carried out having randomized complete block design with four replications and eight different treatments of nitrogen and sulfur combinations were allotted to plots at different growth stages. Results indicated that highest protein content (12.82%), maximum moisture content (10.9%), maximum crop growth rate and maximum absolute growth rate were recorded when the wheat crop was fertilized with T8 [Nitrogen @ 60 kg·ha-1 at sowing + 40 kg·ha-1 at tillering + 10 kg·ha-1 at anthesis (spray) + 10 kg·ha-1 after anthesis (spray)] + [Sulfur @ 15 kg·ha-1 at sowing + 10 kg·ha-1 at anthesis (spray) + 5 kg·ha-1 after anthesis (spray)], while control practice resulted low moisture content, low protein, minimum crop growth rate and low absolute growth rate. Among physiological components of wheat cultivars, leaf area index was enhanced when fertilization was done with T5 (Sulfur @ 15 kg·ha-1 at sowing + 10 kg

Geriatrics intensive care unit: Outcome and risk factors for in hospital mortality  [PDF]
Salma M. S. El Said
Advances in Aging Research (AAR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aar.2013.24024

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate outcome and risk factors, particularly the (APATCHE II) score in elderly patients after admission to a geriatrics intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: A cross sectional study of patients ≥ 60 years admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of the Geriatrics department at Ain Shams University Hospital over 2 years period. We recorded age, sex, previous medical history, primary diagnosis, date of admission and discharge or death and APACHE II score on admission. Results: 202 patients admitted to the ICU were studied. The mean ICU mortality rates for these patients were (32, 5%), the mean APATCHE II score was (19.07). 27.3% of patients who died had hypokalemia and 43.2% had hyponatremia. Conclusion: ICU mortality rate are higher in elderly patients particularly with long ICU stay and hyponatremia.

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