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Studies on the blood parasites of sheep in Ibadan, Nigeria
JO Adejinmi, NA Sadiq, SO Fashanu, OT Lasisi, S Ekundayo
African Journal of Biomedical Research , 2004,
Abstract: A total of two hundred and fourteen blood samples collected from West African Dwarf (WAD) Sheep between the months of January and April 2001 were examined for haemoparasites using the blood smear method. The rectal temperature, Packed Cell volume (PCV), Haemoglobin concentration (Hb), Red Blood Cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts of the sheep were determined. The Parasites found were Anaplasma, Babesia and Eperythrozoon species. Mixed infections with these parasites were common. Anaplasma sp was the most predominant in WAD sheep carrying single infection. Mixed infections with Anaplasma and Eperythrozoon (AE) species. Anaplasma, Babesia and Eperythrozoon (ABE) species were the most common. The mean temperature of sheep carrying mixed infections was higher than those carrying single infection. Similarly the mean PCV, Hb, RBC and WBC of Sheep carrying mixed infections were lower than the sheep carrying single infection. The significance of these to sheep production is discussed.
Phenotypic variability among strains of Pasteurella multocida isolated from avian, bovine, caprine, leporine and ovine origin
SO Ekundayo, MO Odugbo, AO Olabode, PA Okewole
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: Phenotypic diversity among 69 field isolates plus 3 vaccine strains previously identified as Pasteurella multocida were investigated by extended phenotypic characterization. The field isolates were obtained in Nigeria from chickens (15 isolates), quail (5 isolates), cattle (31 isolates), goats (7 isolates), sheep (8 isolates), rabbits (3 isolates) and the vaccine strains (3 isolates), which are used as prophylaxis against fowl cholera and haemorrhagic septicaemia diseases. Consistent results were obtained for all isolates in the test for Gram reaction, oxidase, catalase, urease, no growth on MacConkey agar and nitrate reduction. All isolates also fermented D-glucose, D-mannitol, and sucrose but failed to ferment lactose. The isolates differed in their ability to ferment L-arabinose, D-dulcitol, D-sorbitol, D-xylose and in the production of indole and H2S in triple sugar iron agar resulting in the identification of 8 biochemical types or biovars. Dulcitol and sorbitol fermentation patterns meant that the isolates (including the vaccine strains) could be identified as subspecies Pasteurella multocida multocida (74%), Pasteurella multocida septica (18%), or Pasteurella multocida gallicida (8%). The subspecies P. m. multocida was demonstrated in all the animal species and the vaccine strains. Among the animal species studied, P.m. septica was demonstrated in all but the leporine species while P.m. gallicida was demonstrated only in the avian and ovine species. This characterization study adds to the considerable phenotypic variability that has been reported within the P. multocida taxon.
Comparative Studies on Biodegradative Abilities of Pleurotus ostreatus and P. pulmonarius in Soils Contaminated with Crude and Used Engine Oils  [PDF]
Fatuyi Olanipekun Ekundayo
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2014.412094
Abstract: Crude and used engine oil degrading ability of two white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus and P. pulmonarius were investigated for six months. One hundred grams of sterilized soil moistened with 75% distilled water (w/v) were weighed into 9 × 9 × 4 cm (350 cm3) jam bottles and mixed thoroughly with bonny light crude oil and used engine oil at different concentrations (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 25% and 30%), separately. Each bottle was then inoculated with two agar plugs of a vigorously grown mycelium of P. ostreatus and P. pulmonarius using a sterile cork borer. The bottles were incubated at room temperature for 6 months. The mycelia-ramified waste was separated from soils and analysed for physicochemical parameters such as organic matter, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, pH and total hydrocarbon content, (THC) after drying. The organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus contents in contaminated and inoculated soils were increased after six months. However, decrease in potassium, pH and THC occurred in these soils after the period of investigation. P. ostreatus
Investigations On The Carrier Rate Of Pasteurella Multocida In Black Rats (Rattus Rattus) In A Commercial Quail Farm
ES Mwankon, MO Odugbo, LD Jwander, V Olabode, SO Ekundayo, U Musa, T Spencer, SI Isa, A Kaikabo, S Boss
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology , 2009,
Abstract: The aim was to investigate the level of Pasteurella Multocida infection from two anatomic sites of black rats (Rattus Rattus), popularly referred to as house or roof rats in a commercial quail farmhouse with recurrent fowl cholera outbreaks and also to evaluate the association between the Pasteurella Multocida found in rats co-habiting quail poultry houses and isolates from outbreaks of fowl cholera. Thus 100 pharyngeal and 100 rectum swabs samples taken from rats co-habiting farmhouse were obtained and evaluated bacteriologically for isolation of P. multocida; 54% of pharyngeal swabs and 62% of rectum swabs were positive for P. multocida. Extended phenotypic characterization of the isolates confirmed the presence of subspecies P. multocida multocida. Subspecies Pasteurella Multocida septica and gallicida were not encountered. Ramdom serotyping of 5 isolates each from the two sites confirmed serotypes A:4. Fowl cholera outbreaks were confirmed on the quail houses and carrier rats had the same Pasteurella Multocida subspecies and serotype as the infected quail. The public health significance of the finding is also discussed. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 10 (1) 2009: pp. 2-9
Microbiological Examination of Sachet Water Due to a Cholera Outbreak in Ibadan, Nigeria  [PDF]
Flora Oluwafemi, Michael Ekundayo Oluwole
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2012.23017
Abstract: A severe outbreak of cholera in Ibadan (Oyo state, Nigeria) occurred after a devastating flood in August, 2011, causing the death of over 18 persons and several cases of hospitalization. The project aimed at screening sachet water for mi-croorganisms related to water-borne diseases. One hundred sachet water samples were randomly collected. The pH was determined using a digital pH meter. Values ranged between 6.3 - 8.7, with 28% of the samples being above the WHO approved range of 6.4 - 7.6. No residual chlorine was detected. Gram negative isolates were 80%, while 20% were Gram positive. Faecal coliforms above the recommended WHO zero coliforms per 100 mL were 30%. Escherichia coli had the highest incidence (17%), followed by Acinetobacter sp. (12%), Enterobacter aerogenes (11%), Flavobacterium sp. (11%), Proteus mirabilis (11%), Staphyloccocus aureus (10%), Bacillus subtilis (8%), Micrococcus sp. (5%), Streptococcus faecalis (2%), Klebsiella sp. (2%) and Vibrio cholerae (1%). There is urgent need for public awareness campaigns against water-borne diseases.
Towards Strengthening the Relationship between Trade Unions and University Management in Nigeria
HT Ekundayo
African Research Review , 2012,
Abstract: Universities are a repository of the most specialised and skilled manpowers. They are places where the manpower needs of a nation are nurtured. However, the management of these institutions is becoming complex nowadays because of the ravaging conflicts between the universities management and the various trade unions in the system. This paper therefore examined the various causes of conflicts between the trade unions and the university managements, which include: poor funding of the system, poor condition of service, and bad leadership style of university administrators. Recommendations were made on how to strengthen the relationship between the unions and the university authorities. They are proper funding and judicious uses of the fund allocated; better condition of service; principle of democratic governance; conducive teaching-learning environment and better information channel.
Abscess rate of patients with penetrating abdominal injury in Zaria  [PDF]
Jerry Godfrey Makama, Ekundayo Stephen Garba
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.54102

Background: Penetrating abdominal injury occurs when a foreign object pierces the skin. The morbidity and mortality associated with penetrating abdominal trauma is related to the intra-abdominal complications. This study is, therefore, intended to determine the abscess rate resulting from penetrating abdominal trauma in Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Zaria. Method: A 6-year (January 2006-December 2011) retrospective study of penetrating abdominal trauma emphasizing on the rate of development of intra-abdominal abscess. Information was obtained from patients’ case notes, operating room log books and surgical audit data. Information extracted included cases of penetrating abdominal trauma, intra-operative findings and cases of intra-abdominal abscesses. Results: A total of 39 cases of penetrating abdominal trauma were treated within this period of six years. 3 (7.7%) were treated in 2006, 6 (15.4%) in 2007, 3 (7.7%) in 2008 and 11 (28.2%) in 2009, 8 (20.5%) in 2010, 9 (23.1%) in 2011. 26 (66.7%) were adult while 13 (33.3%) were paediatric cases. The male were 37 (94.9%) and the female were 2 (5.1%), with a sex ratio of 18.5:1 (male to female). The age range was 5 -60 years (39.92 mean). The commonest cause of injury was road traffic accident. At exploration, 13 (33.3%) had organ injury only, 17 (43.6%) suffer from both organ injury and intra-peritoneal emorrhage, 9 (23.1%) had retroperitoneal haemorrhage only. The intra-abdominal abscess rate of penetrating abdominal injury in Zaria was found to be 2.6%. Conclusion: Contamination from either foreign object or organ injury is found to increase the risk of post-operative intra-abdominal abscess. In this center, the abscess rate of penetrating abdominal trauma is comparatively low.

Assessment of Biomass Productivities of Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus in Defined Media and Municipal Wastewater at Varying Concentration of Nitrogen  [PDF]
Omowunmi Fadeyi, Kudjo Dzantor, Ekundayo Adeleke
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2016.82018
Abstract: Microalgae are emerging as one of the most promising long-term sustainable sources of renewable energy. Studies were conducted on two freshwater Chlorophytes, Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus to evaluate heterotrophic growth rate and biomass productivity in filter-sterilized defined medium (BG 11) and municipal wastewater, both with varying concentrations of nitrogen (N). For each isolate, cultures were separately incubated in triplicate at room temperature with constant agitation on a shaker at 150 rpm for 9 days. In 0.25 mg N/L BG11 medium, the growth rate and biomass productivity of C. vulgaris were 0.28 day-1 and 3.5 g·L-1, respectively. In wastewater, the same amount of N addition resulted in a higher growth rate 0.44 day-1 and associated biomass productivity of 4.96 g·L-1. Increasing N levels to 0.5 mg N/L in BG11 caused an increase in growth rate (0.37 day-1) and biomass productivity (4.28 g·L-1), while the increase in N in wastewater caused growth to decline to 0.32 day-1 with decreased biomass productivity of 2.19 g·L-1. A further increase in N to 1.0 mg N/L in BG11 caused an increase in the growth rate (0.43 day-1) and a decrease in biomass productivity (3.64 g·L-1), while in wastewater, growth rate and productivity of C. vulgaris were 0.32 day-1 and 2.31 g·L-1, respectively. Overall, C. vulgaris grew faster and produced greater biomass than S. obliquus under comparable conditions. Based on high growth rate and biomass productivity of C. vulgaris, it could be a potential candidate for further consideration for simultaneous wastewater treatment and biofuel production.
Effects of Tax Audit on Tax Compliance and Remittance of Tax Revenue in Ekiti State  [PDF]
Clement Olatunji Olaoye, Ayodele Temitope Ekundayo
Open Journal of Accounting (OJAcct) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojacct.2019.81001
Abstract: Low tax compliance and remittance limit the capacity of government to raise revenue for developmental purposes because the higher the revenue, the more likely government will put in place developmental plans for the enhancement of the living standard of the people. Based on this, the study examined the effects of tax audit on tax compliance and remittance of tax revenue in Ekiti State. It specifically investigated the effect of desk audit, field audit, back duty audit and registration audit on tax compliance and remittance of tax revenue in Ekiti State. A close-ended questionnaire was used to gather the needed data and an analysis was carried out through correlation matrix and multiple regression. It was discovered that desk audit, field audit, back duty audit and registration audit had a positive significant effect on tax compliance and remittance in Ekiti State with the p-value of 0.001, 0.000, 0.000 and 0.000 respectively. Worthy of note was that field audit was the most significant predictor out of all the predictor variables. It was concluded that tax audit could engender tax compliance and remittance in Ekiti State. It was therefore recommended that Ekiti State government should intensify tax audit through the employment of more competent staffs and intermittent training in order to cause increase in tax compliance level in the State. Also, Audited files that reveal criminal act should not be taken slightly. Tax evaders and avoiders should be seriously dealt with so as to deter others from plodding the same criminal path.
Evaluation Of The Quality Of Locally Manufactured Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Discs Used In South Eastern Nigeria
EO Ekundayo, OD Omodamiro
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology , 2008,
Abstract: Locally manufactured antimicrobial susceptibility discs are becoming increasingly used in both private and government hospital laboratories in Nigeria. Data on the quality of these locally manufactured antimicrobial discs are not available. In order to provide some data, we evaluated the quality of three brands of locally manufactured antimicrobial susceptibility discs in common use in southeastern Nigeria. The three brands are Brodisk, Jirehdisk and Optudisc. The performances of these brands in agar disc diffusion assay against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli were compared with that of Abtek, the imported brand. Un-interpretable zones of inhibition defined as large zones of inhibition that merged together or complete wiping out of bacterial growth at the time of reading of the plate, were common with Optudisc and Jiredisk brands. The imported brand, Abtek, did not produce any such results. While Gentamycin on Abtek produced a mean diameter of zone of inhibition of 15mm, 19mm and 16mm against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and E. coli respectively, the same antibiotic disc with the same stated potency on Brodisk an Jiredisk produced no zone of inhibition against the test bacteria. Amoxylin and Augmentin discs on Abtek produced zones of inhibition of 13mm and 21mm against S. aureus respectively. Amoxylin disc on Brodisk did not produce any zone of inhibition against the bacterial strain while Augmentin disc on Jirehdisk produced un-interpretable result. Of the three locally made brands, Brodisk is the only one that conformed to the international standard of not having more than eight discs per 90mm plate. In our opinion, Brodisk can be recommended for clinical use in Nigeria with further improvement. The outcome of this study indicates the need for improved standardization in the production of these locally manufactured susceptibility discs. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 9 (3) 2008: pp. 122-128
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