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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 881 matches for " SM; "
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How long does it take to become a competent mammographer?
SM Naylor
Breast Cancer Research , 2000, DOI: 10.1186/bcr214
Abstract: The mean number of mammograms taken was 322 (range 250-770); the mean number of weeks was 34 (16-54); the number of weeks for those with no experience was 35 (16-54), for those with limited experience was 35 (19-49) and for an experienced individual was 34 (16-44). The number of mammograms for those with no experience was 385 (253-770), for those with limited experience was 308 (250-551) and for an experienced individual was 292 (251-350). The number of weeks for a trainee participating in breast screening was 32 (16-54) and for those performing symptomatic mammograms only 35.5 (26-49). The number of mammograms for screening was 352 (250-770) and for symptomatic alone was 281 (251-350).The average time taken to reach the required standard to gain the Certificate of Competence in Mammography is not dependent on the previous experience in mammography. However, the number of mammograms taken before the standard is reached may be less the greater the previous experience. The type of work undertaken during the training bears little relevance to the number of weeks taken to accreditation. The number of mammograms taken during the period of training was greater for the individuals working in a screening unit.
Individual growth of Heleobia piscium in natural populations (Gastropoda: Cochliopidae) from the multiple use natural Reserve Isla Martin Garcia, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Martin, SM.;
Brazilian Journal of Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-69842008000300020
Abstract: the present work analyses the individual growth of heleobia piscium in natural conditions in coastal drainage channels of the multiple use natural reserve isla martín garcía, buenos aires, argentina. isla martín garcía is located in the upper río de la plata, to the south of the mouth of the uruguay river (34° 11' 25" s and 58° 15' 38" w). monthly collections were made from july 2005 to july 2006 in the eastern part of the island (arena beach). the population of h. piscium showed a complex and dynamic structure of sizes during a long period of the annual cycle. two cohorts could be detected. the bertalanffy growth equation was: lt = 6 (1-e -1.85 (t+0.38)) and lt = 3.9 (1-e -0.19 (t+4.84)) for cohorts 1 and 2, respectively. the pattern of population growth displayed a staggered model, where the greatest growth is observed during the summer. the reproductive period occurred during six months, from the beginning of summer to middle of fall. based on only one reproductive effort, this pattern is not similar to that of other cogeneric species already studied.
Reforms and Industrial Development and Trade in East Africa: The Case of Tanzania
SM Kapunda
African Journal of International Affairs , 2004,
Abstract: The objective of this discussion is to critically examine the performance of the industrial and trade sectors in the context of the East African Community (EAC). It has been shown that the industrial performance has some direct impact on trade and that Tanzania’s trade shares to EAC are still low. Furthermore, despite the recent impressive performance of the industrial sector, there are traditional and competitive challenges to the sector. The paper therefore concludes by providing policy recommendations.
Simulation par ordinateur de la ligne Haute Tension en régime permanent dans les conditions aléatoires
SM Debbal
Afrique Science: Revue Internationale des Sciences et Technologie , 2005,
Abstract: Computing simulation of the high voltage line operation during permanent state in random conditions The aim of this work consists of the simulation by computer for the operation of the High Voltage (HV) line and also of the network distribution. This will be done by the establishment of a model which can take account of the energy distribution between the various elements of the HV network under normal and random operation conditions. The results we obtain make it possible to understand and act upon the network operation.This allows an improvement and an optimisation of the energy distribution.
Gender-specific constraints affecting technology use and household food security in western province of Kenya.
SM Mikalitsa
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2010,
Abstract: The factors that hinder farm intensification process among smallholders in Kenya are many and varied. These factors are not gender neutral; they affect the ability of both men and women to achieve greater productivity in agriculture. Lack of farm intensification contributes to stagnation of agriculture, increases poverty and limits rural development. The problems that face women farmers are more distinct due to socio-cultural constraints that affect their access to and control over essential assets necessary for improving their livelihoods and those of their households. Lack of access to and ownership of productive assets is an effect as well as a cause of poverty. The objective of the study was to assess gender specific constraints that affect the impact of farm technologies on household food security among smallholders in Western Province of Kenya. A multi-stage stratified random sampling technique was used to select 499 households. Using a semi-structured questionnaire administered to household heads together with six focus group discussions, the study examined how gender affects the intensity of use of farm technologies such as hybrid seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, animal draught power and storage technologies and impact on household food security. In addition, the study analyzed the effect of the level of education of household head and contact with extension service on maize yield. The results show that lack of access to land, extension services, credit, income and low education level are the most important constraints facing women farmers. While women accessed credit from informal sources such as rotating credit and savings, men accessed credit from banks and cooperatives. Women who accessed credit spent more on farm inputs and consequently they realized higher maize output. The results further showed that access to extension services was a problem to both genders; 21 % of women and 20 % of men had access to extension services - demonstrating the inability of the current extension system to disseminate existing and new technologies to smallholders. Access to formal school-based education and extension service had a large and significant effect on maize yield. Women were further constrained by limited time to perform their roles as well as limited access to technologies. Wives (59%) were more affected by labour changes associated with technology use than husbands (21%). The findings provide useful information to policy makers on how to address the complex issues related to gender, agricultural development and rural poverty.
Beyond the Impasse of African Industrial Development: The Case of Botswana, Tanzania and Zambia
SM Kapunda
Africa Development , 2007,
Abstract: The thrust of this article is to examine critically the importance, performance and under-weighting of the industrial sector in Africa focusing on three countries, Botswana, Tanzania and Zambia, in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region. The article shows that both theoretical and empirical evidence indicates somewhat unsatisfactory industrial performance. The article attempts to explain the way forward (beyond the impasse), by providing alternative approaches, opportunities and recommendations.
Occurrence of diploid and polyploid microspores in Sorghum bicolor (Poaceae) is the result of cytomixis
SM Ghaffari
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2006,
Abstract: Colchicine is used in this investigation to increase chromosome doubling in Sorghum bicolor Line IS4546. Of a total of 500 plants which were treated, eight of them showed the occurrence of cytomixsis at meiotic stages. No polyploids were found in the treated plants. The results obtained from meiotic studies on control plants showed the 10 bivalents in majority of pollen mother cells at diakinesis and first metaphase. In eight treated plants, occurrence of cytomixis and chromosome migration were observed. Analysis of 230 pollen mother cells at first metaphase stage showed 73.91% haploid (n=10), 10.43% diploid (n=20), 7.82% triploid (n=30), 4.34% tetraploid and 3.47% pentaploid (n=50) number of chromosomes. Pollen diameters showed that the cytomictic cells differed from the normal cells. These results indicate that cytomixis can really be an effective mechanism for the production of polyploid gametes
LONG-TERM EFFICACY OF MACROPLASTIQUE INJECTION FOR THE TREATMENT OF URINARY INCONTINENCE IN MALES AND FEMALES
SM Mourad
African Journal of Urology , 2003,
Abstract: Objective To evaluate the long-term efficacy of endoscopic injection of Macroplastique (Polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS)in male and female urinary incontinence (UI). Patients and Methods A total of 87 patients with different causes of urinary incontinence have been treated by endoscopic injection of PDMS at our department between 1997 and 2001. The group consisted of 39 male and 48 female patients with a mean age of 58 and 44 years, respectively. All patients underwent a sophisticated history taking including urodynamics and were instructed to complete a pre- and postoperative voiding diary. The results were evaluated by questionnaire at 1, 6, 12 and 24 months after injection. The outcome was classified as dry in all circumstances, improved or failed. Results At one month, 5 male (13%) and 10 female (21%) patients were dry, while 27 males and 29 females had improved and treatment had failed in 7 males (18%) and 9 females (19%). At the last follow-up (mean injections = 2.5), 12 males patients (31%) and 27 female patients (56%) were classified as dry, 18 males (46%) and 14 females (29%) were improved, while in 9 males (23%) and 7 females (15%) the procedure had failed. The overall success rate (dry and improved) was 77% for the males and 85% for the females. Conclusion The use of PDMS (Macroplastique) is a good and effective alternative for the treatment of intrinsic sphincter deficiency in male and female patients. The implants do not lose volume over time and have a good long-term effect. Efficacité à Long Terme de l'Injection de Macroplastique pour le Traitement d'Incontinence Urinaire chez les Sujets de Sexe Masculin et Féminin Objectif : D'évaluer l'efficacité à long terme de l'injection endoscopique de Macroplastique (Polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS) chez les patients présentant une incontinence urinaire (UI). Patients et Méthodes : Un total de 87 patients, présentant différentes causes d'incontinence urinaire, ont été traités par l'injection endoscopique de PDMS entre avril 1997 et mars 2001. Le groupe s'est composé de 39 hommes et 48 femmes avec un age moyen de 58 et 44 ans, respectivement. Tous les patients ont subi un examen complet, une étude urodynamique, et ont été chargés de tenir un journal intime pré et postopératoire. Les résultats ont été évalués par le questionnaire à 1, 6, 12 et 24 mois après injection. Les résultats ont été classés comme secs dans toutes les circonstances, améliorée ou échec. Résultats : à 1 mois, 5 hommes (13%) et 10 femmes (21%) étaient secs avec 27 hommes et 29 femmes améliorées, le traitement a échoué chez 7 hommes (18%) et 9 femmes (19%). Enfin de suivi (injections moyennes = 2.5) 12 hommes (31%) et 27 femmes (56%) ont été classés en tant que secs, 18 hommes (46%) et 14 femmes (29%) ont été améliorés tandis que 9 hommes (23%) et 7 femmes (15%) étaient considérés comme des échecs. Le taux de succès (sec et amélioré) était de 77% pour les hommes et 85% pour les femmes. Conclusion : L'utilisation de PDMS (Macroplastiqu
The impact of HIV infection on childhood pneumonia: comparison between developed and developing regions
SM Graham
Malawi Medical Journal , 2002,
Abstract: Respiratory disease is the commonest cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected children. While the pattern of HIV-related pneumonia in African adults is well documented and is recognised as quite different from that which occurs among HIV-infected adults in high-income regions, less is known of the situation in children. Most children are infected by mother-to-child transmission and presentation of HIV-related pneumonia is often in infancy or early childhood, an age group in which confirmation of the cause of pneumonia is difficult. However, aetiological data are important. Poor response of the infant with severe pneumonia to standard antibiotic (such as chloramphenicol) or of the older child with chronic pneumonia to anti-tuberculosis treatment are two very common clinical dilemmas that many Malawian health workers would recognise. This review aims to present the available data relevant to Malawi, contrast with experience from the developed world and to describe common HIV-related pneumonias such as PCP and LIP. Unlike for adults, the pattern of HIV-related pneumonia in Malawian children may not be so different in cause from that described for children in developed countries prior to the use of PCP prophylaxis and anti-retroviral therapies. The most important contrast is the higher prevalence and poorer outcome. [Malawi Med J. Vol.14(2) 2002: 20-23]
HIV and bone mineral density changes a review of literature
SM Johnson
Jos Journal of Medicine , 2012,
Abstract:
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