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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 532 matches for " Sachiko Hoshino "
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Bacterial ArtA protein specifically binds to the internal region of IS1 in vitro  [PDF]
Sachiko Matsutani
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2012.37108
Abstract: The internal region of bacterial translocatable IS1 acts as a cis-element to stimulate transcription from the various promoters located upstream. The product of the artA gene is genetically shown to stimulate transcription with the cis-element. Here, a codon-optimized artA gene was synthesized and cloned to express the ArtA protein. ArtA was purified as the Histagged protein. Nitrocellulose filter binding assay showed that ArtA specifically binds to the IS1 internal region. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay also showed specific binding of ArtA to the IS1 internal region. These results imply that ArtA directly binds to the IS1 internal region and stimulates transcription.
Beta-synemin expression in cardiotoxin-injected rat skeletal muscle
Yuji Mizuno, Jeffrey R Guyon, Akiko Ishii, Sachiko Hoshino, Norio Ohkoshi, Akira Tamaoka, Koichi Okamoto, Louis M Kunkel
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-8-40
Abstract: The two α-dystrobrevin isoforms (-1 and -2) and β-synemin were localized in regenerating rat tibialis anterior muscle using immunoprecipitation, immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses. Immunoprecipitation and co-localization studies for α-dystrobrevin and β-synemin were performed in regenerating muscle following cardiotoxin injection. Protein expression was then compared to that of developing rat muscle using immunoblot analysis.With an anti-α-dystrobrevin antibody, β-synemin co-immunoprecipitated with α-dystrobrevin whereas with an anti-β-synemin antibody, α-dystrobrevin-1 (rather than the -2 isoform) preferentially co-immunoprecipitated with β-synemin. Immunohistochemical experiments show that β-synemin and α-dystrobrevin co-localize in rat skeletal muscle. In regenerating muscle, β-synemin is first expressed at the sarcolemma and in the cytoplasm at day 5 following cardiotoxin injection. Similarly, β-synemin and α-dystrobrevin-1 are detected by immunoblot analysis as weak bands by day 7. In contrast, immunoblot analysis shows that α-dystrobrevin-2 is expressed as early as 1 day post-injection in regenerating muscle. These results are similar to that of developing muscle. For example, in embryonic rats, immunoblot analysis shows that β-synemin and α-dystrobevin-1 are weakly expressed in developing lower limb muscle at 5 days post-birth, while α-dystrobrevin-2 is detectable before birth in 20-day post-fertilization embryos.Our results clearly show that β-synemin expression correlates with that of α-dystrobrevin-1, suggesting that β-synemin preferentially functions with α-dystrobrevin-1 in vivo and that these proteins are likely to function coordinately to play a vital role in developing and regenerating muscle.Synemin is a muscle intermediate filament protein that was originally identified in chickens [1]. Recently, human α- and β-synemin orthologues have been cloned [2,3], the latter of which was previously termed human desmuslin [2]. Both human synemin isofo
Effect of Dehydrated Digested Effluent of Manure on Yield and Quality of Annual Forages and Soil Chemical Properties in Southern Kyushu, Japan  [PDF]
Sachiko Idota, Yasuyuki Ishii
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/as.2014.510090
Abstract:

Digested effluent of manure (DEM) produced by biogas-plants contains many macro- and micro-nutrients. In an experiment conducted in southern Kyushu (Japan), forage crops cultivated after receiving DEM and chemical fertilizers exhibited similar dry matter yields. From a logistical standpoint, however, DEM in liquid form is difficult to handle and apply due to the low concentration of nutrients. To overcome this shortcoming, we prepared dehydrated DEM (DDEM) by adding DEM to cattle manure without disturbing the manure fermentation process. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of DDEM on dry matter yield and nitrogen recovery rate in annual dual-cropping systems (summer crop of maize or sorghum and winter crop of Italian ryegrass) that are typical of the region and to compare these results to commercial cattle manure alone, in combination with chemical fertilizer (CM or CM + CF), or no fertilizer application (NF). In both cropping systems, the DDEM treatment produced similar dry matter yields (2.6 to 3.02 kg·m-2) and apparent nitrogen recovery rates (43% to 53%) as the CM + CF and CM treatments. This suggests that DDEM can potentially replace chemical fertilizers and commercial cattle manure in the region.

Modulatory Effect of Motivation on the Association of Trait Anxiety and Cognitive Performance: A Pupillometric Study  [PDF]
Takatoshi Hoshino, Yoshihiko Tanno
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2017.77020
Abstract: The attentional control theory (ACT) proposes that trait anxiety disrupts functional efficiency of executive control of attention relating to working memory system such as shifting. ACT also emphasizes the modulatory role of motivation in anxiety on cognitive task performance. The present study investigated the association of trait anxiety-related inefficiencies in attentional shift and working memory performance in conjunction with the level of motivation. A variation of complex span paradigm is designed to systematically manipulate the time constraint on shifting attentional focus back and forth between working memory contents and processing task was used in this study. In the experiment, participants high and low in trait anxiety were allocated either high or low motivation induction conditions, and performed a series of complex span tasks. They also completed a state anxiety measure before and after the experimental task. Motivational states were assessed by the pupil dilation, which is known to reflect the amount of cognitive effort invested on the task at hand. Results showed that, only in low motivation condition, high trait-anxious individuals exhibited greater difficulty, relative to those low in trait anxiety, in maintaining working memory contents as the task demand increased. State anxiety showed no relation to working memory performance regardless of the level of motivation and task demands. Pupillary responses revealed that, in high motivational state, high trait-anxious individuals invested more effort than those low in trait anxiety when the task demand was low, F(1, 132) = 6.65, p = 0.0110, to moderate, F(1, 132) = 8.441, p = 0.00043. In accordance with ACT, these findings suggest that motivation can modulate the association between trait anxiety and cognitive performance along with the levels of task demand. Clinical implication is briefly discussed.
The Organization of the Senses of Polysemy in Japanese EFL Learners’ Mental Lexicon  [PDF]
Yuko Hoshino, Haruka Shimizu
Creative Education (CE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2018.93025
Abstract: The structure of the mental lexicon has been widely researched, but few studies focusing on polysemy have been conducted, even in an L1 (a learner’s first language) context, and almost no research has been conducted in an L2 (a learner’s second language) context. The current study aims to scrutinize how the different vocabulary size groups of Japanese EFL learners classify the various senses of basic polysemous words and to compare their categorization with sense classification based on a linguistic dictionary. The results indicated that those with an estimated vocabulary size consisting of 5500 words or over (hereafter, the upper group) classified senses in a more similar way to the dictionary than those whose vocabulary size comprised 5000 or fewer words (hereafter, the lower group). This was despite the fact that they both understood the target context well and the number of categorizations created was almost the same between the two groups. Moreover, the upper group tended to classify the senses of polysemy in a more similar way to the other participants in the same vocabulary group, while the lower group’s categorization was more divergent and less well-organized. These findings indicated that even though the participants understood each sense, the difference appeared in the ability to categorize the senses, suggesting that grouping the senses needs knowledge different from simply understanding them, and this knowledge is not yet fully developed even for basic words.
Links Between Repeated Sequences
Sachiko Matsutani
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2006, DOI: 10.1155/jbb/2006/13569
Abstract: L1 and Alu elements are long and short interspersed retrotransposable elements (LINEs and SINEs) in humans, respectively. Proteins encoded in the autonomous L1 mediate retrotransposition of the nonautonomous Alu and cellular mRNAs. Alu is the only active SINE in the human genome and is derived from 7SL RNA of signal recognition particle. In the other eukaryotic genomes, various tRNA- and 5S rRNA-derived SINEs are found. Some of the tRNA- and 5S rRNA-derived SINEs have partner LINEs of which 3' sequences are similar to those of the SINEs. One of the tRNA-derived SINEs is shown to be mobilized by its partner LINE. Many copies of tRNA and 5S rRNA pseudogenes are present in the human genome. These pseudogenes may have been generated via the retrotransposition process using L1 proteins. Although there are no sequence similarities between L1 and Alu, L1 functionally links with Alu and even cellular genes, impacting on our genome shaping.
Secondary Leukemia Associated with the Anti-Cancer Agent, Etoposide, a Topoisomerase II Inhibitor
Sachiko Ezoe
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph9072444
Abstract: Etoposide is an anticancer agent, which is successfully and extensively used in treatments for various types of cancers in children and adults. However, due to the increases in survival and overall cure rate of cancer patients, interest has arisen on the potential risk of this agent for therapy-related secondary leukemia. Topoisomerase II inhibitors, including etoposide and teniposide, frequently cause rearrangements involving the mixed lineage leukemia ( MLL) gene on chromosome 11q23, which is associated with secondary leukemia. The prognosis is extremely poor for leukemias associated with rearrangements in the MLL gene, including etoposide-related secondary leukemias. It is of great importance to gain precise knowledge of the clinical aspects of these diseases and the mechanism underlying the leukemogenesis induced by this agent to ensure correct assessments of current and future therapy strategies. Here, I will review current knowledge regarding the clinical aspects of etoposide-related secondary leukemia, some probable mechanisms, and strategies for treating etoposide-induced leukemia.
Similarities in transcription factor IIIC subunits that bind to the posterior regions of internal promoters for RNA polymerase III
Sachiko Matsutani
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-4-26
Abstract: Here, I reported the results of PSI-BLAST searches using the B-block binding subunits of human and Shizosacchromyces pombe as queries, showing that the same Arabidopsis proteins were hit with low E-values in both searches. Comparison of the convergent iterative alignments obtained by these PSI-BLAST searches revealed that the vertebrate, yeast, and Arabidopsis proteins have similarities in their N-terminal one-third regions. In these regions, there were three domains with conserved sequence similarities, one located in the N-terminal end region. The N-terminal end region of the B-block binding subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is tentatively identified as a HMG box, which is the DNA binding motif. Although I compared the alignment of the N-terminal end regions of the B-block binding subunits, and their homologs, with that of the HMG boxes, it is not clear whether they are related.Molecular phylogenetic analyses using the small subunit rRNA and ubiquitous proteins like actin and α-tubulin, show that fungi are more closely related to animals than either is to plants. Interestingly, the results obtained in this study show that, with respect to the B-block binding subunits of TFIIICs, animals appear to be evolutionarily closer to plants than to fungi.Phylogenetic relationships among animals, fungi, and plants have been a controversial issue. Although fungi traditionally had been considered more closely related to plants than to animals, Whittaker and Margulis [1] classified the fungi as a separate kingdom in their five-kingdom classification: the three major multicellular groups of animals, fungi, and green plants were each given the status of kingdoms derived from different protistan lineages of uncertain affinities. With the determination of the primary structures of homologous macromolecules in various organisms, spanning several kingdoms, molecular phylogenetic techniques resulted in new hypotheses about the relationships among eukaryotes. Small subunit rRNA, and
Links Between Repeated Sequences
Sachiko Matsutani
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2006,
Abstract: L1 and Alu elements are long and short interspersed retrotransposable elements (LINEs and SINEs) in humans, respectively. Proteins encoded in the autonomous L1 mediate retrotransposition of the nonautonomous Alu and cellular mRNAs. Alu is the only active SINE in the human genome and is derived from 7SL RNA of signal recognition particle. In the other eukaryotic genomes, various tRNA- and 5S rRNA-derived SINEs are found. Some of the tRNA- and 5S rRNA-derived SINEs have partner LINEs of which 3' sequences are similar to those of the SINEs. One of the tRNA-derived SINEs is shown to be mobilized by its partner LINE. Many copies of tRNA and 5S rRNA pseudogenes are present in the human genome. These pseudogenes may have been generated via the retrotransposition process using L1 proteins. Although there are no sequence similarities between L1 and Alu, L1 functionally links with Alu and even cellular genes, impacting on our genome shaping.
The Role of ATP in Sleep Regulation
Sachiko Chikahisa
Frontiers in Neurology , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2011.00087
Abstract: One of the functions of sleep is to maintain energy balance in the brain. There are a variety of hypotheses related to how metabolic pathways interact with sleep/wake regulation. A major finding that demonstrates an interaction between sleep and metabolic homeostasis is the involvement of adenosine in sleep homeostasis. An accumulation of adenosine is supplied from ATP, which can act as an energy currency in the cell. Extracellularly, ATP can act as an activity-dependent signaling molecule, especially in regard to communication between neurons and glia, including astrocytes. Furthermore, the intracellular AMP/ATP ratio controls the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase, which is a potent energy regulator and is recently reported to play a role in the regulation of sleep homeostasis. Brain ATP may support multiple functions in the regulation of the sleep/wake cycle and sleep homeostasis.
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