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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1856 matches for " Sadia Alam "
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Production of low cost Bacillus thuringiensis based-biopesticide for management of chickpea pod-borer Helicoverpa armigera (Huebn) in Pakistan  [PDF]
Abida Bibi, Khalique Ahmed, Najma Ayub, Sadia Alam
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.511140

The biopesticide was prepared from locally available low cost ingredients: dried beef blood, molasses and mineral salts (ZnCl2, MgCl2, MnCl2, CaCl2CaCl2, and FeCl3) which were used as medium for the laboratory scale production of Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) bio-pesticide by shake flask technique. Indigenous B.t. isolate PA-Sb- 46.3 which produced two crystals—bi-pyramidal and cuboidal was found 73.6 times toxic against H. armigera than reference strain Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (HD-I-S-1980) used. Medium was fermented for 72 hours at 30℃ ± 2℃ and 160 rpm. 72 h fermented medium showed 95% - 99% sprulation, with spore yield of 3.97 × 109 spores/ml, and LC50 value to 1st instar larvae of H. armigera was 0.53 μg/ml diet. Preservatives and diluents used in the biopesticide were found to be effective to store at room temperature over a period of 30 months. These observations suggested that the biopesticide produced was effective and highly economical for the industrial scale production to manage H. armigera in Pakistan.

Energy Metabolism and Allocation in Selfish Immune System and Brain: A Beneficial Role of Insulin Resistance in Aging  [PDF]
Ali Almajwal, Iftikhar Alam, Falak Zeb, Sadia Fatima
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2019.101006
Abstract: There is relatively limited knowledge concerning our understanding of how our immune system and brain take most of the available energy in a selfish manner to compensate for their own needs on priority in high energy demanding situations. The main objective of this review is to understand the energy allocation to immune system and brain in infections and/or fight or flight situations. The immune system and brain behave in a selfish manner as they allocate themselves majority of the total available energy. Insulin resistance (IR) is used as a tool for energy allocation by these systems. The immune system is activated as a response to stress and infection. Similarly, the brain gets activated as a response to any external environmental impulse, anxiety, and/or mental factor. These situations need to be dealt in a way to minimize their adverse health effects. The immune system and the brain in such situations need enormous energy for activation which is derived from the energy quota otherwise allocated to other organs. This maximum flux of energy towards these systems is achieved by making rest of the organs less responsive to insulin, a condition known as IR. As immune system and brain do not depend upon insulin for uptake of glucose, these systems are benefited from IR. IR is indicated as a beneficial role ensuring maximum energy allocation to these systems for improving health and well-being.
Prevelance of total coliforms, faecal coliforms and E. coli in Rawalpindi vegetable markets  [PDF]
Sadia Alam, Samina Khalil, Najma Ayub, Abida Bibi, Beena Saeed, Salma Khalid, Sumaira Siddiq
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.512158

Nutritional value of vegetables and high prices of meat and meat originated food compel common people to consume plant originated food particularly salad vegetables. Microbial population of vegetable surfaces contains a large number of pathogenic bacteria including members of Enterobactereace like Escherichia coli (E. coli). A survey was conducted in three major markets of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Tomato, lettuce, cabbage and cucumber samples were collected from three shops of each market. Each vegetable was analysed as unwashed and washed for total coliforms, faecal coliforms and E. coli by FAO (Food Quality Manual). About two hundred and fifty E. coli isolates were preserved, serotyped for presence of O157 serotype. Total coliforms, faecal coliforms and E. coli count exceeded the permissible limits in most samples. The highest Total coliforms were associated with cabbage (3.78 log10 cfu/g). Cucumber was the least contaminated by Total coliforms (2.15 log10 cfu/g). E. coli was detected in tomato, lettuce, cucumber and cabbage. Washed samples showed reduced bacterial population. Seventy six isolates of E. coli were biochemically characterized and serotyped for O157 antigen. A majority of strains could not be identified by serotyping. These findings conclude with high potentially pathogenic microbial load on salad vegetables and urge for preventive action on priority basis.

Hydro-meteorological characteristics of Chitral River basin at the peak of the Hindukush range  [PDF]
Salma Khalid, Shafiq Ur Rehman, Syed Mushtaq Ali Shah, Alia Naz, Beena Saeed, Sadia Alam, Farman Ali, Hasina Gul
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.59120

This paper presents the impact of mean maximum temperature on Chitral river basin situated at Chitral district and high altitude (>6000 m) peaks of the Hindukush range under changing climate in Pakistan. The analysis of Chitral River as one of the tributary of Kabul River—the second largest river of Pakistan—revealed that change in temperature has a profound influence on the snow/glacial melt in comparison to the mean monthly rainfall. This is because the studied river is faded by the snow and glacial melt and receives a lot of snowfall from winter (DecFeb) to pre-monsoon (April-May). In monsoon period (Jul-Sep), 30% of the time the discharge rate remains above the mean while 60% of the time the discharge is less than the mean in the pre-monsoon (April-May) period. It means that 10% of the time the discharge is in reach of 300% to 900% of the mean flow, showing a rise in water yield and river discharge rate due to increase in mean monthly maximum temperature. Due to this significant increase (p < 0.05), the glaciers start melting faster and disappear in early summer, hence, reducing their residency period to convert into ice. This shows the signals of changing climate transfer into hydrological changes in Pakistan. Our findings are important for agriculture, hydropower and water management sectors for future planning especially in dry season for sustainable food security and for operation of ydrological installations in the country.

Organic Acids Production and Phosphate Solubilization by Phosphate Solubilizing Microorganisms (PSM) Under in vitro Conditions
Maliha Rashid,Samina Khalil,Najma Ayub,Sadia Alam
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: After screening a large number of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) isolated from rice rhizosphere on the basis of solubilization index (SI) and pH drop ten best bacterial strains (10RB, 54RB, 57RB, 20RB, 21RB, 23RB, 22RB, 13RB, 20RB, 40RB) and three best fungal strains {(Aspergillus flavus(1RF), Penicillium canescens(4RF), A. niger (8RF)}were further analyzed for their acid production ability using HPLC technique. SI of 13 best isolates ranged from 2.16-6.23. SI and change of pH of these isolates showed abrupt changes during seven days of incubation in Pikovskayas agar and broth medium respectively. This drop of pH clearly indicated the production of organic acids. HPLC results confirmed that few PSM isolates produced gluconic, fumaric, succinic, acetic and some unknown organic acids in smaller concentrations while oxalic and citric acids in larger concentrations in their broth medium. Among bacterial strains 10RB produced largest amount of organic acids (2.4747 g-l) while among fungal isolates Aspergillus flavus produced greatest amount of acids (1.835 g-l) than the other two fungal strain. The concentration of glucose when analyzed during HPLC was found less in all the cultural samples as compared to the control (13 g-l) that was without any PSM culture. This shows that all the PSM strains utilized the carbon of glucose for the production of organic acids. The abilities of these efficient strains for phosphorus (P) solubilization and immobilization were also quantitatively investigated in Pikovskayas broth medium. The results showed that all the strains solubilized (0.04-0.1%) and immobilized (0.1-0.4%) P but fungi immobilized more P than bacteria. Correlation among all the parameters showed a positive(r = 0.2, P<0.1) correlation between the organic acid excretion and P solubilization and a negative correlation was found between pH and P solubilization (r =-0.4, P<0.1) and immobilization (r=-0.5, P<0.05).
Correlation of Economically Important Traits in Sorghum bicolor Varieties
Sadia Alam,Asghar Ali,I.A. Qamar,M. Arshad
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2001,
Abstract: The present project was aimed to determine the correlation coefficients among different economically important traits using three varieties of Sorghum bicolor, and to ascertain the best combinations of characters to provide an ease to the breeders for improving those characters to improve biomass and yield. The sorghum varieties were PARC SS-1, PARC SS-2, and Pothwar 3-9 as control. The experiment was planted in July, 1998 at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 3 replications. The plant observations were recorded from five earmarked plants in each plot and replication. The characters for observations were plant height, panicle length, 100-seed weight, number of grains/plant, days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, grain yield, stover yield and total dry matter (TDM). All traits were positively highly significantly (P<0.01) correlated with one another and yield. These findings indicate great scope for improvement in sorghum yield by improving the traits of 100-seed weight, panicle length, plant height and days to 50% flowering which are important yield components.
Contribution of soil and foliar fertilization of nitrogen and sulfur on physiological and quality assessment of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)  [PDF]
Beena Saeed, Hasina Gul, Farman Ali, Amir Zaman Khan, Shazma Anwar, Nasrullah  , Sadia Alam, Salma Khalid, Alia Naz, Hina Fayyaz, Azra  
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.59125

Nitrogen and sulfur supplies have a strong influence on the physical characteristics of crop as well as on the quality and quantity of wheat storage proteins, which play an important role in bread-making process. In order to evaluate the contribution of soil and foliar fertilization of nitrogen and sulfur on physiological and quality assessment of wheat, a field trail was carried out having randomized complete block design with four replications and eight different treatments of nitrogen and sulfur combinations were allotted to plots at different growth stages. Results indicated that highest protein content (12.82%), maximum moisture content (10.9%), maximum crop growth rate and maximum absolute growth rate were recorded when the wheat crop was fertilized with T8 [Nitrogen @ 60 kg·ha-1 at sowing + 40 kg·ha-1 at tillering + 10 kg·ha-1 at anthesis (spray) + 10 kg·ha-1 after anthesis (spray)] + [Sulfur @ 15 kg·ha-1 at sowing + 10 kg·ha-1 at anthesis (spray) + 5 kg·ha-1 after anthesis (spray)], while control practice resulted low moisture content, low protein, minimum crop growth rate and low absolute growth rate. Among physiological components of wheat cultivars, leaf area index was enhanced when fertilization was done with T5 (Sulfur @ 15 kg·ha-1 at sowing + 10 kg

Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb.) Miq., Rubiaceae, extract shows hypoglycemic effect and eases oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats
Mohammad A. Alam,Nusrat Subhan,Sadia A. Chowdhury,Mohammad A. Awal
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2011,
Abstract: The hydroethanolic extract of the flowering tops of Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb.) Miq., Rubiaceae, a Bangladeshi medicinal plant, was studied for its potential hypoglycemic effect and antioxidant property in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The extract induced significant reduction in serum glucose, and transaminases, e.g. aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatases (ALP), activities. Significant changes in the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), peroxidase and catalase levels during the experimental period were also observed. The results established that the hydroethanolic extract of the flowering tops of A. cadamba possesses hypoglycemic property and is able to protect liver and brain from oxidative damages caused by diabetes.
Molecular Characterization of Circulating Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Genotypes in Gilgit Baltistan Province of Pakistan during 2011-2012 Winter Season
Uzma Bashir Aamir, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Hajra Sadia, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi, Birjees Mazher Kazi
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074018
Abstract: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections in young children, but very little is known about its epidemiology and circulating genotypes in Pakistan. This study analyzed the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of RSV genotypes detected in Pakistani children less than 2 years of age with acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) in a tertiary care hospital in Gilgit Baltistan (GB) province during 2011-12 winter season. RSV was detected in 75 out of 105 children presenting with acute respiratory infection. Male infants between 2-6 months age made up the highest percentage of RSV positive cases. Epidemiological factors such as pre-maturity, mean weight, clinical features and diagnosis when compared between RSV positive and negative groups were found to be statistically insignificant. Phylogenetic analysis classified all 75 of the RSV strains into 71 strains of subgroups A and 4 strains of subgroup B, respectively. Strains belonging to subgroups A and B were further subdivided into NA1/GA2 and BA, respectively. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence identities were relatively high among these strains (>90%). Both RSV-A and RSV-B isolates had two potential N-glycosylation sites in HVR2 of G protein and with heavy O-glycosylation of serine and threonine residues (G scores of 0.5-0.7). This report highlights the significance of RSV as a dominant viral etiologic agent of pediatric ARIs, and need for continued molecular epidemiological surveys for early detection of prevalent strains and newly emerging genotypes to understand epidemiology of RSV infections in various regions of Pakistan.
Elevated Chemerin Levels in Pakistani Men: An Interrelation with Metabolic Syndrome Phenotypes
Syeda Sadia Fatima, Kiymet Bozaoglu, Rehana Rehman, Faiza Alam, Abdul Shakoor Memon
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057113
Abstract: Chemerin is a novel protein linked to adipocyte differentiation and the development of metabolic imbalances. We sought to examine the relationship of chemerin with metabolic syndrome disturbances including body fat percentage, serum lipid, glucose, insulin levels and body fat percentage in lean and obese volunteers. A cross-sectional study of 90 randomly selected healthy males from Pakistan were divided into three groups as per Body Mass Index (BMI) criteria for South Asian Population. Anthropometric measurements were taken for BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference and body fat percentage, while serum analyses were performed for fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, fasting lipid profile and serum chemerin. Associations between serum chemerin levels and body fat and other metabolic syndrome parameters were performed using ANOVA and multiple regression analyses. Data was presented as Mean±SD. In all statistical analyses p-values <0.05 were considered significant. Circulating chemerin levels were significantly higher in obese subjects with BMI greater than 25 kg/m2 compared with those with a BMI below 25 kg/m2 (P = 0.001). Serum chemerin levels were found to be independently and significantly associated with serum levels of cholesterol (P = 0.0160; r = 0.255), fasting glucose (P = 0.002; r = 0.323), HOMA-IR (P = 0.004; r = 0.300) and hip circumference (P = 0.021; r = 0.246). This demonstrates that chemerin levels are associated with obesity and dyslipidemia and may play a role in the development of insulin resistance. This data suggests that chemerin may serve as an independent marker in diagnosing these conditions even before they become clinically symptomatic.
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