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Adaptation of the Rapid Estimate of Adult Litera cy in Medicine Revised (REALM -R) to the South African context: Part 1
S Wasserman, SCD Wright, TM Maja
Health SA Gesondheid , 2010,
Abstract: Literacy levels are increasingly important in health care because professional nurses and other health care professionals often use written health education materials as a major component in patient education. In South Africa, no current instrument is available to assess the literacy levels of patients in the primary health care setting, though several instruments have been developed and validated internationally. The purpose of this paper was to adapt and validate the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine Revised (REALM-R) to the South African context. The REALM-R is a short instrument that is designed to rapidly screen clients in the primary health care setting for low health literacy. A modified Delphi-technique was used to measure the judgement of a group of experts for the purpose of making a decision. Eight experts in the field of Nursing Science were selected purposively to obtain the most reliable consensus. Data was collected by means of a selfreport whereby participants responded to a series of questions posed by the researcher. Descriptive statistics was used for analysing data. The REALM-R was adapted to the South African context to ensure that the literacy level of South African clients is measured with an appropriate instrument.
Perception of seriousness and preventive health actions of patients with type 2 diabetes
SCD Wright, JJM Jansen van Rensburg, JE Maree
Health SA Gesondheid , 2009,
Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic health conditions in the world. Though type 2 diabetes is a very serious condition, it is the complications that go with it that cause major morbidity and mortality. It is possible for a person with type 2 diabetes to lead a normal, happy life with the adequate treatment and motivation. The treatment involves increased physical activity, reducing weight if overweight, following a healthy diet and oral drugs or insulin injections. Patients deliver 95% of their care. According to the Health Promotion Model a nurse can support patients by focussing on the benefi ts of the treatment, teaching them to overcome management barriers and by giving positive feedback. The purpose of this study was to determine whether type 2 diabetes patients who were educated and counselled at a Centre for Diabetes in Limpopo Province, South Africa, perceive their condition as serious and change their lifestyle to prevent complications. The design was an exploratory, contextual, quantitative survey. A convenient sample (n=40) was chosen from patients attending the Centre for Diabetes. The data method was self-report using a pre-testing questionnaire and descriptive statistics to analyse the data. The results of the study indicate that though the majority of the groups’ physical measurements were above normal (obesity 85%, hypertension 35%, HbA1c 65% and waist circumference 70%), they perceived the diabetes diagnosis as not serious (87.5%) and well controlled (87.5%). Solutions for educating individuals to change their lifestyles to prevent complications when they are feeling well have not yet been found.
Rational Use of Drugs: Pharmaceutical Aspects of the Drug Selection
Natalya B. Rostova, PhD, ScD,Tatiana F. Odegova, PhD, ScD
International Journal of BioMedicine , 2012,
Abstract: In this article, the problems encountered in the rational use of drugs are discussed, one of the areas of optimization of drug supply being the rational choice of drugs, particularly, a regulatory activity regarding the approach to the selection of standardized drug lists (drug formulary) for public drug supply, according to government guarantees and programs. The clinical aspects of the drug selection are expounded in detail. The characteristics of the drugs (original or generic drug (generics), the origin of drugs and the breadth of therapeutic index), have been taken into account. Certain stages have been analyzed, particularly drug use in individual diseases, drug selection, expert drug evaluation, and expert recommendations to include specific drugs in the drug list. Organizational steps have been proposed to implement the rational choice of drugs to be included in the drug formulary.
Cholecystectomy for Large Hartmann’s Pouch Spliced with Biliary Pathways
Alexei L. Charyshkin, PhD, ScD
International Journal of BioMedicine , 2013,
Abstract: In this paper, the proposed cholecystectomy method for very large Hartmann’s pouch spliced with biliary pathways is described in detail. The results of the cholecystectomy procedure for very large Hartmann’s pouch spliced with biliary pathways during the period 2001-2012 are presented. The proposed method contributes to a reduction in complications such as bleeding and bile leakage, and eliminates damage to the common bile duct.
Constitution of the Lymphatic System
Valeriy M. Petrenko, PhD, ScD
International Journal of BioMedicine , 2012,
Abstract: The lymphatic system consists of two types segments – general (systemic or periarterial) and special (own, intervalvular). The segments organize all the system’s reactions in response to its environmental influences. This paper presents the results of the research the common structure of all the sections of the lymphatic bed.
Mechanism of Cell Cycle Asynchrony within the Animal Organism
Michael T. Lucenko, PhD, ScD
International Journal of BioMedicine , 2013,
Abstract: Every organism is composed of multi-cellular systems. Each of these cells, from the time of birth until death, often plays a polyfunctional role. Obviously, this cycle must include periods of intense work and leisure. In other words, the organ cell masses are able to perform the asynchronous mechanism of cell cycle. The implementation of such a mechanism is regulated by the cell’s gene apparatus which receives the signal from the cytosol of the functioning cell; it also performs the reverse inclusion of the cells doing the work after the rest interval. The aim of this study was to show the presence of a daily regulation of the cell apparatus of any organ, using the liver as an example. This phenomenon is the obligatory mechanism developed over the course of a long evolution and explains the lifetime of the multicellular organ system.
Endothelium: A Long Road from Mystery to Discovery
Marietta R. Eliseyeva, PhD, ScD
International Journal of BioMedicine , 2013,
Abstract: The article discusses the main issues of the endothelial function and dysfunction.
The Effect of Human Herpes Virus Infections on the Stages of Gestation
Michael T. Lucenko, PhD, ScD
International Journal of BioMedicine , 2012,
Abstract: Human herpes virus (HHV) infections are dangerous during the early stages of pregnancy. Circulatory disorders of theendometrium from the uterine arteries pose a threat to the implantation of the embryo and the formation of the structure of chorionic villi. Oxygenation of the placental blood gets disrupted.
Impact of Intra-Extracranial Hemodynamics on Cerebral Ischemia by Arterial Hypertension (Part 1)
Alexander G. Kruglov, PhD, ScD,Georgiy Y. Gebel, PhD, ScD,Alexander Y. Vasilyev, PhD, ScD
International Journal of BioMedicine , 2012,
Abstract: The present study was conducted to examine the interaction of biochemical parameters within the blood flow, their effect on the cerebral blood flow, as well as the mechanisms of cerebral ischemia by stable arterial hypertension. The hemodynamics and biochemical indicators of cerebral blood flow without the additives of the extracranial blood were obtained by the catheterization method via a probe wedged at the level of the bulb of the superior jugular vein. Sampling of the arterial blood was done in the thoracic aorta. Correlation and factor analysis of the relationship of the biochemical substances within the blood flow, and of the hemodynamic indicators of the cerebral inflow and outflow of blood were conducted by stable arterial hypertension compared with similar data of the control group. The differences thus identified led to the conclusion that by stable arterial hypertension, there is a loss of the homeostatic control of the factors determining the rheological and thrombogenic properties of the blood involved in the formation of cerebral ischemic events.
Inguinal Neuritis in Open Recurrent Hernia Repair  [PDF]
Robert Charles Wright, Robert James Wright
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2014.513106

PURPOSE: To investigate the pattern of occurrence of inguinal neuritis in recurrent inguinal hernia. We hypothesize that neuritis will occur in more nerves with a wider distribution than in primary repair. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of thirty consecutive recurrent inguinal hernia repairs concentrating on the occurrence of inguinal neuritis. These are not chronic pain patients. Nerves suspected of containing inguinal neuritis were sent for histologic examination. Ilioinguinal nerves were routinely resected. Operative parameters and nerve pathology reports were reviewed. These data were compared with a recent series of one hundred consecutive primary inguinal hernia repairs with a 34% incidence of inguinal neuritis. An independent statistician from Whitman University reviewed the data. RESULTS: Twenty patients were found to have inguinal neuritis among thirty recurrent open inguinal hernia repairs (66%). This compares to 34% among primary repairs, but it is a similar rate (P > 0.42) assuming that the damaged nerve was left intact in 34% of these recurrences during the primary repair. In recurrent inguinal hernia 69% of neuritis occurred in the ilioinguinal nerve compared to 88% of damaged ilioinguinal nerves in the primary hernia. A test for the difference in proportions gives P > 0.10. The most common site of neuritis occurrence in recurrent hernias with nerve damage to the ilioinguinal nerve was at the external oblique neuroperforatum among 70% of patients compared to 83% in primary cases. A test for difference in proportions gives P > 0.36. Two separate nerves were found to exhibit neuritis in six patients (20%) significantly higher than 1% among primary hernias (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The overall incidence of inguinal neuritis was 66% in recurrent inguinal hernia repairs. The ilioinguinal nerve was most commonly affected in these recurrent hernias. Inguinal neuritis occurs more commonly in recurrent hernia compared with primary inguinal hernia; however, it has a similar distribution. Neuritis occurs in two nerves with 20% frequency (P < 0.01), so all nerves should be assessed during recurrent herniorrhaphy. The data support the hypothesis.

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