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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 20111 matches for " Saad Al Ghamdi "
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Predictors of Glycemic Control among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in Najran Armed Forces Hospital: A Pilot Study  [PDF]
Imed Harrabi, Fawaz Al Harbi, Saad Al Ghamdi
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2014.42021

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a serious condition with potentially devastating complications that affects all age groups worldwide. The purposes of this study are to describe the glycemic control levels and to determine the associated factors of poor glycemiccontrol among type 2 diabetes patients followed in Najran Armed Forces Hospital. Methods:We conducted a retrospective analysis of administrative data from adult patients with diabetes type 2 followed in NAFH clinics. To be included in the pilot study, patients needed to meet the following criteria: 1) Be identified as having diabetes type 2 using algorithms employed by disease management oasis program; 2) Be at least aged 18; 3) Be male or female; 4) Have Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) and HbA1c measured at least twice during the last year. Both univariate and multivariate approaches of logistic regression were applied to determine factors associated with poor glycemic control. Results: Data from a total of 100 patients were analyzed. There were 22% of patients that achieved glycemic control. The risk factors associated with poor glycemic control were being female, age < 65 years old and those who had not achieved the target total cholesterol. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that diabetic control is suboptimal. This study provides factors that predict poor glycemic control. With this information, sub-groups with high risk of disease morbidity were identified. Barriers that prevent these patients from meeting their goals must be explored to improve health outcomes.

Aspirin and Blood Glucose and Insulin Resistance  [PDF]
Sami H. Hammadi, Saeed S. AL-Ghamdi, Ahmad I. Yassien, Saad D. AL-Hassani
Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases (OJEMD) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojemd.2012.22003
Abstract: Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disorder in which blood sugar levels are abnormally high because either absolute or relative insulin deficiency. Treatment of diabetes involves diet, exercise, education and for most people, drugs. Oral antidiabetic drugs and/or insulin doses may be affected by co-administration of many drugs including aspirin. Dose adjustments may be necessary. The pain killer effect of aspirin is best known for its effects on the two cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX1 & COX2), but, recently, aspirin could specifically inhibit the protein I-kappa-β-kinase beta (IKK-beta). This kinase is used for its role in the cascade of signals that activate the nuclear factor kappa-b (NF-kappa-B) family of cellular genes which regulate inflammatory and immune responses. Now, it turns out that IKK-beta also works in another pathway to contribute to insulin resistance by interfering with insulin signaling. Objective: In view of the recent rodent data demonstrating a potentially important role of IKKβ in mediating insulin resistance and the ability of salicylates to inhibit IKKβ activity, we decided to examine the role of different doses of aspirin (low, moderate and high) in experimentally induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: DM in rats were induced by administration of nicotinamide (NAD), 15 min prior to the single dose of streptozotocin STZ i.p. Ninety male albino rats were used in this study. They were divided into 6 main groups. The first was served as control which receives no medications. The second group was diabetic induced rats as mentioned above. The third group was controlled by insulin after induction of D.M. Groups from the fourth to the six consist of 20 diabetic induced rats and further subdivided into rats taking either aspirin alone in different doses (low, moderate or high) or aspirin and insulin. At the end of the protocol, fasting blood sugar level (FBS), glycosylated hemoglobin (HBA1c%), total serum proteins, C-peptide, lipid profile and C-reactive proteins were measured. Results: Different doses of aspirin showed that moderate and to a greater extent high dose aspirin administration to diabetic rats have greater impact on fasting blood glucose levels whether treated with insulin or not. Again, HBA1c% in diabetic rats treated with insulin and receiving HDA was lower than diabetic rats treated with insulin only or even taking LDA in addition. On the contrary, different doses of aspirin (LDA, MDA&HDA) administration to diabetic rats have no any influence on HBA1c% as compared to normal non-diabetic rats. TGs in
The correlation between endometrial thickness and outcome of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) outcome
Ahlam Al-Ghamdi, Serdar Coskun, Saad Al-Hassan, Rafat Al-Rejjal, Khalid Awartani
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7827-6-37
Abstract: A retrospective cohort study including all patients who had IVF-ET from January 2003–December 2005 conducted at a tertiary center.A total of 2464 cycles were analysed. Pregnancy rate (PR) was 35.8%. PR increased linearly (r = 0.864) from 29.4% among patients with a lining of less than or equal to 6 mm, to 44.4% among patients with a lining of greater than or equal to 17 mm. ROC showed that endometrial thickness is not a good predictor of PR, so a definite cut-off value could not be established (AUC = 0.55).There is a positive linear relationship between the endometrial thickness measured on the day of hCG injection and PR, and is independent of other variables. Hence aiming for a thicker endometrium should be considered.Assisted reproductive technology (ART) has been commonly used in infertility treatment over the last two decades. The high cost and relatively low implantation and pregnancy rates (PRs) in in-vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment cycles has led to a need to evaluate the predictors of success in these patients. One of the important factors is the endometrial receptivity. Endometrial thickness has been utilized as an indirect indicator for endometrial receptivity and is measured in the midsaggital plane during transvaginal ultrasound, which is considered as both atraumatic and simple [1]. The effect of endometrial thickness on pregnancy rates in ART patients has been evaluated by many authors [2-11], with controversial results. Some authors demonstrated a higher pregnancy rate at certain endometrial thickness [3,4,10-12], while others did not show a significant correlation between endometrial thickness and PRs in IVF/ICSI patients [5,7,8]. Other authors reported a threshold of <7 mm and/or >14 mm with a significant reduction in implantation rate and PR [2,6].With these controversies, no conclusive cut-off value of endometrial thickness has been established in order to help clinicians in counseling the couple ab
Stripping Voltammetric Determination of Timolol Drug in Pharmaceuticals and Biological Fluids  [PDF]
Ali F. Al-Ghamdi
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2011.22020
Abstract: A sensitive and reliable stripping voltammetric method was developed to determine timolol drug. This method is based on the adsorptive accumulation of the drug at a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) and then a negative sweep was initiated, which yield a well defined cathodic peak at –850 mV versus (Ag/AgCl) silver reference electrode. To achieve high sensitivity, various experimental and instrumental variables were investigated such as supporting electrolyte, pH, accumulation time and potential, scan rate, frequency, pulse amplitude, convection rate and working electrode area. The monitored adsorptive current was directly proportional to the concentration of timolol and it shows a linear response in the range from 1 × 10–7 to 1.5 × 10–6 mol●l–1 of this drug (correlation coefficient = 0.998) and the detection limit (S/N = 3) is 1.26 × 10–9 mol●l–1 at an accumulation time of 30 sec. The developed adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV) procedure shows a good reproducibility, the relative standard deviation RSD% (n = 8) at a concentration level of 1 × 10–6 mol●l–1 of timolol was 0.13%, whereas the method accuracy was indicated via the mean recovery of 110% ± 1.414%. Possible interferences by several substances usually present in the pharmaceutical formulations have been also evaluated. The applicability of this approach was illustrated by the determination of the drug in pharmaceutical preparation and biological fluids such as serum and urine.
Occupational Exposure to Paints Causes Impairment of Kidney Functions  [PDF]
Saeed S. Al-Ghamdi
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.25061
Abstract: It has been suggested that exposure to organic solvents may have a role in the impairment of kidney function that may progress to kidney failure. However, this has never been evaluated with an appropriate analytical study of the kidney functions of those people who are chronically exposed to these chemicals. This study was designed to measure the kidney function of car painters in the city of Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Fifty workers were selected at random for this study and compared to thirty male medical students who were taken as a control group. Blood samples were collected for the analysis of kidney function. The levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, and uric acid were scientifically higher in the tested group compared to the control group. In addition to this, the levels of these parameters were significantly higher in the serum of car painters who worked in this industry for more than ten years compared to painters who worked for less than ten years. Moreover, the number of car painters who were not using protective gloves and masks during working hours were 43 and the number of car painters who visited specialized clinics because of kidney problems were 45 of the 50 tested volunteers. These findings support the hypothesized association of solvent exposure with the development of chronic renal failure. They should prompt clinicians to give greater attention to patients’ occupational exposures. Routine monitoring of kidney functions and the use of protective materials are of greater importance to minimize the occupational diseases caused by organic solvents.
Seed Morphology of Some Species of Indigofera (Fabaceae) from Saudi Arabia (Identification of Species and Systematic Significance)  [PDF]
F. A. Al-Ghamdi
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2011.23057
Abstract: Seeds of 18 species of Indigofera L. were examined with the scanning electron microscope and the light microscope. Macro- and micromorphological characters, including seed shape, colour, size, surface, epidermal cell shape, anticlinal boundaries, outer periclinal cell wall and relief of outer cell walls, are presented. Two types of basic anticlinal cell wall boundaries and two types of relief outer cell walls are recognized and two different shapes of the outer periclinal cell wall are described. A key for the identification of the investigated taxa based on seed characters is provided.
Performance Analysis of Automated Control System for Condenser Water Treatment Unit  [PDF]
Abdulmajeed Saeed Al-Ghamdi
Engineering (ENG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2012.41008
Abstract: The air conditioning system in the Umm Al-Qura University (Albdiya Campus) was conceived to be a district cooling by a remote chilled water plant. Recently, there are two chilled water plants in the university installed strategically to provide chilled water to all the academic and administrative buildings of the university through distribution network with total capacity approximately of 12,000 tons of refrigeration. The plants were built based on cooling towers with open water cycle as heat rejection system. Water treatment chemicals has been used to protect the cooling systems from corrosion, scaling and microbiological fouling accompanied with dissolved and suspended water impurities. Different methods are being used to determine and control the treatment chemical concentrations and system performance indicators. Traditional chemical controller has drawback of indirect measurements and set points. The purpose of this paper is to present a solution to overcome the problems of traditional and conventional chemical treatment and control sys-tems. Central cooling plant number (1) assigned to perform experimental setup using new chemical treatment technology. Advanced automatic chemical treatment controller installed on condensers (1, 2 and 3), and certain key performance indicators were selected and monitored such as chemical and water consumption, power, energy saving, and maintaining system integrity and efficiency. Satisfactory results were obtained in terms of performance and cost of operation.
Inhibition of calcium oxalate nephrotoxicity with Zamzam water  [PDF]
Saeed S. Al-Ghamdi
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2012.21010
Abstract: Zamzam water is well known of its high conductivity. For this fact urologist and nephrologists recommend their patients who are suffering from kidney stones not to drink this water because it could worse their health status. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of Zamzam water on calcium oxalate nephrotoxicity in experimentally induced kidney stones in male Wistar albino rats. Calcium oxalate crystals were induced by orally administration of 200 mg of glycolic acid dissolved in the drinking water. The rats were divided into three groups; six rats each. These include positive control group (given glycolic acid), test group (given glycolic acid plus Zamzam water) and negative group (given drinking water only). After two weeks of treatment, blood analysis of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine showed significant differences in positive control group compared to the negative control group, whereas no significant differences were noticed in the level of BUN and creatinine between both the negative control and the test group. Moreover, urine analysis showed a high density of calcium oxalate crystals in the positive control group, whereas no crystals were detected in the negative control and the test groups. Histopathological investigations showed damaging in kidneys of the positive control group with no tissue abnormalities in the negative control and the test group. I concluded from this study that Zamzam water prevents the formation calcium oxalate stone, which probably mean that it has no negative effect on patients suffering from kidney disorders due to crystals formation.
The Reproductive and Thyroid Hormonal Profile of Khat (Catha Edulis) Chewers  [PDF]
Saeed S. Al-Ghamdi
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2012.34060
Abstract: The effects of khat on the hormonal levels have been established; however, the effects on human beings are controversial. The aim of our study was to investigate the possible effects of khat on the levels of serum thyroid hormones, testosterone, estradiol (E2), prolactin and cortisol in men. A total of 50 blood samples were collected from healthy males who referred to chew khat for more than 10 years and analyzed for the above hormones. The results were compared to the hormonal levels of 35 non khat chewers. Chewing khat causes significant increases in the testosterone (P < 0.03), prolactin (P < 0.05), E2 (P < 0.00005), FT3 (P < 0.04), and TSH (P < 0.05) levels. No significant differences were found in the serum level of FT4 between the two groups. The level of cortisol were significantly lower (P < 0.001) in the khat chewers group compared to the control group. This study suggests that khat chewing can cause reduction in the cortisol level, which may cause increases of testosterone, prolactin and E2. In addition, chewing khat increases the level of TSH and FT3 serum levels. Therefore, khat may contribute to the relevant disorders caused by abnormal levels of the studied hormones in the people who are chewing khat
Morphological Diversity of Some Tephrosia Species (Fabaceae) in Saudi Arabia  [PDF]
Faraj A. Al-Ghamdi
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.43070

Morphological features of nine wild species belonging to the genus Tephrosia PER growing in Saudi Arabia were extensively studied in order to support the diversity and simplify the identification of these species. The studied features included macro and micro morphological features of stem, leaves, flowers and pods. The most important features regarded for distinction of Saudi Arabia species of Tephrosia were pods shape, color, size, dehiscence and number of seeds per pod, inflorescences position, flower opening, shape of the upper 2 teeth of calyx, shape of sepals apex, shape of wings, length of hairs on ovary, direction of staminal tube tip, leaflets shape and surface and stem habit form and life spin. A key for the identification of the investigated species based on these morphological features is provided.

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