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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 199352 matches for " Sally N. Lawson "
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HCN1 and HCN2 in Rat DRG Neurons: Levels in Nociceptors and Non-Nociceptors, NT3-Dependence and Influence of CFA-Induced Skin Inflammation on HCN2 and NT3 Expression
Cristian Acosta, Simon McMullan, Laiche Djouhri, Linlin Gao, Roger Watkins, Carol Berry, Katherine Dempsey, Sally N. Lawson
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0050442
Abstract: Ih, which influences neuronal excitability, has recently been measured in vivo in sensory neuron subtypes in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). However, expression levels of HCN (hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated) channel proteins that underlie Ih were unknown. We therefore examined immunostaining of the most abundant isoforms in DRGs, HCN1 and HCN2 in these neuron subtypes. This immunostaining was cytoplasmic and membrane-associated (ring). Ring-staining for both isoforms was in neurofilament-rich A-fiber neurons, but not in small neurofilament-poor C-fiber neurons, although some C-neurons showed cytoplasmic HCN2 staining. We recorded intracellularly from DRG neurons in vivo, determined their sensory properties (nociceptive or low-threshold-mechanoreceptive, LTM) and conduction velocities (CVs). We then injected fluorescent dye enabling subsequent immunostaining. For each dye-injected neuron, ring- and cytoplasmic-immunointensities were determined relative to maximum ring-immunointensity. Both HCN1- and HCN2-ring-immunointensities were positively correlated with CV in both nociceptors and LTMs; they were high in Aβ-nociceptors and Aα/β-LTMs. High HCN1 and HCN2 levels in Aα/β-neurons may, via Ih, influence normal non-painful (e.g. touch and proprioceptive) sensations as well as nociception and pain. HCN2-, not HCN1-, ring-intensities were higher in muscle spindle afferents (MSAs) than in all other neurons. The previously reported very high Ih in MSAs may relate to their very high HCN2. In normal C-nociceptors, low HCN1 and HCN2 were consistent with their low/undetectable Ih. In some C-LTMs HCN2-intensities were higher than in C-nociceptors. Together, HCN1 and HCN2 expressions reflect previously reported Ih magnitudes and properties in neuronal subgroups, suggesting these isoforms underlie Ih in DRG neurons. Expression of both isoforms was NT3-dependent in cultured DRG neurons. HCN2-immunostaining in small neurons increased 1 day after cutaneous inflammation (CFA-induced) and recovered by 4 days. This could contribute to acute inflammatory pain. HCN2-immunostaining in large neurons decreased 4 days after CFA, when NT3 was decreased in the DRG. Thus HCN2-expression control differs between large and small neurons.
Yield of Smear Microscopy and Radiological Findings of Male and Female Patients with Tuberculosis in Abuja, Nigeria
Lovett Lawson,Mohammed A. Yassin,Alex N. Onuoha,Andrew Ramsay,Rachel R. M. Anderson de Cuevas,Sally Theobald,Peter D. O. Davies,Luis E. Cuevas
Tuberculosis Research and Treatment , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/241659
Abstract: Objective. To describe the yield of smear-microscopy and radiological findings by male and female patients with symptoms of tuberculosis in Abuja, Nigeria. Methods. Patients ≥15 years old with cough for >3 weeks submitted 3 sputum samples for smear microscopy. One specimen was cultured using MGIT-960. All patients had lung X-rays and screened for HIV. Results. were more likely to be smear-positive than females (262/774 [34%] and 137/547 [25%], <.01), but similar proportions of males and females were culture-positive (437/691 [63%] and 294/495 [59%], =.09). 317/626 (50.6%) males and 249/419 (59.4%) females were HIV-positive (<.005). Among culture-positives patients, HIV-infected males were less likely to have positive smears than HIV-negative males (49.2% versus 66%, =.001). Among females, smear positivity did not vary with HIV (46.4% for HIV-positive and 52.9% for HIV-negative, =.38). Of 274 culture-confirmed TB cases, 226 (82.5%) had cavities, and 271 (99%) had ≥1 lung areas affected. HIV-positive males were more likely to have lung cavities than HIV-positive females (85% versus 69%, <.04) and to have ≥3 lung areas affected (=.03). Conclusion. Differences in the yield of smear-microscopy, culture and X-rays on presentation are due to several factors including HIV coinfection and gender.
Evidence of active MHD instability in EULAG-MHD simulations of solar convection
N. Lawson,A. Strugarek,P. Charbonneau
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/813/2/95
Abstract: We investigate the possible development of magnetohydrodynamical instabilities in the EULAG-MHD "millenium simulation" of Passos & Charbonneau (2014). This simulation sustains a large-scale magnetic cycle characterized by solar-like polarity reversals taking place on a regular multidecadal cadence, and in which zonally-oriented bands of strong magnetic field accumulate below the convective layers, in response to turbulent pumping from above in successive magnetic half-cycles. Key aspects of this simulation include low numerical dissipation and a strongly subadiabatic fluid layer underlying the convectively unstable layers corresponding to the modeled solar convection zone. These properties are conducive to the growth and development of two-dimensional instabilities otherwise suppressed by stronger dissipation. We find evidence for the action of a non-axisymmetric magnetoshear instability operating in the upper portions of the stably stratified fluid layers. We also investigate the possibility that the Tayler instability may be contributing to the destabilization of the large-scale axisymmetric magnetic component at high latitudes. On the basis of our analyses, we propose a global dynamo scenario whereby the magnetic cycle is driven primarily by turbulent dynamo action in the convecting layers, but MHD instabilities accelerate the dissipation of the magnetic field pumped down into the overshoot and stable layers, thus perhaps significantly influencing the magnetic cycle period. Support for this scenario is found in the distinct global dynamo behaviors observed in an otherwise identical EULAG-MHD simulations, using a different degree of subadiabaticity in the stable fluid layers underlying the convection zone.
Comparison of the effects of salmeterol/fluticasone propionate with fluticasone propionate on airway physiology in adults with mild persistent asthma
Catherine M Houghton, Naomi Lawson, Zoe L Borrill, Claire L Wixon, Sally Yoxall, Stephen J Langley, Ashley Woodcock, Dave Singh
Respiratory Research , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-8-52
Abstract: Adult patients with mild persistent asthma (≥ 80% predicted FEV1) receiving 200–500 μg of BDP or equivalent were randomised to receive either FP 100 μg or SFC 50/100 μg twice daily from a Diskus? inhaler for four weeks. The primary outcome was the change from baseline in airway resistance (sRaw) at 12 hrs post dose measured by whole body plethysmography. Impulse oscillometry and spirometry were also performed.A comparison of the geometric mean sRaw at 12 hrs post dose in the SFC group to the FP group gave a ratio of 0.76 (0.66 – 0.89, p < 0.001) at week 2 and 0.81 (0.71 – 0.94, p = 0.006) at week 4. Similarly, significant results in favour of SFC for oscillometry measurements of resistance and reactance were observed. FEV1 was also significantly superior at week 2 in the SFC group (mean difference 0.16L, 95% CI; 0.03 – 0.28, p = 0.015), but not at week 4 (mean difference 0.17L, 95% CI -0.01 – 0.34, p = 0.060).SFC is superior to FP in reducing airway resistance in mild asthmatics with near normal FEV1 values. This study provides evidence that changes in pulmonary function in patients with mild asthma are detected more sensitively by plethysmography compared to spirometryNCT00370591.Clinical trials of drug treatments for asthma commonly use the spirometric assessment of FEV1 to assess improvements in lung function. FEV1 is a relatively simple and reproducible measurement that is required by regulatory authorities. However, in patients with mild asthma, FEV1 may be close to normal and is not as sensitive as body plethysmography and impulse oscillometry (IOS) for measuring small changes in lung function in response to broncodilators [1-3]. Furthermore, body plethysmography assesses airway resistance while IOS measures pulmonary resistance and reactance, properties not assessed by spirometry [3-6].Combination therapies of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) with a long acting beta agonist (LABA) are effective in the treatment of asthma. The combination of salmeterol and flutic
Assessment of Variability in the Quality of an Acrisol under Different Land Use Systems in Ghana  [PDF]
Emmanuel Osadu Ghartey, Gabriel N. N. Dowuona, Eric K. Nartey, Thomas A. Adjadeh, Innocent Y. D. Lawson
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2012.21006
Abstract: Three land use types (natural fallow, Leucaena leucocephala woodlot and cultivated plots) on a Ferric Acrisol in a semi-arid tropical zone of Ghana were compared to assess their effects on variability in selected soil properties and plant biomass accumulation. Organic carbon accumulation in the representative natural fallow profile was 22.7 g/kg, followed by 16.5 g/kg for the Leucaena woodlot and lastly 11.8 g/kg for the cultivated site. The mean bulk density of the natural fallow, Leucaena woodlot and cultivated sites were from 1.36 Mg/m3, 0.92 Mg/m3 and 1.33 Mg/m3 with corresponding range in mean weight diameter of 0.5 mm - 1.2 mm, 0.6 mm - 1.2 mm and 1.0 mm - 1.2 mm, respectively. The lower bulk density observed for the woodlot corresponds to increased total porosity, aeration, and root proliferation due to the stronger and extensive rooting system. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in bulk density, mean weight diameter (MWD), clay content, organic carbon and total nitrogen existed among the land use types. Variability in pH and bulk density of the surface soils was less than 15%, in the three land use types. Generally, clay content and exchangeable Na recorded the highest variability (>36%). For the surface soils, exchangeable Na was very variable in the natural fallow. Exchangeable Na, Ca and K and total nitrogen were very variable in the Leucaena woodlot and the cultivated sites. Variability in clay content was very high in the cultivated soils only. The order cultivated land > Leucaena woodlot > natural fallow was noted for properties with high variability (CV > 36%). Plant biomass accumulation was 1834 kg/ha (natural fallow) and 830 kg/ha (Leucaena woodlot) indicating that natural fallows do not only maintain soil quality but they also decrease variability in soil properties which is desirable for soil productivity and quality.
Correlates of self-reported colorectal cancer screening accuracy in a multi-specialty medical group practice  [PDF]
Arica White, Sally W. Vernon, Jan M. Eberth, Jasmin A. Tiro, Sharon P. Coan, Peter N. Abotchie, Anthony Greisinger
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2013.31004
Abstract:

Purpose: We assessed whether accuracy of self-reported screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) varied by respondent characteristics or healthcare utilization. Methods: From 2005 to 2007, 857 respondents aged 51 - 74 were recruited from a multi-specialty medical group practice to answer a questionnaire about their CRC screening (CRCS) behaviors. Self-reports were compared with administrative and medical records to assess concordance, sensitivity, specificity, and report-to-records ratios for overall CRCS (fecal occult blood test, sigmoidoscopy, and/or colonoscopy). Results: Concordance was good (30.8 to <0.9) or fair (30.7 to <0.8) for most subgroups; respondents with >5 visits outside the clinic had poor (<0.7) concordance. Sensitivity estimates were mostly excellent (30.9) or good but poor for respondents whose healthcare provider did not advise a specific CRCS test. Specificity was poor for the following respondents: 65+ years, males, college graduates, family history of CRC, >5 visits outside of the clinic, or whose healthcare provider advised a specific CRCS test. Respondents 65+ years and with >5 outside visits over-reported CRCS. Conclusions: With few exceptions, self-reports of CRCS in an insured population is reasonably accurate across subgroups. More work is needed to replicate these findings in diverse settings and populations to better understand subgroup differences and improve measures of CRCS. 

Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Studies of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) Complexes of (E)-2-(4-Dimethylbenzydimino)-Glycylglycine, (Glygly-DAB) a Schiff Base Derived from 4-Dimethylaminobenzaldehyde and Glycylglycine  [PDF]
Maurice Kuate, Mariam Asseng Conde, Katia N. Nchimi, Awawou G. Paboudam, Sally-Judith E. Ntum, Peter T. Ndifon
International Journal of Organic Chemistry (IJOC) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ijoc.2018.83022
Abstract: A tridentate Schiff base ligand, (E)-2-(4-dimethylbenzydimino) glycylglycine (glygly-DAB), derived from the condensation of 4-Dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DAB) and glycylglycine (glygly) together with its Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes have been synthesized and characterized using various physico-chemical methods including C,H,N elemental analysis, melting point determination, molar conductivity measurement, IR, 1H NMR and UV-Vis. The ligand and metal complexes were screened in vitro for antimicrobial and antifungal activities on four bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella thyphi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two fungal strains (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans). glygly-DAB showed remarkable antifungal activities on all the fungal strains and antibacterial activities on one bacterial strain.
Adoption and Use of Household Microgeneration Heat Technologies  [PDF]
Sally Caird, Robin Roy
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2010.12008
Abstract: The development and rapid household adoption of smallscale, low and zero carbon microgeneration technologies are key elements of UK and EU strategies to meet the challenge of climate change. Microgeneration heat technologies, including solar thermal hot water, heat pumps and biomass heating systems, have an especially important role in reducing the carbon emissions from buildings. But despite government policies to promote microgeneration, adoption by UK householders is very slow. Surveys by the Open University and Energy Saving Trust examined why over 900 UK householders decided to adopt these technologies and why many do not. These surveys describe the niche market for microgeneration heat as largely confined to environmentally concerned, older, middleclass householders, mainly living in larger properties off the mains gas network. Although these pioneer adopters are generally highly satisfied, for microgeneration heat to expand beyond its market niche, several issues need to be addressed, including: price reductions and subsidies? independent information on the suitability, performance, payback and effective use of equipment? ‘one- stop’ support from consideration to operation? improved system compatibility with smaller properties and existing buildings and heating systems? and more userfriendly and informative controls.
Incremental Diversity: A Framework for Rate-Adaptation/Energy-Conservation Enhancement in MIMO Systems  [PDF]
Tallal Elshabrawy, Sally Nafie
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2014.79039
Abstract: In recent years, MIMO technology has emerged as one of the technical breakthroughs in the field of wireless communications. Two famous MIMO techniques have become investigated thoroughly throughout the literature; Spatial Multiplexing, and Space Time Block Coding. On one hand, Spatial Multiplexing offers high data rates. On the other hand, Space Time Block Coding presents transmission fidelity. This imposes a fundamental tradeoff between capacity and reliability. Adaptive MIMO Switching schemes have been proposed to select the MIMO scheme that best fits the channel conditions. However, the switching schemes presented in the literature directly switch between the MIMO endpoints. In this paper, an adaptive MIMO system that incrementally switches from multiplexing towards diversity is proposed. The proposed scheme is referred to as incremental diversity and can be set to operate in two different modes; Rate-Adaptive, and Energy-Conservative Incremental Diversity. Results indicate that the proposed incremental diversity framework achieves transmission reliability offered by MIMO diversity, while maintaining a gradual increase in spectral efficiency (in the Rate-Adaptive mode) or a reduction in required number of received symbols (in the Energy-Conservative mode) with increase in the SNR.
Pain Relief in Labour: How Can We Improve Intrapartum Care?  [PDF]
Sally Byford, Edward Weaver
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2016.613096
Abstract: Background: Pain in labour is perceived differently for every individual. We can improve the outcomes and patient satisfaction with intrapartum care by ensuring adequate education and appropriate use of requested pain relief options. Encouraging informed personal control contributes to a women’s overall satisfaction. Aims: To assess current practice and identify improvement areas in the perception, planning and use of pain relief options, and how this impacts satisfaction of pain relief in labour. Methods: 114 retrospective anonymous patient questionnaires were returned by women delivering by spontaneous vaginal delivery, instrumental delivery or emergency caesarean section at Nambour General Hospital between April and July 2011. Data were collated and analysed using STATA. Results: 83% and 65% of women had their pain relief options explained antenatally and on admission respectively. 92% reported their pain relief was adequately provided. There was a significant difference (p << 0.001) between those reporting “very good” or “good” satisfaction when compared to those reporting “fair” or “poor” with regards to a change from their method of planned pain relief. However, no significant difference (p = 0.62) between the “same as planned” group and the “different than planned” group, highlighting that most women were satisfied irrespective of whether their plan changed or not. However, if they were unsatisfied, this correlated with a change in their plan. Conclusions: Education of pain relief options for labour antenatally and on birth suite admission, with adequate discussion and documentation of their wishes encourages informed planning and use of pain relief. This promotes personal choice and control, resulting in improved overall satisfaction of pain relief in labour.
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