The beetle Caryedon serratusOlivier is a major insect pest responsible for the infesta-tion and damage on groundnut during storage. To understand the infestation mecha-nism of groundnut stocks, studies have been carried out on this insect biology under laboratory conditions in relation with its host plants. The results have demonstrated that the pre-oviposition on groundnut lasts on average 1.28 days. The oviposition pe-riod is 12.04 days, during which 80.42 eggs on average are laid. From hatching to adult stage, C. serratus larvae development goes through four stages with variable durations according to the stage. Three families of host plants (Papilionaceae; Caesalpiniaceae and Mimosaceae) were selected for females C. serratusto lay on their seeds. The re-sults showed that more eggs were laid on the seeds of Papilionaceae (98.75% of in-fested seeds) followed by Caesalpiniaceae (28.59% of infested seeds). Studies were carried out on the laying behavior of C. serratus under laboratory conditions and have revealed that whatever the conditions, C. serratus？females lay on all the plant species seeds exposed. Insects’ development duration has varied according to the plant species seeds used.

Abstract:
This paper presents an approach to describe patterns in remote-sensed images utilising fuzzy logic. The truth of a linguistic proposition such as Y is F can be determined for each pattern characterised by a tuple in the database, where Y is the pattern and F is a summary that applies to that pattern. This proposition is formulated in terms of primary quantitative measures, such as area, length, perimeter, and so forth, of the pattern. Fuzzy descriptions of linguistic summaries help to evaluate the degree to which a summary describes a pattern or object in the database. Techniques, such as clustering and genetic algorithms, are used to mine images. Image mining is a relatively new area of research. It is used to extract patterns from multidated satellite images of a geographic area.

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Trans-esophageal echocardiaography is a sensitive, minimally invasive, diagnostic tool which gives real time functional image of the aorta. It helps in the diagnosis of pathologies of aorta like atherosclerosis, aneurysm and aortic dissection.

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Present report deals with the genetic diversity existing among the field isolates of Plasmodium falciparumand P. vivax in India. Isoenzymes and molecular markers were used to analyse field isolatesof P. falciparum and P. vivax. High level of length polymorphism was observed in repeat nucleotidesequences of MSP-1, MSP-2 and GLURP in P. falciparum isolates and CSP, GAM-1 andMSP-3α in P. vivax isolates. In study populations a high proportion of isolates (up to 60%) werecomprised of more than one genetically distinct parasite type—multiclonal. Presence of identicalallelic forms of enzyme and DNA variations in different geographical areas and in different yearssuggest that isolates belong to a single random mating population of P. vivax and P. falciparum.Observed random combination of alleles in the field isolates suggest the unlinked nature of locistudied. Study supports the feasibility of using molecular markers for the identification of recrudescencein P. falciparum from fresh infection.

Abstract:
Let be the linear Brownian motion and the -fold integral of Brownian motion, with being a positive integer: for any In this paper we construct several bridges between times and of the process involving conditions on the successive derivatives of at times and . For this family of bridges, we make a correspondence with certain boundary value problems related to the one-dimensional polyharmonic operator. We also study the classical problem of prediction. Our results involve various Hermite interpolation polynomials. 1. Introduction Throughout the paper, we will denote, for any enough differentiable function , its th derivative by or . Let be the linear Brownian motion started at 0 and be the linear Brownian bridge within the time interval : . These processes are Gaussian processes with covariance functions For a given continuous function , the functions and , respectively, defined on by are the solutions of the respective boundary value problems on : Observe that the differential equations are the same in both cases. Only the boundary conditions differ. They are Dirichlet-type boundary conditions for Brownian bridge while they are Dirichlet/Neumann-type boundary conditions for Brownian motion. These well-known connections can be extended to the polyharmonic operator , where is a positive integer. This latter is associated with the -fold integral of Brownian motion : (Notice that all of the derivatives at time 0 naturally vanish: .) Indeed, the following facts, for instance, are known (see, e.g., [1, 2]).(i)The covariance function of the process coincides with the Green function of the boundary value problem (ii)The covariance fonction of the bridge coincides with the Green function of the boundary value problem (iii)The covariance fonction of the bridge coincides with the Green function of the boundary value problem Observe that the differential equations and the boundary conditions at 0 are the same in all cases. Only the boundary conditions at 1 differ. Other boundary value problems can be found in [3, 4]. We refer the reader to [5] for a pioneering work dealing with the connections between general Gaussian processes and Green functions; see also [6]. We also refer to [7–13] and the references therein for various properties, namely, asymptotical study, of the iterated integrals of Brownian motion and more general Gaussian processes as well as to [3, 4, 14, 15] for interesting applications of these processes to statistics. The aim of this work is to examine all the possible conditioned processes of involving different events at time 1: for a certain

Abstract:
I intend to study in Allah n'est pas obligé the literary representation of horror. This text of Kourouma focusing on the African childhood, can locate the levels of involvement of the war in the structuring of the character identity, especially of Birahima, the novel’s hero. But it also helps to assess areas of confluence called "mixed zone" in the representation of the human and where the philosophical aspects of esse appear as central to human phraseology struck by the Real, that of horror, which is out of control. It's the whole point of this article based on rich textual information to suggest another possible sociopolitical, historical and anthropological reading of the African trauma.

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Traditional pig breeds have received intensive interest originated from the reaction of the modern consumer more and more sensitive and enthusiastic on the link between high quality of animal products when issued from native animals.

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New varieties of plants resistant to pests and/or tolerant to specific herbicides such as maize, soybean, cotton, sugar beets, canola, have been recently developed by using genetic transformation (GT). These plants contain detectable specific active recombinant DNA (rDNA) and their derived protein. Since they have not been selected for a modification of their chemical composition, they can be considered as substantially equivalent to their parents or to commercial varieties for their content in nutrients and anti-nutritional factors. However, insect protected maize is less contaminated by mycotoxins than its parental counterpart conferring a higher degree of safety to animal feeds. The new feeds, grain and derivatives, and whole plants have been intensively tested in vivo up to 216 days for their safety and their nutritional equivalence for monogastric farm animals (pig, poultry) and ruminants (dairy cows, steers, lambs). The present article is based on the interpretation and the summary of the scientific results published in original reviewed journals either as full papers (33) or as abstracts (33) available through September 2003. For the duration of the experiments adapted to the species, feed intake, weight gain, milk yield and nutritional equivalence expressed as feed conversion and/or digestibility of nutrients have never been affected by feeding animals diets containing GT plants. In addition, in all the experimental animals, the body and carcass composition, the composition of milk and animal tissues, as well as the sensory properties of meat are not modified by the use of feeds derived from GT plants. Furthermore, the health of animals, their physiological characteristics and the survival rate are also not affected. The presence of rDNA and derived proteins can be recognized and quantified in feeds in the case of glyphosate resistant soybean and canola and in the case of insect protected maize. However, rDNA has never been recovered either in milk, or in liver, spleen and muscles tissues of animals, or in rumen bacteria. On the basis of these data, it can be suggested that in vivo tests on high producing animals are necessary and sufficient to evaluate the safety and the nutritional value of new GT plants.

Abstract:
Let $N$ be a positive integer, $c$ be a positive constant and $(U_n)_{n\ge 1}$ be a sequence of independent identically distributed pseudo-random variables. We assume that the $U_n$'s take their values in the discrete set $\{-N,-N+1,...,N-1,N\}$ and that their common pseudo-distribution is characterized by the \textit{(positive or negative) real} numbers \[\mathbb{P}\{U_n=k\}=\delta_{k0}+(-1)^{k-1} c\binom{2N}{k+N}\] for any $k\in\{-N,-N+1,...,N-1,N\}$. Let us finally introduce $(S_n)_{n\ge 0}$ the associated pseudo-random walk defined on $\mathbb{Z}$ by $S_0=0$ and $S_n=\sum_{j=1}^n U_j$ for $n\ge 1$. In this paper, we exhibit some properties of $(S_n)_{n\ge 0}$. In particular, we explicitly determine the pseudo-distribution of the first overshooting time of a given threshold for $(S_n)_{n\ge 0}$ as well as that of the first exit time from a bounded interval. Next, with an appropriate normalization, we pass from the pseudo-random walk to the pseudo-Brownian motion driven by the high-order heat-type equation $\partial/\partial t=(-1)^{N-1} c\;\partial^{2N}/$ $\partial x^{2N}$. We retrieve the corresponding pseudo-distribution of the first overshooting time of a threshold for the pseudo-Brownian motion (Lachal, A.: First hitting time and place, monopoles and multipoles for pseudo-processes driven by the equation $\frac{\partial}{\partial t}=\pm \frac{\partial^N}{\partial x^N}$. Electron. J. Probab. 12 (2007), 300--353 [MR2299920]). In the same way, we get the pseudo-distribution of the first exit time from a bounded interval for the pseudo-Brownian motion which is a new result for this pseudo-process.