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Preliminary Study on the Effectiveness of Different Durations of Hot Towel Application to the Back during Bed Bathing  [PDF]
Inaho Shishido, Yuka Yamaguchi, Rie Miyata, Sakiko Kutomi, Rika Yano
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2017.712099
The purpose of this study was to determine the most effective duration of hot towel application during bed bathing, based on temporal changes in skin surface temperature, towel temperature, and subjective comfort. As a secondary objective, differences in skin surface temperature and subjective comfort for hot towel application on the back and dry towel wiping alone were evaluated. For the first objective, hot towels were applied on the lower back of 20 healthy adults, for different duration (10, 15, and 20 s), with a 10-s duration found to be the most effective. For the second objective, we compared bed bathing with hot towel application to dry wiping alone, n 21 healthy adult participants. A 10-s hot towel application increased the surface temperature of the skin (+0.5) and provided a perceived sensation of warmth and comfort. In contrast, dry wiping significantly decreased the surface skin temperature (-0.8). In conclusion, hot towel application increased skin surface temperature and improved subjective warmth and comfort during bed bathing.
Effect of van der Waals interactions on the stability of SiC polytypes
Sakiko Kawanishi,Teruyasu Mizoguchi
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Density functional theory calculations with a correction of the long-range dispersion force, namely the van der Waals (vdW) force, are performed for SiC polytypes. The lattice parameters are in good agreement with those obtained from experiments. Furthermore, the stability of the polytypes in the experiments, which show 3C-SiC as the most stable, are reproduced by the present calculations. The effect of the vdW force on the electronic structure and the stability of polytypes are discussed. We observe that the vdW interaction is more sensitive to the cubic site than the hexagonal site. Thus, the influence of the vdW force increases with decreasing the hexagonality of the polytype, which results in the confirmation that the most stable polytype is 3C-SiC.
Clinicopathological Characteristics of Basal Type Breast Cancer in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer  [PDF]
Goro Kutomi, Tousei Ohmura, Yasuyo Suzuki, Hidekazu Kameshima, Hiroaki Shima, Tomoko Takamaru, Fukino Satomi, Seiko Otokozawa, Mitsuru Mori, Koichi Hirata
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2012.325106
Abstract: Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is defined by the absence of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR) and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) expression. Patients with TNBC derive no benefit from molecularly targeted treatments, such as endocrine therapy or trastuzumab, as they lack the appropriate targets for these drugs. TNBC is characterized by its biological aggressiveness and poor prognosis, and consists of two subtypes, basal and nonbasal. The purpose of our study is to differentiate the clinicopathological characteristics of the two subtypes. Methods: 367 patients with primary breast cancer were recruited from April 2004 to December 2010 at 1st Department of Surgery, Sapporo Medical University. ER, PgR, and HER2 status were evaluated in all cases. Moreover, we classified TNBC into basal, nonbasal subtypes on the basis of immunohistochemical staining of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), cytokeratin (CK) 5/6. Basal type was defined as CK5/6-positive and/or EGFR-positive, and nonbasal type was defined as no expression of these two markers. Results: Breast cancer subtypes by molecular classification were Hormone receptor (HR)-positive/HER2-negative (61%), HR-positive/HER2-positive (10%), HR-negative/HER2-positive (14%), and HR-negative/HER2-negative (15%). There was no difference between the basal type and the nonbasal type in clinicopathological factors. But, the basal type was significantly associated with Ki67 labeling index (p=0.0002), p53 expression (p=0.047), and BRCA1 expression (p=0.03). Further, patients with the basal type TNBC showed a shorter overall survival (p=0.032) than did patients with the nonbasal type. Conclusion: Classification of TNBC subtypes by EGFR, CK5/6 is a very useful prognostic factor, and highlights the need for the development of an adequate new strategy for the basal type TNBC.
Myasthenia gravis in a professional cyclist—A case report  [PDF]
Hiroteru Hayashi, Hiroki Funasaki, Kentaro Kawai, Sakiko Ito, Keishi Marumo
Open Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation (OJTR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojtr.2013.12002
Abstract: Since myasthenia gravis affects the muscular system, athletes suffering from the disease often have difficulty in performing or returning to their sports activity, in which exertion of continuous muscular power is required. In this paper, we present a case of a professional bicycle rider with symptomatic MG who successfully return to his sport activity after thymectomy, steroid pulse therapy and aggressive rehabilitation. He resumed load training, returned to competitive cycling 8 months after leaving hospital while being on 20 mg PSL/day, and won seven victories in the top class cycling competitions. This is the first report on a professional athlete suffering from MG who successfully returned to competitive sports after aggressive steroid treatment.
Fabrication of Perovskite-Type Photovoltaic Devices with Polysilane Hole Transport Layers  [PDF]
Yasuhiro Shirahata, Takeo Oku, Sakiko Fukunishi, Kazufumi Kohno
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2017.82014
Abstract: Perovskite-type photovoltaic devices with polysilane hole transport layers were fabricated by a spin-coating method. In the present work, poly(methyl phenylsilane) (PMPS) and decaphenylcyclopentasilane (DPPS) were used as the hole transport layers. First, structural and optical properties of the PMPS and DPPS films were investigated, and the as-prepared PMPS and DPPS films were amorphous. Optical absorption spectra of the amorphous PMPS and DPPS showed some marked features due to the nature of polysilanes. Then, microstructures, optical and photovoltaic properties of the perovskite-type photovoltaic devices with polysilane hole transport layers were investigated. Current density-voltage characteristics and incident photon to current conversion efficiency of the photovoltaic devices with the polysilane layers showed different photovoltaic performance each other, attributed to molecular structures of the polysilanes and Si content in the present hole transport layers.
Health measurement using the ICF: Test-retest reliability study of ICF codes and qualifiers in geriatric care
Jiro Okochi, Sakiko Utsunomiya, Tai Takahashi
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-3-46
Abstract: Reliability of 85 body function (BF) items and 152 activity and participation (AP) items of the ICF was studied using a test-retest procedure with a sample of 742 elderly persons from 59 institutional and at home care service centers. Test-retest reliability was estimated using the weighted kappa statistic. The clinical relevance of the ICF was estimated by calculating immeasurability rate. The effect of the measurement settings and evaluators' experience was analyzed by stratification of these variables. The properties of each item were evaluated using both the kappa statistic and immeasurability rate to assess the clinical applicability of WHO's ICF checklist in the elderly care setting.The median of the weighted kappa statistics of 85 BF and 152 AP items were 0.46 and 0.55 respectively. The reproducibility statistics improved when the measurements were performed by experienced evaluators. Some chapters such as genitourinary and reproductive functions in the BF domain and major life area in the AP domain contained more items with lower test-retest reliability measures and rated as immeasurable than in the other chapters. Some items in the ICF checklist were rated as unreliable and immeasurable.The reliability of the ICF codes when measured with the current ICF qualifiers is relatively low. The result in increase in reliability according to evaluators' experience suggests proper education will have positive effects to raise the reliability. The ICF checklist contains some items that are difficult to be applied in the geriatric care settings. The improvements should be achieved by selecting the most relevant items for each measurement and by developing appropriate qualifiers for each code according to the interest of the users.The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) was published by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2001 to standardize descriptions of health and disability[1]. Not only has the ICF provided a conceptual frame
The relationship between body mass index, thickness of subcutaneous fat, and the gluteus muscle as the intramuscular injection site  [PDF]
Sakiko Sakamaki, Yuko Yasuhara, Kazushi Motoki, Kensaku Takase, Tetsuya Tanioka, Rozzano Locsin
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.59196

An intramuscular injection (IMI) is an injection given directly into the central area of a specific muscle. Certain medicines need to be administered by the gluteal route for these to be effective. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of body mass index (BMI), subcutaneous fat, and muscular thickness of the dorsogluteal IMI site among healthy Japanese women. There were 39 healthy female subjects who volunteered and met the criteria. Their ages ranged from 40s to 60s (50.82 ± 6.04). With the data collected using the B-mode ultrasound images of the dorsogluteal site, it was found that the distance from the epidermis to the under-fascia (DEUF) of the gluteus maximus was dissimilar between the subject’s right and left buttocks. It was found that the distance from the epidermis to the iliac bone (DEI) was significantly more on the right than on the left buttocks. In the case of an adult Japanese woman with a BMI of 21 or more, the DEUF of the gluteus medius was found to be about 30 mm, and the DEI was approximately 50 mm or more. Based on these findings, it is recommended that a needle length of 38 mm (1.5 inches) can be safely used to administer IMIs to the gluteus medius muscle to effectively and efficiently deliver medications through the IMI route.

Roles of Extension Officers to Promote Social Capital in Japanese Agricultural Communities
Kosuke Takemura, Yukiko Uchida, Sakiko Yoshikawa
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091975
Abstract: Social capital has been found to be correlated with community welfare, but it is not easy to build and maintain it. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the role of professional coordinators of social relationships to create and maintain social capital in a community. We focused on extension officers in Japanese agricultural communities, who help farmers in both technical and social matters. A large nation-wide survey of extension officers as well as two supplementary surveys were conducted. We found that (1) social capital-related activities (e.g., assistance for building organizations among farmers) were particularly effective for solving problems; (2) social capital (trust relationships) among community residents increased their life quality; (3) social capital in local communities was correlated with extension officers' own communication skills and harmonious relationships among their colleagues. In sum, social capital in local communities is maintained by coordinators with professional social skills.
Glutamate Receptor Homologs in Plants: Functions and Evolutionary Origins
Michelle Beth Price,John Jelesko,Sakiko Okumoto
Frontiers in Plant Science , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2012.00235
Abstract: The plant glutamate-like receptor homologs (GLRs) are homologs of mammalian ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) which were discovered more than 10 years ago, and are hypothesized to be potential amino acid sensors in plants. Although initial progress on this gene family has been hampered by gene redundancy and technical issues such as gene toxicity; genetic, pharmacological, and electrophysiological approaches are starting to uncover the functions of this protein family. In parallel, there has been tremendous progress in elucidating the structure of animal glutamate receptors (iGluRs), which in turn will help understanding of the molecular mechanisms of plant GLR functions. In this review, we will summarize recent progress on the plant GLRs. Emerging evidence implicates plant GLRs in various biological processes in and beyond N sensing, and implies that there is some overlap in the signaling mechanisms of amino acids between plants and animals. Phylogenetic analysis using iGluRs from metazoans, plants, and bacteria showed that the plant GLRs are no more closely related to metazoan iGluRs as they are to bacterial iGluRs, indicating the separation of plant, other eukaryotic, and bacterial GLRs might have happened as early on as the last universal common ancestor. Structural similarities and differences with animal iGluRs, and the implication thereof, are also discussed.
Effects of PBr3 Addition to Polysilane Thin Films on Structures and Photovoltaic Properties  [PDF]
Junya Nakagawa, Takeo Oku, Atsushi Suzuki, Tsuyoshi Akiyama, Masahiro Yamada, Sakiko Fukunishi, Kazufumi Kohno
Green and Sustainable Chemistry (GSC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/gsc.2017.71002
Abstract: Organic thin film solar cells are potential next generation solar cells. Many p-type semiconductors have been used in organic solar cells, but there have been far fewer reports involving n-type organic semiconductors. Developing new n-type organic semiconductors is therefore desirable. Polysilane thin films were spin-coated from solutions containing phosphorus (P), and the effects of P addition on film microstructures and electronic properties as n-type semiconductors were investigated. Microstructures of poly-methyl-phenyl-silane (PMPS), dimethyl-polysilane (DMPS) and deca-phenyl-penta-silane (DPPS) thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. PMPS thin films doped with P (PMPS(P)) were amorphous upon annealing at 300°C, while DMPS(P) and DPPS(P) thin films exhibited crystalline structures. PMPS(P) and DMPS(P) thin films exhibited decreased electrical resistances upon P doping. The energy gaps of PMPS(P), DMPS(P) and DPPS(P) were 3.5, 3.9 and 3.8 eV, respectively. Decreased photoluminescence intensities of PMPS, DMPS and DPPS were observed upon P doping. The desorption of phenyl and methyl groups from PMPS(P) thin films was observed from Raman scattering measurements. Solar cells containing polysilane(P)/poly[3-hexylthiophene] heterojunction structures were fabricated and exhibited photovoltaic behavior.
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