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An Empirical Approach to Get the Vitality of a Genotype to Water Stress Tolerance in Yield and Yield Contributing Traits  [PDF]
Ijaz Rasool Noorka, Saba Tabasum
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.45123

Conventional methods of plant breeding and agronomic practices remained a successful tool to maintain the pace of food production for centuries but due to changing climatic conditions and the challenges of 21st century like population growth, pollution, declining biodiversity and food security have shaken the previous policies. This situation compelled the agriculturist towards the judicious management of natural resources to combat the poverty, disasters and increased food demands. The present study was initiated to check wheat varieties in two water provision conditions. The results revealed that environmental stresses played negative role by minimizing the yield and yield contributing traits. However the severity of water stress was depleted by some promising genotypes by showing minimum hazard effects and by having capability to contribute to conserving biodiversity, ensuring sustainability, combating food insecurity and increasing economic benefits. The minimum effect of moisture stress on grain yield was shown by genotypes C-518 (12.97%) while the genotype Shakar, Pari-73 and Uqab-2000 showed maximum decline percentage. The global warming and population explosion will further induce commodity shortage and law and order situation in the world. The prevailing International tension can be cooled down by the provision of marshal aids by the developed countries to the effected or threatened countries.

Water Stress Tolerance, Its Relationship to Stem Reserve Mobilization and Potence Ratio in Spring Wheat  [PDF]
Ijaz Rasool Noorka, Amarah Batool, Sultan AlSultan, Saba Tabasum, Amjed Ali
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.42030
Abstract: Twelve wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars and their sixteen direct and reciprocal crosses were evaluated for heterosis, heterobeltiosis and potence ratio to determine the potential of wheat genotypes under contrasting water regimes. The highest positive heterosis and heterobeltiosis was observed in cross combination Sehr-06 × Pasban-90 under both water regimes for the trait stem reserve mobilization (SRM). While in trait 1000-grain weight the cross-combination Pari-73 × C-273 (Normal irrigation) and Fsd-08 × SA-42 (water stress) showed highest heterosis and Pari-73 × C-273(Normal irrigation) and Fsd-08 × Chenab-70(water stress) showed highest value of heterobeltiosis. The potence ratio in both traits expressed overdominance estimates exhibiting the presence of transgressive segregants, may be exploited for on-ward selection in the bread wheat improvement. The genotypes showing better SRM based 1000-grain weight in the absence of photosynthesis indicates relative water stress tolerance. This procedure paved an indirect way to screen the wheat genotypes to withhold water stress situation and sustain wheat production.
Chemical Control of Monocot Weeds in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)  [PDF]
Zia Mehmood, Muhammad Ashiq, Ijaz Rasool Noorka, Amjed Ali, Saba Tabasum, Muhammad Shahid Iqbal
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.59140

Due to similar growth pattern and morphology, monocot weeds offer more severe competition with wheat. A field experiment was conducted to screen herbicides most suitable for the control of monocot weeds in wheat. Seven herbicides viz., Puma super 69EW @ 862.5 g a.i. ha-1, Bristle 69 EW @ 1250 ml, Topik 15WP @ 37.05 g a.i. ha-1, Safener15WP @ 247g, Certain 80WD @ 395.2 g and Tremor 24EC @ 247 ml/ha were used. Weedy check where no weed control was practiced was kept as control. All herbicides were sprayed as post-emergence with second irrigation 38 days after crop sowing. The best weed control was accomplished by Safener 15WP 247 g ha-1 as significantly lower weed counts per m2 (11.0) and higher percent weed control (73.4%) were noted after 21 days of its spray. Wheat growth parameters like plant height, number of tillers per m2, spike length and number of spikelets per spike remained statistically at par among various treatments. Significantly higher number of grains per spike (55.67) and 1000 grain weight (36 g) were noted with Puma Super 69EW @ 1250 ml ha-1 and Certain 80WD 395.2 g ha-1, respectively. Although treatments did not differ significantly with respect to wheat grain and biological yields, yet the highest grain yield (3708.3 kg ha-1) and biological yield (10208.3 kg ha-1

Entropy changes in the clustering of galaxies in an expanding universe  [PDF]
Naseer Iqbal, Mohammad Shafi Khan, Tabasum Masood
Natural Science (NS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2011.31009
Abstract: In the present work the approach-thermody- namics and statistical mechanics of gravitating systems is applied to study the entropy change in gravitational clustering of galaxies in an expanding universe. We derive analytically the expressions for gravitational entropy in terms of temperature T and average density n of the particles (galaxies) in the given phase space cell. It is found that during the initial stage of clustering of galaxies, the entropy decreases and finally seems to be increasing when the system attains virial equilibrium. The entropy changes are studied for different range of measuring correlation parameter b. We attempt to provide a clearer account of this phenomena. The entropy results for a system consisting of extended mass (non-point mass) particles show a similar behaviour with that of point mass particles clustering gravitationally in an expanding universe.
The peculiar velocity and temperature profile of galaxy clusters
Tabasum Masood,Naseer Iqbal
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: Dynamical parameters like average velocity dispersion and temperature profile of galaxy clusters are determined using a quasi equilibrium thermodynamic theory. The calculated velocity dispersion results from theory and simulations shows a good agreement with the velocity dispersion results of (Abdullah et al. \cite{Abd11}). An Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR), Grid based hybrid code have been used to carry out the simulations. Our results indicate that the average velocity dispersion profile of $20$ Abell galaxy clusters falls in the range of $500-1000$ km/s and their temperature profile is of the order of $10^7$ to $10^8$K calculated on the basis of kinetic theory. The data in the plot shows a significant contribution of gravitating particles clustering together in the vicinity of cluster center and beyond a certain region this velocity dies out and gets dominated by the Hubble's flow due to which all the galaxy clusters in an expanding universe participate in Hubble's expansion.
Study of impact materials of akhnoor meteor crater in Jammu and Kashmir (India)  [PDF]
Naseer Iqbal, Ajaz Ahmad, Tabasum Masood, M. N Vahia
Natural Science (NS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2011.36058
Abstract: A sample of Akhnoor meteor crater, which fell on 2nd January 2009 in Jammu District, Jammu & Kashmir, India, has been analyzed for ele-mental composition by Spectroscopic tech-niques. Concentrations of 17 major, minor and trace elements were determined. The authentic-ity of the meteorite sample was established by comparing its composition with those of stan-dard meteorites/chondrite. The classification of the sample has been made by comparing the abundances and concentration ratios of ele-ments with other known meteorites.
Flood Hazard Mapping of Lower Indus Basin Using Multi-Criteria Analysis  [PDF]
Saba Zehra, Sheeba Afsar
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2016.44008
Abstract: Flooding has been one of the recurring occurred natural disasters that induce detrimental impacts on humans, property and environment. Frequent floods is a severe issue and a complex natural phenomenon in Pakistan with respect to population affected, environmental degradations, and socio-economic and property damages. The Super Flood, which hit Sindh in 2010, has turned out to be a wakeup call and has underlined the overwhelming challenge of natural calamities, as 2010 flood and the preceding flood in 2011 caused a huge loss to life, property and land use. These floods resulted in disruption of power, telecommunication, and water utilities in many districts of Pakistan, including 22 districts of Sindh. These floods call for risk assessment and hazard mapping of Lower Indus Basin flowing in the Sindh Province as such areas were also inundated in 2010 flood, which were not flooded in the past in this manner. This primary focus of this paper is the use of Multi-criteria Evaluation (MCE) methods in integration with the Geographical Information System (GIS) for the analysis of areas prone to flood. This research demonstrated how GIS tools can be used to produce map of flood vulnerable areas using MCE techniques. Slope, Aspect, Curvature, Soil, and Distance from Drainage, Land use, Precipitation, Flow Direction, and Flow Accumulation are taken as the causative factors for flooding in Lower Indus Basin. Analytical Hierarchy Process-AHP was used for the calculation of weights of all these factors. Finally, a flood hazard Map of Lower Indus Basin was generated which delineates the flood prone areas in the Sindh province along Indus River Basin that could be inundated by potential flooding in future. It is aimed that flood hazard mapping and risk assessment using open source geographic information system can serve as a handy tool for the development of land-use strategies so as to decrease the impact from flooding.
Determination Cadmium and Lead Pollution Resources of Ardabil Plain Underground Waters  [PDF]
Saba Hajjabbari, Ebrahim Fataei
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2016.69053
Abstract: Underground water is among the most important sources of drinking water. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals (cadmium, lead) in providing plain of Ardabil in 2015. This study was cross-sectional, drinking water samples from 100 wells were prepared according to standard procedures. The dimensions of 350 × 350 meter grid station via a station in the network were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry AAS analysis of samples. The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS software. The average concentrations of lead, cadmium in groundwater wells in the area were also studied. The mean concentrations measured in the majority of groundwater wells in the plain of Ardabil lower than the allowed amount were designated according to a national standard.
Chaos Behavior and Estimation of the Unknown Parameters of Stochastic Lattice Gas for Prey-Predator Model with Pair-Approximation  [PDF]
Saba Mohammed Alwan
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/am.2016.715148
Abstract: In this paper, the problem of chaos, stability and estimation of unknown parameters of the stochastic lattice gas for prey-predator model with pair-approximation is studied. The result shows that this dynamical system exhibits an oscillatory behavior of the population densities of prey and predator. Using Liapunov stability technique, the estimators of the unknown probabilities are derived, and also the updating rules for stability around its steady states are derived. Furthermore the feedback control law has been as non-linear functions of the population densities. Numerical simulation study is presented graphically.
Peripartum Hysterectomy in Misan Province during 2014-2016  [PDF]
Saba J. Al Heshemi
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2017.72028
Abstract: Background: Peripartum hysterectomy is the procedure of removing the uterus after vaginal delivery or cesarean birth; it remains a life-saving procedure in cases of severe uterine hemorrhage. Objective: To know the incidence of peripartum hysterectomy in Misan province, what is the main cause of this procedure, and if there is any change in the incidence of this procedure during a 3 year study period. Method: A descriptive cross sectional study was done in Misan province for all cases of peripartum hysterectomy during the period from 2014-2016. All information regarding present pregnancy, previous obstetric history, the cause of peripartum hysterectomy, any complications & infant outcome, were taken from the case sheet & from the patients themselves. 50 patients were enrolled in this study, and only 30 patients needed peripartum hysterectomy and 20 patients’ uterus were saved by repair surgery. Results: During the study period of 3 years, there was 72,720 deliveries, and during that time 30 peripartum hysterectomies were carried out of the 50 cases studied, which gave an incidence of 0.4/1000 deliveries. The patients were diagnosed as: rupture uterus in 30 (60%) cases, adherent placenta in 14 (28%) & 6 (12%) cases had atonic uterus. The major postoperative complication was anemia which complicated 23 (46%) cases, & then bladder injury 5 (10%). Admission to ICU was needed for 24 (48%) cases. There were 32 (64%) cases needed ≥4 units of blood transfusion. There were 38 (76%) cases stayed in hospital for ≥4 days. The most common cause for peripartum hysterectomy was for adherent placenta (28%) & rupture uterus (20%). Conclusion: The incidence of peripartum hysterectomy was 0.4/1000 (0.04%) deliveries. The most common reason behind peripartum hysterectomy was for adherent placenta and next was for uterine rupture. The rate of this procedure was not changed during the study period.
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