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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4459 matches for " SA. "
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The Course of Pre-Service Teachers’ Expectations in School Practices and the Factors Affecting Their Expectations  [PDF]
Ramazan Sa
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.55045

It is known that expectations of pre-service teachers will change during the process of the school practice especially depending on the interactions they establish with practice teachers and supervisors. The study was conducted at a faculty of education in a big city with pre-service teachers in senior science class using split-plot design. Data were obtained through three measurement levels including initial, intermediate, and final stages in the study which was carried out with 44 preservice teachers 27 of whom were female. Qualitative data were obtained through focus group interviews made with 6 pre-service teachers, 3 of whom were females following measurement levels. Descriptive statistics were used for analyzing the quantitative data while the ANOVA statistic of Friedman which is a nonparametric test was used for analyzing the point differences. Descriptive analysis was used for analyzing the qualitative data and the data were interpreted together with the findings obtained from the quantitative data. It was detected that the initial expectations of the pre-service teachers were higher in the collegiality and leadership categories compared to guidance but their expectations tended to drop dramatically over time. Among the factors that are considered to be the potential factors of the decrease, whether the practice school, which is a new structure, was introduced to the pre-service teachers at the beginning of the academic year and whether they were welcomed in a positive or negative manner at the practice school constituted the most critical turning points.

Electronically Tunable Minimum Component Biquadratic Filters for Interface Circuits  [PDF]
Mehmet Sa?ba?
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2011.23033
Abstract: In this paper, two new electronically tunable filter configurations are proposed. The proposed filters operate current-mode (CM), voltage-mode (VM), transimpedance-mode (TIM) and transadmittance-mode (TAM). The first configuration realizes second-order VM band-pass and TAM high-pass filter characteristics from the same configuration. The second one realizes second-order TIM band-pass and CM low-pass filter characteristics from the same configuration. They also use minimum number of electronic components (two capacitors and one active component namely; current controlled current difference transconductance amplifier). The workability of the proposed structures has been demonstrated by simulation results.
Characterization of Short-Term Stress Applied to the Root System by Electrical Impedance Measurement in the First Leaf of Corn (Zea mays L.) and Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.)  [PDF]
Sa?d Laarabi
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.59142

We applied electrical spectroscopic impedance measurements (ESI) to the first leaf of intact plants of corn and pumpkin. The electric capacity (C) and resistance (Rp) were determined at the characteristic frequency (FC). We observed that the electrical parameters of the ESI change in relation to the nutrition and the addition to the root medium of KCN, N,N'-dicyclohexylcar-bodiimide (DCCD), CH3COOH, H2SO4, polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG 200) and NaCl. The amplitude of the curves of bioimpedance spectrometry decreased when plant roots were stressed comparatively to their controls. An increase of the electrical capacity with a reduction of the electrical resistance characterizes a stress. The increase of stress intensity provokes decreases of Rp and curve amplitudes and an increase of C. We conclude that electrical parameters studied can be widely used for stress characterization.

Teachers’ Professional Development Needs and the Systems That Meet Them  [PDF]
Mahmut Sa??r
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.516167
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify professional development needs of primary and secondary school teachers and to present their views on the systems that meet those needs. The research model utilized in the study was the mixed model type. Findings related to identification of teachers’ professional development needs were collected through quantitative methods whereas findings related to systems that meet those needs were collected qualitatively. The study utilized survey model since it identified teachers’ professional development needs and investigated the systems that meet those needs. The part of the study related to identification of teachers’ professional development needs was quantitative and the section that investigated the systems that met professional development needs was qualitative. Data regarding the quantitative part of the study was collected with a data collection tool composed of 34 items prepared by the researcher and the data regarding the qualitative part of the study was collected, a 5-item data collection tool prepared by the researcher. Working group was composed of a total of 207 teachers selected via “simple random sampling” from the universe. Results showed that teachers needed development in the following areas mostly: “extracurricular and classroom activities”, “instructional programs and evaluation”, “teacher-student relationships” and “organization of instructional environments”. Teacher stated that they met their professional development needs in the following order from the most to least: through own individual studies, social learning among colleagues, in-service training, school administration and educational inspection.
Titrimetric Study of the Solubility and Dissociation of Benzoic Acid in Water: Effect of Ionic Strength and Temperature  [PDF]
Sa‘ib J. Khouri
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2015.65042
Abstract: The apparent acid dissociation constant (Kc) of benzoic acid in water has been determined ti-trimetrically under ionic strength values between 0.00 and 0.50 mol·L﹣1 at a range of temperatures between 16°C and 41°C. The thermodynamic dissociation constant (as pKa) of benzoic acid was determined as 4.176 at 25°C. No regular correlation between pKa of benzoic acid and the temperature in the range was used. The values of pKa are inversely proportional to temperatures between 16°C and 30°C. In this range of temperature, the values of thermodynamic quantities (\"\") for the dissociation process of benzoic acid in water were calculated by using Van’t Hoff plot. For this case the dissociation was not favoured through entropy and enthalpy changes. The values of pKa are directly proportional to temperatures between 30°C and 41°C.
Sa'roni Sa'roni
Media of Health Research and Development , 2012,
Abstract: Traditional healer's (Bartra) have a role to improve the degree of public health. To identify the existence of traditional healer's ingredients to device the various of ingredients for therapy and to find the possible failure of application, the survey of traditional healer 's ingredients was conducted in Bali. The results showed the existence of traditional healer's and various ingredients for therapy was related to blood circulation system and respiration dis'order, among other things for diabetus, blood pressure, haemorrhoids, cough, asthma and tuberculosis. Keywords : Traditional Healer's Ingredients; Blood Circulation and Respiration.
Preparation and Evaluation of Rapidly Disintegrating Fast Release Tablet of Diazepam-Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex  [PDF]
Tapan Kumar Giri, Biswanath Sa
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2010.11003
Abstract: This study was undertaken to develop tablets of diazepam-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex that disintegrate within 3 minutes and release 85% of drug within 30 minutes to provide rapid action of the drug through oro-mucosal route. Formation of inclusion complex was verified using X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetric studies. Enhanced of aqueous solubility, as evident from phase solubility study, and dissolution of the drug were related with the formation of inclusion complex. Among the various formulations, tablet containing inclusion complex of drug/hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin in a molar ratio of 1:2, and a combination of microcrystalline cellulose/lactose in a ratio of 4:1 disintegrated in 13 seconds and released 85% drug within 9 minutes. Addition of 10% w/w polyvinyl pyrrolidone in the tablet formulation further enhanced the drug release. Accelerated stability study indicated that mean dissolution time of the drug from the tablet did not change significantly within 6 months.
The City as an Object of Research: Microsociology of Urban Spaces in Brazil  [PDF]
Irlys Barreira, Geísa Mattos
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2014.22013

Sociological and anthropological productions that take the city as their object of investigation have met new approaches in Brazil, especially since the 1990s. This paper aims to discuss the recent theoretical and empirical trajectories of research proposals as their authors take the city to the spotlight. This scientific endeavor analyzes a corpus of theses and dissertations produced by students of the Sociology Graduation Program of the Federal University of Ceará, in Brazil, as such works encompass shifts and trends in predominant theories and methods of the Social Sciences in Brazil over the past two decades. They demonstrate an increasing interest for the microsociological look towards the urban, which we argue to be an effect of the influence of Anthropology in the theoretical and methodological approach of research objects. From the set of selected works, the city is composed by territories cross-cut by a strong dimension of power and conflict, as an influence of Political Geography. French Sociology and Historiography contribute with theoretical perspectives that prioritize the senses of creation and insubordination, thus attributing to the practice of diverse social actors in urban places. In the set of works, the neighborhood unfolds as a microcosm of social practices, embedded with multiple senses of belonging and spatial conflicts, which are expressive of a wider social struggle.

Genetic control of disease in an experimental model for Sj?gren's syndrome
sa Andersson
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/ar2583
Abstract: Susceptibility to autoimmune diseases is dependent on multiple genes, of which most contribute minor effects that precipitate the disease when expressed in the right environmental context. The rationale behind studies of genetics in complex diseases is that identification of gene variants contributing to susceptibility will provide important information concerning the pathogenesis and hopes for future therapy. Experimental animal models are used to address hereditary factors of complex human diseases. The genetics and the environment can be carefully controlled in such models and the number of siblings is high enough to allow for the identification of statistically significant genetic linkage.In a recent issue of Arthritis Research and Therapy, Nguyen et al. [1] report the fine mapping of a genetic region important for development of disease in a mouse model for Sj?gren's syndrome (SjS). The experimental model was derived from the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse, a model for type 1 diabetes. In addition to inflammation of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans, these mice show infiltration of mononuclear cells in the salivary and lacrimal glands.A number of genetic associations have been reported from studies of SjS in humans [2]. In contrast to other autoimmune diseases, there is no clear dependence on the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotype for susceptibility to SjS. This is supported by studies in the NOD mouse where the MHC haplotype, essential for development of type 1 diabetes, can be exchanged with a diabetes non-susceptible MHC without preventing development of an SjS-like disease [3].Genetic studies of type 1 diabetes in the NOD mouse have revealed a number of genetic intervals (Idds) linked to disease development. For further studies, important genetic regions have been bred from the NOD mouse into other strains, to generate mice that are congenic for different Idd regions.The authors previously described two genetic loci, autoimmune exocrinopathy 1 (Aec1)
Online Advertising in the Tourism Industry and its Impact on Consumers: A Study to Investigate Online Advertising Tools, the Degree of Usage and Customer Preferences
Tourism & Management Studies , 2011,
Abstract: the study depicts the various tools of online advertising and their effects on customers, in particular tourists to the algarve region in portugal. the purpose of this study is to find out about the degree of internet usage of travelers and tourists as well as their preferences in online advertising. furthermore, modern online marketing methods are researched and compared in order to find the most successful ones. current trends and most effective online advertising methods are researched through secondary literature, a personal interview with the marketing & sales manager of the robinson club quinta da ria in portugal and a survey. altogether 248 tourists were questioned at faro airport in portugal. through the investigation it is found that the majority of tourists to the algarve region uses and prefers the internet as a medium to gain travel relevant information and to book a holiday. the literature review describes all components of online advertising such as search marketing, interactive advertising, online public relations, viral marketing, opt-in email marketing and online partnerships. out of these methods, search marketing, especially sponsored listings, generate rejection, if compared to organic ranking results. furthermore, tourists have negative attitudes towards banner and pop-up advertising and consider them as spam. opt-in e-mail marketing on the other hand generates positive perceptions and as a result is one of the most successful online marketing methods. the use of social media represents a very effective, widely spread and well-liked communication and advertising tool. in general, tourists have more negative attitudes towards advertising on the internet.
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