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The biopesticide was
prepared from locally available low cost ingredients: dried beef blood,
molasses and mineral salts (ZnCl2, MgCl2, MnCl2,
CaCl2CaCl2, and FeCl3) which were used as medium
for the laboratory scale production of Bacillus
thuringiensis (B.t.) bio-pesticide by shake flask technique.
Indigenous B.t. isolate PA-Sb- 46.3
which produced two crystals—bi-pyramidal and cuboidal was found 73.6 times
toxic against H. armigera than
reference strain Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (HD-I-S-1980) used. Medium
was fermented for 72 hours at 30℃ ± 2℃ and 160 rpm. 72 h fermented medium
showed 95% - 99% sprulation, with spore yield of 3.97 × 109 spores/ml, and LC50 value to 1st instar larvae of H. armigera was 0.53 μg/ml diet.
Preservatives and diluents used in the biopesticide were found to be effective
to store at room temperature over a period of 30 months. These observations suggested
that the biopesticide produced was effective and highly economical for the industrial
scale production to manage H. armigera in
Nutritional value of vegetables and high prices of meat and meat originated food compel common people to consume plant originated food particularly salad vegetables. Microbial population of vegetable surfaces contains a large number of pathogenic bacteria including members of Enterobactereace like Escherichia coli (E. coli). A survey was conducted in three major markets of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Tomato, lettuce, cabbage and cucumber samples were collected from three shops of each market. Each vegetable was analysed as unwashed and washed for total coliforms, faecal coliforms and E. coli by FAO (Food Quality Manual). About two hundred and fifty E. coli isolates were preserved, serotyped for presence of O157 serotype. Total coliforms, faecal coliforms and E. coli count exceeded the permissible limits in most samples. The highest Total coliforms were associated with cabbage (3.78 log10 cfu/g). Cucumber was the least contaminated by Total coliforms (2.15 log10 cfu/g). E. coli was detected in tomato, lettuce, cucumber and cabbage. Washed samples showed reduced bacterial population. Seventy six isolates of E. coli were biochemically characterized and serotyped for O157 antigen. A majority of strains could not be identified by serotyping. These findings conclude with high potentially pathogenic microbial load on salad vegetables and urge for preventive action on priority basis.
This paper presents the impact of mean maximum temperature on Chitral river basin situated at Chitral district and high altitude (>6000 m) peaks of the Hindukush range under changing climate in Pakistan. The analysis of Chitral River as one of the tributary of Kabul River—the second largest river of Pakistan—revealed that change in temperature has a profound influence on the snow/glacial melt in comparison to the mean monthly rainfall. This is because the studied river is faded by the snow and glacial melt and receives a lot of snowfall from winter (DecFeb) to pre-monsoon (April-May). In monsoon period (Jul-Sep), 30% of the time the discharge rate remains above the mean while 60% of the time the discharge is less than the mean in the pre-monsoon (April-May) period. It means that 10% of the time the discharge is in reach of 300% to 900% of the mean flow, showing a rise in water yield and river discharge rate due to increase in mean monthly maximum temperature. Due to this significant increase (p < 0.05), the glaciers start melting faster and disappear in early summer, hence, reducing their residency period to convert into ice. This shows the signals of changing climate transfer into hydrological changes in Pakistan. Our findings are important for agriculture, hydropower and water management sectors for future planning especially in dry season for sustainable food security and for operation of ydrological installations in the country.
Nitrogen and sulfur supplies have a strong influence on the physical characteristics of crop as well as on the quality and quantity of wheat storage proteins, which play an important role in bread-making process. In order to evaluate the contribution of soil and foliar fertilization of nitrogen and sulfur on physiological and quality assessment of wheat, a field trail was carried out having randomized complete block design with four replications and eight different treatments of nitrogen and sulfur combinations were allotted to plots at different growth stages. Results indicated that highest protein content (12.82%), maximum moisture content (10.9%), maximum crop growth rate and maximum absolute growth rate were recorded when the wheat crop was fertilized with T8 [Nitrogen @ 60 kg·ha-1 at sowing + 40 kg·ha-1 at tillering + 10 kg·ha-1 at anthesis (spray) + 10 kg·ha-1 after anthesis (spray)] + [Sulfur @ 15 kg·ha-1 at sowing + 10 kg·ha-1 at anthesis (spray) + 5 kg·ha-1 after anthesis (spray)], while control practice resulted low moisture content, low protein, minimum crop growth rate and low absolute growth rate. Among physiological components of wheat cultivars, leaf area index was enhanced when fertilization was done with T5 (Sulfur @ 15 kg·ha-1 at sowing + 10 kg