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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6024 matches for " Sa?dou Moustapha Sall "
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Analysis of Bushfires Spatial and Temporal Variability in Guinea  [PDF]
Tamba Nicolas Millimono, Sadou Moustapha Sall, Daouda Badiane, Alassane Bah, Moussa Diakhate, Ibra Toure, Mamadou Ba?lo Barry, Diakaria Diallo, Idrissa Diaby
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2017.74034
Abstract: Guinea is confronted to the increasing risks of bushfires that destroy thousands of hectares of vegetation cover every year. Very little research is devoted to the variability of those fires, which makes it a serious threat to both wildlife and human habitats. The current study investigates the spatial and temporal distribution of bushfires in the period from 2003 to 2016. The method used is the geospatial technology: we first filter pixels corresponding with active light supplied by MODIS images (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and estimate their densities following the square meshing procedure. Burned areas are deducted from the estimated pixel densities by calculations. The results highlight great occurrence of fires: 4 to 48 pixels of active fire per year and per 100 km2 depending on the location; 2 to 5 million hectares per year of burned areas (20,000 to 50,000 sqkm). Almost 8 to 24% the size of the whole country. The prefectures of Beyla, Siguiri, Kouroussa, Kankan, Dinguiraye, Mali and Tougué are the most exposed areas. Every year, fire activities are observed as from October and between May and June. They are however mitigated according to the regions (or the geographical domains). Summits of bushfires activities are generally reached between December and January.
Comparative Study of the West African Continental, Coastal, and Marine Atmospheric Profiles during the Summer of 2006
Ibrahima Kalil Kante,Daouda Badiane,Sa dou Moustapha Sall,Abdoulaye Deme,Arona Diedhiou
International Journal of Geophysics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/603949
Abstract: We used sounding data of the Multidisciplinary Analysis of the African Monsoon experience in summer 2006 at continental and coastal sites of West Africa, respectively, to analyze the vertical profiles of relative humidity, temperature, dew point, and speed and wind direction for the JJAS rainy period. The vertical gradient method is applied to the profiles of some thermodynamic parameters estimated from sounding data to do a comparative study of the structure and thermal properties, moisture, and static stability of the atmospheric boundary layer of inland, coastal, and marine sites to show consistent differences related to geographic factors. In vertical profiles of relative humidity, the intensity is higher in Dakar than in Niamey particularly in the core of the season. There are dry intrusions in the low levels at the beginning and end of the season in Dakar, which do not exist in Niamey. The mixing layer on the continent during the day can reach a height greater than 1100 m, and the inversion layer height can exceed 1700 m. Therefore, the maximum thickness of the boundary layer is observed on the continent during the day, while at night the marine boundary layer is the thickest. The diurnal evolution shows that the mixing layer thickness decreases during the night over the continent but increases at the coast and at sea. In the night at the continental site there is a division of the mixing layer with a consistent residual mixing layer. Continental boundary layer is more unstable during the day, while at night it is the marine boundary layer that is more unstable than the coastal and inland ones.
Comparative Study of the West African Continental, Coastal, and Marine Atmospheric Profiles during the Summer of 2006
Ibrahima Kalil Kante,Daouda Badiane,Sadou Moustapha Sall,Abdoulaye Deme,Arona Diedhiou
International Journal of Geophysics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/603949
Abstract: We used sounding data of the Multidisciplinary Analysis of the African Monsoon experience in summer 2006 at continental and coastal sites of West Africa, respectively, to analyze the vertical profiles of relative humidity, temperature, dew point, and speed and wind direction for the JJAS rainy period. The vertical gradient method is applied to the profiles of some thermodynamic parameters estimated from sounding data to do a comparative study of the structure and thermal properties, moisture, and static stability of the atmospheric boundary layer of inland, coastal, and marine sites to show consistent differences related to geographic factors. In vertical profiles of relative humidity, the intensity is higher in Dakar than in Niamey particularly in the core of the season. There are dry intrusions in the low levels at the beginning and end of the season in Dakar, which do not exist in Niamey. The mixing layer on the continent during the day can reach a height greater than 1100?m, and the inversion layer height can exceed 1700?m. Therefore, the maximum thickness of the boundary layer is observed on the continent during the day, while at night the marine boundary layer is the thickest. The diurnal evolution shows that the mixing layer thickness decreases during the night over the continent but increases at the coast and at sea. In the night at the continental site there is a division of the mixing layer with a consistent residual mixing layer. Continental boundary layer is more unstable during the day, while at night it is the marine boundary layer that is more unstable than the coastal and inland ones. 1. Introduction The term boundary layer was first introduced in the literature by Prandtl and Lustig [1]. Since then, many authors such as Turner [2], Monin [3], Zeman [4] and more, recently, Cushman-Roisin and Beckers [5] have studied the detailed description. The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) has been variously defined, but it is commonly recognized as the lower part of the atmosphere, which is strongly influenced by the presence of the earth’s surface and responds to surface forcing with a timescale of about one hour or less. The ABL is the place where many processes, such as turbulence, friction, dispersion, energy dissipation, and wind shear occur. These processes are poorly parameterized in atmospheric models. Several ABL studies have focused on the turbulence but also on the mixing process triggered by significant warming or cooling [6]. Within the ABL, the transport of various quantities (heat, pollution, moisture, momentum, etc.) is mainly
Response of Soil Microbial Properties to Long-Term Application of Organic and Inorganic Amendments in a Tropical Soil (Saria, Burkina Faso)  [PDF]
Ndeye Hélène Diallo-Diagne, Komi Assigbetse, Sadou Sall, Dominique Masse, Moussa Bonzi, Ibrahima Ndoye, Jean Luc Chotte
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2016.62003
Abstract: Soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC), β-glucosidase, acid phosphatase and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) activities and bacterial community structure were assessed in a long-term (26 years) experiment, at physiological stages of sorghum growth, comparing different management methods for organic (manure, straw residues) and inorganic (urea) amendments at the INERA field station in Saria (Burkina Faso). Annual application of manure led to the highest soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities. Investigations indicated that only microbial biomass and β-glucosidase activities were affected during the cropping season. Phosphatase and FDA enzyme activities did not depend on the crop development stages. The application of N fertilizer modified phosphatase and FDA enzyme activities, the activities being higher in soils amended with N fertilizer. The bacterial community structure was analyzed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) targeting the eubacterial 16S rRNA gene. Cluster analysis of PCR-DGGE patterns showed two major clusters, the first containing the mineral fertilization and straw treatments and the second, the straw + urea, manure and manure + urea treatments. Sorghum grain yields were the highest for manure treatments. In this long-term experiment, applying straw did not produce a better grain yield than that obtained in the un-amended plot.
Intra-Seasonal and Annual Variation of Aerosols and Their Radiative Impact in the Sahelian Zone of Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Bado Nébon, Mamadou Simina Dramé, Saidou Moustapha Sall, Korgo Bruno, Demba Ndao Niang, Kieno P. Florent, Bathiebo Dieudonné Joseph
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2019.91004
Abstract: This paper deals with the characterization of aerosols in the Sahelian zone, particularly in Burkina Faso based on MODIS observations and in situ measurements of the AERONET network on the Ouagadougou site (12.2°N, 1.4°W). Thus, a seasonal spatial distribution of aerosols made over the period from 2001 to 2016 gives a very great variability of aerosols in Burkina Faso, whose maxima are encountered in Spring, characterized by winds from the North East. This seasonality of aerosols is also shown by the annual cycles of optical, radiative and microphysical parameters measured by AERONET between 1999 and 2006. Moreover, an analysis of these parameters shows the prevalence of mineral dusts characterized by low values of the Angstrom coefficient (α440-870 < 0.5) associated with the maxima of AOT with high intensity in March. These dusts are confirmed by their scattering nature (SSA > 0.9) and the cooling noticed in the bottom of atmosphere (BOA) and at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). Also, the climatology of the volume size distribution of aerosols shows a very great variability of particles in terms of size influenced by the thin and coarse pattern where most sizes are between 1 and 10 μm.
Evaluation of Solar Potential at Niamey: Study Data of Insolation from 2015 and 2016  [PDF]
Maigargue Dankassoua, Sadou Madougou, Saleye Yahaya
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2017.812026
Abstract: Solar energy is a very abundant renewable energy source during the day. The solar energy received in a given point of the Earth is function of the time, the season and the latitude of the point. It has been proven that the solar energy received in one day by our planet is thirty times higher than the annual global energy consumption. Africa is one of the sunniest continents of the world. Nowadays, solar energy is attracting particular attention in the implementation of the energy policies. This renewable source is a key solution to world energy problems, especially in the context of global warming. Niger is identified as among the sunniest zones of the World. Knowledge of solar potential is one of the crucial parameters to master for energy applications. In this study, continuous measurements (at intervals of 5 minutes over 24 hours) of solar radiation have been carried out on the site of the National Center of Solar Energy of Niamey. These measurements were taken using the pyranometers, allowed us to collect the values of the daily global sunshine on a horizontal plane and on an inclined plane of the years 2015 and 2016. The treatment and the exploitation of these data allowed us to determine the daily and monthly duration of sunshine, then the impact of the clouds and dust on the solar radiation, to evaluate the solar potential of the site and determine the variations of this solar potential as a function of time. The results showed that the solar potential was very favorable for many solar applications.
Global Harmonic Rate Assessment in the Electricity Distribution Network in Niamey City: Case Studies of Domestic, Industrial and Hospital Substations  [PDF]
Abdourahimoun Daouda, Sadou Madougou, Abdoul Aziz Ibrahim
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2017.912049
Abstract: Like others countries of the world, in Niger also, we are witnessing an increasing use of non-linear electric loads in the domestic, hospital and industrial sectors. However, these loads degrade the shape of the electrical signal and cause disastrous effects to the equipment of the distribution system and the devices which are connected to the network. This article highlights the presence of electric harmonics in the distribution network in Niamey city. In order to do this, measurements were taken at the secondary level of the substations using an energy quality analyze r (FLUKE 1735). By using this measuring instrument, we quantified the voltage and current Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) in the three substations. The results obtained show that, although the statutable rates set by the standards are not exceeded for phase conductors, the neutral contains a very critical percentage of distortion on the residential and hospital substations. Moreover, this assessment made it possible to observe the variation of harmonics in the presence of voltage drops.
Chinese Soft Power in Africa: Case of Senegal  [PDF]
Ousmane Sall
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.411011
Abstract:
Beijing political system in Africa has ostensibly made China a major leader throughout this continent. The different elements that link Africa to China have traditionally been embedded in the discourse of cooperation, mutual benefit and political equality. Then, we can notice that China is building a positive image throughout Africa. Let’s take the example of Senegal where, between 2006 and 2011, approximately 26 Chinese official development finance projects are identified. These projects are estimated around 100 millions USD financed by China’s Exim Bank [1] This endeavor not only spotlights how China is creating a favorable international environment but also it’s close to the concept of soft power. However, soft power is about dynamic relationships between an agent and the subject of attraction. China’s foreign policy and strategy is highly influential, because China’s main target is to lead the world in all fields. Two important issues within this are whether the relationship between the two parts of the world is symmetrical or asymmetrical and the exact role of soft power in this constellation. This paper is going to focus on these arguments and proposes that prominent economies on the African continent such as Senegal have an inescapable role to play in ensuring a symmetrical relationship between China and Africa.
Immunological Status to Hepatitis B Virus of Pregnant Women in Dakar, Senegal  [PDF]
Maguette Sylla Niang, Khadidiatou Sarr Fall, Babacar Mbengue, Moustapha Mbow, Ndiokhor Nd. Diouf, Ousseynou Boye, Gora Lo, Papa Madieye Guèye, Rena Derwiche, Amina Sow Sall, Tandakha Ndiaye Dieye, Alioune Dieye
Open Journal of Immunology (OJI) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oji.2017.72003
Abstract: Objective: Evaluate the immunological status to hepatitis B virus of Senegalese pregnant women by screening HBs antigen. Material and methods: The selection criteria of women were presence at the laboratory for biological exams of pregnancy follow-up. All volunteers for the study were screened for HBs antigen (HBs Ag). Investigation of chronic hepatitis B markers (HBe Ag, anti-HBe, viral quantification) was performed in HBs Ag positive participants. The concentration of anti-HBs antibodies was assessed in HBs Ag negative women. Results: One hundred and fifteen (115) pregnant women were included in the study from July to October 2014. The mean age was 29 ± 6 years, ranging from 16 to 47. The seroprevalence of HBs Ag was 12% and the majority of women (90%) were not vaccinated. Any of the 14 HBs Ag-positive subjects did not express serum HBe Ag, (marker of active viral replication) and all were positive for anti-HBe antibodies. Their viral load (HBV DNA) was undetectable and serum transaminases were normal. The anti-HBs antibodies titrated in HBs-Ag negative women serum revealed that only 46 had protective levels against HBV whilst 55 of them were unprotected.
Severity of the Rheumatoid Arthritis in Sub-Saharan Africa: Study of 403 Senegalese Observations  [PDF]
Moustapha Niasse, Ba?dy Sy Kane, Abdoul Aziz Ndiaye, Awa Cheikh Ndao, Boundia Djiba, Seynabou Fall, Ngoné Diaba Diack, Fatimata Bintou Sall, Michel Assane Ndour, Nafy Diagne, Atoumane Faye, Biram Codou Fall, Souha?bou Ndongo, Abdoulaye Pouye
Open Journal of Internal Medicine (OJIM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojim.2017.74016
Abstract: Introduction: We assess the severity of the rheumatoid arthritis in a Senegalese African black population. Patients and methods: It is a retrospective study achieved in the service of Internal Medicine of Aristide Le Dantec teaching hospital of Dakar between January 2005 and December 2016 in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. We specified for every patient the predictive data of severity of the rheumatoid arthritis. Results: Four hundred and three patients have been gathered (39 men and 364 women), with the mean age of 45.8 years. An active tobacco addiction was noticed in 10 patients. The diagnostic delay was on average of 72 months. Characteristic articular deformations were noticed in 215 patients (53.3%). They were correlated to male (p = 0.038), to age (p = 0.001) and to the activity of the rheumatoid arthritis (p = 0.0445). Systemic manifestations have been observed in 213 cases (52.9%), particularly anemia (50.8%). They were correlated to the anti-CCP antibodies (p = 0.047). The ESR was increased at the first hour in 84.4% of cases (median: 43 mm; extreme: 1and 160). CRP was elevated in 63.71% of cases (median of 12 mg/l; extreme: 1 and 384). The rheumatoid factor was positive in 57.6% of the cases. The anti-CCP antibodies were present in 89.2% of the cases. Articular erosions were objectified in all cases. A DAS 28 superior to 5.1 was noticed in 71% of cases. Conclusion: The rheumatoid arthritis was severe in our study.
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