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The research evaluated two wood species, chestnut and Douglas fir, that are widespread in Tuscany, treated with an oleothermicprocess. Efficacy of this treatment against fungal decay was assessed through laboratory and field tests. The aim of this research was to investigate if an oleothermic process could add value to these natural resources when utilized in Use Class 4 (EN 335) for agricultural purposes such as vineyard poles. The treatment was effective on sapwood of both wood species in laboratory test, giving a protection similar to the untreated heartwood but in case of chestnut, it was easily washed away. In field test the leaching during the outdoor exposure reduced the resistance to fungal decay in both species.
This paper shows how much citizens’ views are taken into account in local policy decision-making concerning the management of the coastal area of the Venice Lagoon. Through the application of a somewhat innovative version of the contingent valuation method (CVM), it is possible to understand how to set a good balance among economic development, the social dimension and environmental protection in a coastal zone. The methodology allows for a clear assessment of the economic value of non-use values. In 2010, an online survey was conducted in the Venice area to find out how local much citizens value two protected areas in the Venice Lagoon. Four hypotheses were tested to find out whether the age of respondents, the municipality where they live, their income level, and the visited and protected sites are factors determining a different willingness to pay for environmental protection. The economic, social and environmental situation of the coastal zone of the Venice Lagoon in 2010 was then compared to that of 2012 to try to draw conclusions on the level of sustainability of the management of the Venice coastal area. The comparison indicates that there have been some improvements in citizens’ participation in decision-making