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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 924 matches for " SM Udupa "
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Use of an adsorbent and antioxidants to reduce the effects of leached phenolics in in vitro plantlet regeneration of faba bean
R Abdelwahd, N Hakam, M Labhilili, SM Udupa
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: Development of a reliable in vitro regeneration protocol is necessary to facilitate genetic transformation of faba bean. However, leaching of phenolics from the explants of most genotypes of faba bean to the culture medium causes browning, and eventually kills the explants, hindering in vitro regeneration. This study is aimed to minimize the effect of phenolics and to identify the most suitable types of explants for in vitro regeneration. We pre-treated faba bean seeds in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), then cultured different types of explants on tissue culture media supplemented with an adsorbent (activated charcoal) and antioxidants (ascorbic acid, cysteine and silver nitrate). Our results showed that treating the over night soaked seed (after removing the seed coat) with PVP solution (1000 mg/l) for 1 h, followed by culturing in Murashige and Skoog medium (MS medium) with 3% (w/v) sucrose, 0.8% (w/v) agar, 2 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine and 2 mg/l thidiazuron, supplemented with ascorbic acid (1 mg/l) or activated charcoal (10 g/l), greatly reduced lethal browning in explants and improved shoot regeneration. The shoots rooted on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l -naphthaleneacetic acid. The cotyledonary node is the most suitable type of explant for regeneration. Regenerated plantlets were successfully established in pots and set seeds in the green house.
Genotypic characterization of indigenous Sinorhizobium meliloti and Rhizobium sullae by rep- PCR, RAPD and ARDRA analyses
N Elboutahiri, I Thami-Alami, E Za d, SM Udupa
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: The rhizobia, Sinorhizobium meliloti and Rhizobium sullae, which fix nitrogen in root nodules of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and sulla (Hedysarum sp.) forage legumes, respectively, were isolated from root nodules and soils from Morocco. We used three PCR-based techniques namely, rep-PCR, RAPD and ARDRA techniques for genotypic characterization of 10 isolates of S. meliloti and R. sullae, in order to identify rapid and reliable techniques for applications in population genetic analysis of these species. The analysis revealed characteristic banding patterns for S. meliloti and R. sullae isolates by all the three techniques, even though the isolates are from a narrow geographic region in Morocco. Furthermore, the results showed that the rep-PCR with REP and ERIC primers was more efficient than RAPD and ARDRA technique for genotyping S. meliloti isolates; and rep-PCR with REP primers and the ARDRA technique with restriction enzyme HinfI, were more efficient than the other rep-PCR and RAPD-PCR techniques for genotyping R. sullae isolates.
Genotype x Environment interaction for quality traits in durum wheat cultivars adapted to different environments
M Taghouti, F Gaboun, N Nsarellah, R Rhrib, M El-Haila, M Kamar, F Abbad-Andaloussi, SM Udupa
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2010,
Abstract: The quality traits of durum wheat are important for the utilization by the industries. These traits may be influenced by genotype and interaction of genotype and environment (GxE). To evaluate the effects of genotype, environment and genotype x environment interaction on quality traits such as vitreousness, SDS sedimentation test, yellow pigment index, protein content and test weight, twelve Moroccan durum wheat cultivars representing a range of agronomic adaptation were tested in five locations representing a range of environments in three growing seasons. The results indicated significant effects of genotype, environment and GxE for all the quality traits. The extent of these effects differed; for SDS sedimentation volumes, yellow pigment and test weight, the component of variation due to genotype was larger than due to the environment, indicating the greater influence of genotypes on these traits. However, for vitreousness and protein content, the effect of environment was higher than the effect due to genotypes. Thus, these traits are controlled greatly by environmental effects than genetics. The variation due to GxE was higher than that of genotype for vitreousness and test weight, indicating high GxE interaction effect and less genotypic stability for these traits. For protein content, where the environmental effect was greater than that of genotype and GxE effect, multiple environmental trials are necessary in order to determine protein content of a cultivar. For other traits, preliminary evaluations can be done in one environment and good performing ones can be selected for multiple environmental trials.
Evaluation of Antioxidant and Wound Healing Effects of Alcoholic and Aqueous Extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn in Rats
Somashekar Shetty,Saraswati Udupa,Laxminarayana Udupa
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2008, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nem004
Abstract: In recent years, oxidative stress and free radicals have been implicated in impaired wound healing. Ocimum sanctum (O. sanctum), a plant widely used in Ayurveda, possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential of alcoholic and aqueous extracts in wound healing in Wistar albino rats. The rats were divided into five groups of six animals each. Group 1 is normal wounded control and the other four groups were treated with two different doses each of alcoholic and aqueous extract of O. sanctum. The wound healing parameters were evaluated by using incision, excision and dead space wounds in extract-treated rats and controls. Both the doses of alcoholic and aqueous extract significantly increased wound breaking strength, hydroxyproline, hexuronic acid, hexosamines, superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione and significantly decreased percentage of wound contraction and lipid peroxidation when compared with the control group. The results suggest that O. sanctum has antioxidant properties, which may be responsible and favorable for faster wound healing and this plant extract may be useful in the management of abnormal healing and hypertropic scars.
Observations on urinary 17-ketosteroids in breast cancer patients
Singh R,Udupa K
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine , 1977,
Abstract: Urinary 17-ketosteroids (17-KS) have been estimated and correlated with different stages of breast cancer in this study. We observed marked increase in urinary 17-KS in advanced stages of the disease. Further, we noticed a positive correlation between urinary 17-KS levels and the progress of the disease. Thus, estima-tion of urinary 17-KS may prove to be of some prognostic value and may help the clinicians concerned in the clinical evaluation of the stage and the progress of the disease.
Language to Specify Syntax-Guided Synthesis Problems
Mukund Raghothaman,Abhishek Udupa
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: We present a language to specify syntax guided synthesis (SyGuS) problems. Syntax guidance is a prominent theme in contemporary program synthesis approaches, and SyGuS was first described in [1]. This paper describes concretely the input format of a SyGuS solver. [1] Rajeev Alur, Rastislav Bodik, Garvit Juniwal, Milo M. K. Martin, Mukund Raghothaman, Sanjit A. Seshia, Rishabh Singh, Armando Solar-Lezama, Emina Torlak, and Abhishek Udupa. Syntax-guided synthesis. In FMCAD, pages 1--17, 2013.
Effect of nicotine on exocytotic pancreatic secretory response: role of calcium signaling
Chowdhury Parimal,Udupa Kodetthoor B
Tobacco Induced Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1617-9625-11-1
Abstract: Background Nicotine is a risk factor for pancreatitis resulting in loss of pancreatic enzyme secretion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanisms of nicotine-induced secretory response measured in primary pancreatic acinar cells isolated from Male Sprague Dawley rats. The study examines the role of calcium signaling in the mechanism of the enhanced secretory response observed with nicotine exposure. Methods Isolated and purified pancreatic acinar cells were subjected to a nicotine exposure at a dose of 100 μM for 6 minutes and then stimulated with cholecystokinin (CCK) for 30 min. The cell’s secretory response was measured by the percent of amylase released from the cells in the incubation medium Calcium receptor antagonists, inositol trisphosphate (IP3) receptor blockers, mitogen activated protein kinase inhibitors and specific nicotinic receptor antagonists were used to confirm the involvement of calcium in this process. Results Nicotine exposure induced enhanced secretory response in primary cells. These responses remained unaffected by mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK’s) inhibitors. The effects, however, have been completely abolished by nicotinic receptor antagonist, calcium channel receptor antagonists and inositol trisphosphate (IP3) receptor blockers. Conclusions The data suggest that calcium activated events regulating the exocytotic secretion are affected by nicotine as shown by enhanced functional response which is inhibited by specific antagonists… The results implicate the role of nicotine in the mobilization of both intra- and extracellular calcium in the regulation of stimulus-secretory response of enzyme secretion in this cell system. We conclude that nicotine plays an important role in promoting enhanced calcium levels inside the acinar cell.
Development of Bio-Machine Based on the Plant Response to External Stimuli
K. Aditya,Ganesha Udupa,Yongkwun Lee
Journal of Robotics , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/124314
Abstract: In the area of biorobotics, intense research work is being done based on plant intelligence. Any living cell continuously receives information from the environment. In this paper, research is conducted on the plant named descoingsii x haworthioides (Pepe) obtaining the action potential signals and its responses to stimulations of different light modes. The plant electrical signal is the reaction of plant’s stimulation owing to various environmental conditions. Action potentials are responsible for signaling between plant cells and communication from the plants can be achieved through modulation of various parameters of the electrical signal in the plant tissue. The modulated signals are used for providing information to the microcontroller’s algorithm for working of the bio-machine. The changes of frequency of action potentials in plant are studied. Electromyography (EMG) electrodes and needle-type conductive electrodes along with electronic modules are used to collect and transform the information from the plant. Inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) is used to convert signal in frequency domain into voltage signal for real-time analysis. The changes in frequency of the plant action potentials to different light modes are used for the control of the bio-machine. This work has paved the way for an extensive research towards plant intelligence. 1. Introduction Much like humans, animals and plants have electrical signals which pass through them, but plants do not have nerves like humans and animals. Sanderson [1] was the first to discover the action potentials (APs) in the stimulation of a Dionaea leaf. Hence, electrical signals do not belong only to animal kingdom and humans [1]. Darwin [2] also found the response of some carnivorous venus fly trap plants [2]. Generally in humans and animals when the muscle is voluntarily contracted, action appears. In plants it is found that action potentials are the signals caused by the depolarization of plasma membrane [3, 4]. Green plants are able to show different electrical activity, which has been known long time ago [5]. Moreover, exhaustive studies in this field began only in the last decades of the former century along with the different contemporary experimental methods [6, 7]. Electrical phenomena in plants have complicated character. Plant tissues are very complicated, highly structured consisting of both conductive and insulative elements. Because of that the resistance of different plants is not only ohmic but also frequency dependent. In 1926, Bose used the isolated vascular bundles of a fern (Blechnum
Mitogenic and functional responses by nicotine and hydrogen peroxide in AR42J cells: a comparative study
Azida Walker, Kodetthoor B Udupa, Parimal Chowdhury
Tobacco Induced Diseases , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1617-9625-4-5
Abstract: Nicotine, one of the main chemicals in tobacco, has been known as a primary psychoactive ingredient that is responsible for the reinforced behavior in smokers. Each year in the United States, 435,000, or 1 in every 5 deaths, are attributed to cigarette smoking [1]. About half of the young adult smokers today who continue to smoke throughout their life will die of a smoke related diseases [2]. Further, it has been shown that smoking is an independent risk factor in the development of chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer [3,4]. In animal studies it has been shown that nicotine plays a role in the induction of pathophysiology of pancreas [5,6].Evidence shows that lipid peroxidation occurs in pancreatic tissues when exposed to nicotine [7] and that the mitochondrial respiratory chain is affected by nicotine leading to an increased generation of superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide [8]. Clinical studies have indicated that patients with acute pancreatitis have a higher plasma levels of lipid peroxide than that observed in patients with mild pancreatitis [9]. This suggests that multiple etiological factors other than the release of enzymes may be responsible in this mechanism. As of to-date, however, there have been no reported studies investigating the role of oxyradicals induced by nicotine in the pancreas, and to determine whether oxyradical formation by nicotine contribute to the pathophysiological mechanisms associated with pancreatic injury encountered in smokers We have shown earlier that nicotine induces functional alterations and MAP kinase signaling pathways in pancreatic acinar cells [10,11]; however, the underlying mechanisms responsible for these observed effects by nicotine are still not completely understood. We surmise in this study that nicotine induces the oxidative stress in pancreatic acinar cells and thus contributes to this mechanism.Oxidative stress arises when there is an imbalance between the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and
Mitogen Activated Protein (MAP) Kinase Signaling by Nicotine in Primary and Pancreatic Tumor Cells: Effects on Proliferation and Cell Function
Chowdhury Parimal,Udupa Kodetthoor,Zharov Vladimir P
Tobacco Induced Diseases , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1617-9625-3-12
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