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OALib Journal期刊

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Overview on the Fungal Metabolites Involved in Mycopathy  [PDF]
Abdulkawi Ali Al-Fakih
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2014.41006
Abstract:
This review presents several types of metabolites produced by the most common fungal pathogens and their roles in fungal pathogenesis. Toxic metabolites from toxigenic fungi include compounds such as aflatoxins, trichothecenes, ochratoxins, fumonisins, zearalenone and ergot alkaloids, which display hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity and genotoxicity. The ability of fungi to produce and elaborate hydrolytic enzymes is associated with virulence of several pathogenic fungi. The biogenesis of siderophores is investigated as it is a mechanism of iron acquisition. In particular, these metabolites act as iron chelators and storage compounds to support pathogenic fungi to survive in mammalian hosts whose iron homeostasis is strictly regulated and prevent the formation of free radicals which are formed by free iron. Melanins clearly promote infectivity in a number of species of fungal pathogens. They interfere with oxidative metabolism of phagocytosis making the fungus relatively resistant to phagocyte attack. Several metabolies such as pullulan, mannitol, β-(1,3)-glucan, hem-binding proteins, estrogen-binding proteins, farnesol, agglutinin-like sequence proteins, glucuronoxylomannan and others also have advantages in fungal pathogenicity. The identification of fungal metabolites involved in pathogenesis, and recognition of mechanisms of pathogenesis may lead to development of new efficient anti-fungal therapies.
Biosorption of Ni2+ and Cd2+ from Aqueous Solutions Using NaOH-Treated Biomass of Eupenicillium ludwigii: Equilibrium and Mechanistic Studies  [PDF]
Abdulkawi Ali Al-Fakih
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2015.57038
Abstract: The removal of Ni2+ and Cd2+ ions by Eupenicillium ludwigii biomass was studied in a batch system. The optimum pH for the biosorption was 6 for Ni2+ and 5 for Cd2+. Temperature changes in the range from 15oC to 40oC affected the biosorption capacity, and the nature of the reaction was found to be endothermic for both metal ions. HCl was the best desorbing agent for the desorption of both metals. Chemical modifications of the biomass demonstrated that carboxyl and amine groups played an important role in Ni2+ and Cd2+ biosorption. Ion exchange mechanism was also suggested in the biosorption process.
Clinical and Histopathological Characteristics of Gastric Adenocarcinoma in Yemeni Patients: A 2 Years Prospective Study  [PDF]
Abdulgafoor Kassim, Saeed Thabet, Sadik Al-Fakih, Mohammed Alqobaty, Ramea Alathwary, Sana Ameen
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105075
Abstract:
Objectives: To study the clinical and the histopathological characteristics of gastric cancer concentrating more on the gastric adenocarcinoma. Design: Prospective study of one hundred thirty Yemeni patients confirmed with gastric malignancies during the period from July 2016 to July 2017. Setting: Specialized center of gastrointestinal and liver diseases in Ibb city, Yemen. Subjects: All patients with histopathologically proved gastric cancer. Results: We collect 130 patients with gastric cancer during the study period, they were 93 males and 37 females with age ranged between 25 years and 100 years and the mean age was 64.98 ± 15.15 years. The most frequent clinical presentations of our patients were epigastric pain (81.5%), weight loss (74.6%), dysphagia (46.9%), vomiting (49.2%), palpable epigastric mass (19.2%) and hematemesis/melena (20%). Proximally located gastric cancer represented 46.1%; 48.9% of males patients and 38.9% of females patients. Adenocarcinoma constituted 92.4%, of which the intestinal type was 82.5% and the diffuse type was 17.5%. Squamous cancer accounted in 1.5%, and the non-epithelial tumor was in 6.1%, of which 4.6% were lymphoma and 1.5% were GIST. Conclusion: Adenocarcinomas are the major histological type of gastric cancer and represent 92.4% of all gastric malignancies in which intestinal type represented 82.5% and diffuse type represented 17.5%, and proximally located gastric cancer within stomach was the commonest in both sexes.
The Use of Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors in Biomechanics and Rehabilitation Applications: The State-of-the-Art and Ongoing Research Topics
Ebrahim Al-Fakih,Noor Azuan Abu Osman,Faisal Rafiq Mahamd Adikan
Sensors , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/s121012890
Abstract: In recent years, fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are becoming increasingly attractive for sensing applications in biomechanics and rehabilitation engineering due to their advantageous properties like small size, light weight, biocompatibility, chemical inertness, multiplexing capability and immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI). They also offer a high-performance alternative to conventional technologies, either for measuring a variety of physical parameters or for performing high-sensitivity biochemical analysis. FBG-based sensors demonstrated their feasibility for specific sensing applications in aeronautic, automotive, civil engineering structure monitoring and undersea oil exploration; however, their use in the field of biomechanics and rehabilitation applications is very recent and its practicality for full-scale implementation has not yet been fully established. They could be used for detecting strain in bones, pressure mapping in orthopaedic joints, stresses in intervertebral discs, chest wall deformation, pressure distribution in Human Machine Interfaces (HMIs), forces induced by tendons and ligaments, angles between body segments during gait, and many others in dental biomechanics. This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of all the possible applications of FBG sensing technology in biomechanics and rehabilitation and the status of ongoing researches up-to-date all over the world, demonstrating the FBG advances over other existing technologies.
The Capability of Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors to Measure Amputees’ Trans-Tibial Stump/Socket Interface Pressures
Ebrahim A. Al-Fakih,Noor Azuan Abu Osman,Arezoo Eshraghi,Faisal Rafiq Mahamd Adikan
Sensors , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/s130810348
Abstract: This study presents the first investigation into the capability of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors to measure interface pressure between the stump and the prosthetic sockets of a trans-tibial amputee. FBG element(s) were recoated with and embedded in a thin layer of epoxy material to form a sensing pad, which was in turn embedded in a silicone polymer material to form a pressure sensor. The sensor was tested in real time by inserting a heavy-duty balloon into the socket and inflating it by using an air compressor. This test was conducted to examine the sensitivity and repeatability of the sensor when subjected to pressure from the stump of the trans-tibial amputee and to mimic the actual environment of the amputee’s Patellar Tendon (PT) bar. The sensor exhibited a sensitivity of 127 pm/N and a maximum FSO hysteresis of around ~0.09 in real-time operation. Very good reliability was achieved when the sensor was utilized for in situ measurements. This study may lead to smart FBG-based amputee stump/socket structures for pressure monitoring in amputee socket systems, which will result in better-designed prosthetic sockets that ensure improved patient satisfaction.
Low Complexity Discrete Bit-loading for OFDM Systems with Application in Power Line Communications  [PDF]
Khalifa S. Al-Mawali, Amin Z. Sadik, Zahir M. Hussain
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2011.46043
Abstract: Adaptive bit-loading algorithms can improve the performance of OFDM systems significantly. The tradeoff between the performance of the algorithm and its computational complexity is essential for the implementation of loading algorithms. In this paper, we present a low complexity non-iterative discrete bit-loading algorithm to maximize the data rate subject to specified target BER and uniform power allocation. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the equal-BER loading and achieves similar rates to incremental allocation, yet with much lower complexity.
Third Order Optical Nonlinearities of C450 Doped Polymer Thin Film Investigated by the Z-Scan  [PDF]
Zainab S. Sadik, Dhia H. Al-Amiedy, Amal F. Jaffar
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry (AMPC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ampc.2012.21007
Abstract: In the present work, z-scan technique was used to study the nonlinear properties, represented by nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient for Coumarin 450 (C450) doped PMMA as a function of concentration for two different solvents. The results show change of the effect from self-focusing to self-defocusing in closed aperture z-can (or change of the effect from two photon absorption to saturable absorption in open aperture z-scan), when the sample dissolved in low viscosity and more polar solvent
Public perception of mental health in Iraq
Sabah Sadik, Marie Bradley, Saad Al-Hasoon, Rachel Jenkins
International Journal of Mental Health Systems , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1752-4458-4-26
Abstract: We aimed to assess public attitudes and perceptions to mental illness. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire (additional file 1), which was designed specifically for Iraqi contexts and was made available in 2 languages. The survey was carried out in 500 participants' homes across 2 districts of Baghdad.The response rate of the survey was 86.4%. The paper shows respondents views on the aetiology of mental illness, perceptions of people with mental illness and attitudes towards care and treatment of people with mental illness.This survey of public attitudes towards mental illness in Iraq has shown that community opinion about the aetiology of mental illness is broadly compatible with scientific evidence, but understanding of the nature of mental illness, its implications for social participation and management remains negative in general.Across the world, people with mental health problems, mental health services, mental health professionals and even the very concept of mental health receive negative publicity and are stigmatised in public perceptions [1,2], despite growing evidence of the importance of mental health for economic, social and human capital. Indeed the concept of mental capital for countries has recently been described [1]. Therefore increasing efforts are being made to challenge this negative publicity and stigma through anti-stigma campaigns, public education through schools, and the media etc [3].Iraq is a Middle Eastern country of 30 Million largely Moslem population who have lived through extremely difficult conditions for many years, including physical privations, political repression and prolonged conflict. Mental health services in Iraq have historically been highly centralised in urban areas and hospital based, with 1 psychiatrist per 300,000 before 2003 falling to 1 per million until recently [4]. General primary health care services are relatively sparsely distributed, with 1 primary care centre (40 Healthcare Workers including
Conservative corporatist: Nationalist thoughts of aristocrats: The ideas of Soetatmo Soeriokoesoemo and Noto Soeroto
Farabi Fakih
Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde , 2013,
Abstract: Javanese nationalism was one of the earliest nationalist thoughts to have arisen in the colony. It later bifurcated into two discourses: a leftist-inspired, revolutionary minded nationalism and a conservative, aristocratic-based Javanese nationalism based on the idea of cultural rejuvenation. Indonesian nationalism was a composite of a variety of nationalist discourses that appeared in the early twentieth century, yet present day nationalist historiography dismisses and camouflaged the influence of the conservative, feudal-minded discourse of Javanese aristocratic nationalists. The paper looks into the thoughts of two aristocratic conservative, Soetatmo Soeriokoesoemo and Noto Soeroto, and highlight the major thoughts within the conservative discourse. It points to the possible conservative origin of some of the components that represent present-day Indonesian nationalism and stress the need to understand further the intertwined and trans-ideological nature of Indonesian nationalism.
Synthesis and Investigation of Phenol Red Dye Doped Polymer Films  [PDF]
Imad Al-Deen Hussein A. Al-Saidi, Faisal Sadik
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry (AMPC) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ampc.2016.65013
Abstract: The optical properties of the pure polymer film and polymer films doped with Phenol Red dye at different concentrations were investigated. The films were prepared using the casting technique. Poly (methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) polymer was doped with the Phenol Red dye dissolved in a mixture of chloroform and little quantity of methanol, used as suitable solvent for both the dye and the polymer. The spectral absorption measurements of these films were carried out at different dye concentrations using UV-Vis double-beam spectrophotometer in the wavelength range 300 - 800 nm. The optical parameters of the prepared Phenol Red dye doped polymer films, absorption coefficient (α), extinction coefficient (κ), refractive index (n), optical and electrical conductivities (σopt and σelect), and optical energy band gap (Eg), were determined. The results showed that the Phenol Red dye doped polymer film is a good candidate for photonic applications such as, solar cells, optical sensors, and other photonic devices.
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