oalib

Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99

Submit

Any time

2020 ( 113 )

2019 ( 645 )

2018 ( 772 )

2017 ( 771 )

Custom range...

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 550920 matches for " S.-J. Kao "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /550920
Display every page Item
Inter-shelf nutrient transport from the East China Sea as a major nutrient source supporting winter primary production on the northeast South China Sea shelf
A. Han,M. Dai,J. Gan,S.-J. Kao
Biogeosciences Discussions , 2013, DOI: 10.5194/bgd-10-3891-2013
Abstract: The East China Sea (ECS) and the South China Sea (SCS) are two major marginal seas of the north Pacific with distinct seasonal primary productivity. Based upon field observation in December 2008–January 2009 covering both the ECS and the northern SCS (NSCS) in wintertime, we examined southward long-range nutrient-transport from the ECS to the northeast SCS (NESCS) carried by the China Coastal Current (CCC) driven by the northeast prevailing monsoon. These nutrients escaped from the cold ECS shelf to refuel the primary production on the NESCS shelf where river-sourced nutrients were limited yet water temperature remained favorable. By coupling the field observation of nitrate + nitrite (DIN) with the volume transport of the CCC, we derived a first order estimate of DIN flux of ~ 1430 ± 260 mol s 1. This DIN flux was ~ 7 times the wintertime DIN input from the Pearl River, a primary riverine nutrient source to the NSCS. By assuming DIN was the limiting nutrient, such southward DIN transport would have stimulated ~ 8.8 ± 1.6 × 1011 gC of new production (NP), accounting for ~ > 58 ± 10% of the total NP or ~ 38 ± 7–24 ± 4% of primary production on the NESCS shelf shallower than 100 m.
Technical Note: Simultaneous measurement of sedimentary N2 and N2O production and new 15N isotope pairing technique
T.-C. Hsu,S.-J. Kao
Biogeosciences Discussions , 2013, DOI: 10.5194/bgd-10-6861-2013
Abstract: Dinitrogen (N2) and/or nitrous oxide (N2O) are produced through denitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) or nitrification in sediments, of which entangled processes obfuscate the absolute rate estimation of gaseous nitrogen production from individual pathway. Recently, the classical isotope pairing technique (IPT), the most common 15N-nitrate enrichment method to quantify denitrification, has been modified by different researchers to (1) discriminate relative contribution of N2 production by denitrification from anammox or to (2) provide more accurate denitrification rate by considering both N2O and N2 productions. Both modified methods, however, have deficiencies such as overlooking N2O production in case 1 and neglecting anammox in case 2. In this paper, a new method was developed to refine previous methods. We installed cryogenic traps to pre-concentrate N2 and N2O separately, thus, allowing simultaneous measurement for two gases generated by one sample. The precision is better than 2% for N2 (m/z 28, m/z 29 and m/z 30), and 1.5% for N2O (m/z 44, m/z 45 and m/z 46). Based on the six m/z peaks of the two gases, we further revised IPT formulae to truthfully resolve the production rates of N2 and N2O contributed from 3 specific nitrogen removal processes, i.e. N2 and N2O from denitrification, N2 from anammox and N2O from nitrification. To validate the applicability of our new method, incubation experiments were conducted using sediment cores taken from the Danshuei estuary in Taiwan. We successfully determined the rates of aforementioned nitrogen removal processes. Moreover, N2O yield was as high as 66%, which no doubt would significantly bias previous IPT approaches when N2O was not considered. Our new method not only complements the previous IPT but also provides more comprehensive information to advance our understanding of nitrogen dynamics through the water-sediment interface.
Impact of the Kuroshio intrusion on the nutrient inventory in the upper northern South China Sea: insights from an isopycnal mixing model
C. Du,Z. Liu,M. Dai,S.-J. Kao
Biogeosciences Discussions , 2013, DOI: 10.5194/bgd-10-6939-2013
Abstract: Based on four cruises covering a seasonal cycle in 2009–2011, we examined the impact of the Kuroshio intrusion, featured by extremely oligotrophic waters, on the nutrient inventory in the central northern South China Sea (NSCS). The nutrient inventory in the upper 100 m of the water column in the study area ranged from ~200 to ~290 mmol m 2 for N + N (nitrate plus nitrite), from ~ 13 to ~24 mmol m 2 for soluble reactive phosphate and from ~210 to ~430 mmol m 2 for silicic acid. The nutrient inventory showed a clear seasonal pattern with the highest value appearing in summer, while the N + N inventory in spring and winter had a reduction of ~13% and ~30%, respectively, relative to that in summer. To quantify the extent of the Kuroshio intrusion, an isopycnal mixing model was adopted to derive the proportional contribution of water masses from the SCS proper and the Kuroshio along individual isopycnal surfaces. The derived mixing ratio along the isopycnal plane was then employed to predict the genuine gradients of nutrients under the assumption of no biogeochemical alteration. These predicted nutrient concentrations, denoted as Nm, are solely determined by water mass mixing. Results showed that the nutrient inventory in the upper 100 m of the NSCS was overall negatively correlated to the Kuroshio water fraction, suggesting that the Kuroshio intrusion significantly influenced the nutrient distribution in the SCS and its seasonal variation. The difference between the observed nutrient concentrations and their corresponding Nm allowed us to further quantify the nutrient removal/addition associated with the biogeochemical processes on top of the water mass mixing. We revealed that the nutrients in the upper 100 m of the water column had a net consumption in both winter and spring but a net addition in fall.
The nitrate export in subtropical mountainous catchment: implication for land use change impact
J.-C. Huang,T.-Y. Lee,S.-J. Kao,S.-C. Hsu
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions , 2010, DOI: 10.5194/hessd-7-9293-2010
Abstract: Agricultural activity is the dominant factor affecting water quality and nitrate export, which causes eutrophication and episodic acidification in downstream water bodies (e.g., reservoirs, lakes, and coastal zones). However, in subtropical mountainous areas such environmental impact due to the land use change was rarely documented. In this study, we investigated 16 sub-catchments during 2007 and 2008 in the Chi-Chia-Wan catchment where is the sole habitat for the endemic species, Formosan landlocked salmon (Oncorhynchus masou formosanus). The results revealed that the NO3-N concentration in pristine catchments varied from 0.144 to 0.151 mg/L without significant seasonal variation. This concentration was comparable with other forestry catchments around the world. However, the annual nitrate export was around 375.3–677.1 kg/km2/yr, much higher than other catchments due to the greater amount of rainfall. This is an important baseline for comparisons with other climate areas. As for the impact of agricultural activities, the catchments with some human disturbance, ~5.2% of the catchment area, might yield 5947.2 kg N/km2/yr – over 10-times higher than that of pristine catchment. Such high export caused by such a low level of disturbance might indicate that subtropical mountainous area is highly sensitive to agricultural activities. As for the land-use effect on nitrate yield, the forestry land might yield 488.5 ± 325.1 kg/km2/yr and the vegetable farm could yield 298 465.4 ± 3347.2 kg/km2/yr – 1000-times greater than the forestry. The estimated nitrate yields for land use classes were a crucial basis and useful for the land manager to assess the possible impacts (e.g., non-point source pollution evaluation and the recovery of land expropriation).
Simulating typhoon-induced storm hydrographs in subtropical mountainous watershed: an integrated 3-layer TOPMODEL
J.-C. Huang, T.-Y. Lee,S.-J. Kao
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2009,
Abstract: A three-layer TOPMODEL is constructed by integrating diffusion wave approach into surface flow, soil moisture deficit into inter flow and exponential recession curve function into base flow. A subtropical mountainous watershed, Heng-Chi, and 22 rain storms with various rainfall types and wide ranges of total rainfall (from 81 to 1026 mm) were applied. The global best-fitted parameter set gives an average efficient coefficient of 82% for calibration and 80% for validation. Sensitivity analysis reveals that soil transmissivity dominates the discharge volume and recession coefficient dominates the hydrograph shape in TOPMODEL framework. Over 90% observed discharges of validation events falls within the 90% confidence interval derived form calibration events. The resembling performances between calibration and validation as well as good results of the confidence interval demonstrate the capability of 3-layer TOPMODEL on simulating cyclones with various rainfall intensity and pattern in subtropical watershed. Meanwhile, the upper confidence limit is suggested preferably when considering flood assessment.
Temporal variation of nitrate and phosphate transport in headwater catchments: the hydrological controls and land use alteration
T.-Y. Lee, J.-C. Huang, S.-J. Kao,C.-P. Tung
Biogeosciences (BG) & Discussions (BGD) , 2013, DOI: 10.5194/bg-10-2617-2013
Abstract: Oceania rivers are hotspots of DIN (dissolved inorganic nitrogen) and DIP (dissolved inorganic phosphorus) transport due to humid/warm climate, typhoon-induced episodic rainfall and high tectonic activity that create an environment favorable for high/rapid runoff and soil erosion. In spite of its uniqueness, effects of hydrologic controls and land use on the transport behaviors of DIN and DIP are rarely documented. A 2 yr monitoring study for DIN and DIP from three headwater catchments with different cultivation gradient (0 To 8.9%) was implemented during a ~ 3 day interval with an additional monitoring campaign at a 3 h interval during typhoon periods. Results showed the DIN yields in the pristine, moderately cultivated (2.7%), and intensively cultivated (8.9%) watersheds were 8.3, 26, and 37 kg N ha 1 yr 1, respectively. For the DIP yields, they were 0.36, 0.35, and 0.56 kg P ha 1 yr 1, respectively. Higher year-round DIN concentrations and five times larger in DIN yields in intensively cultivated watersheds indicate DIN is more sensitive to land use changes. The high background DIN yield from the relatively pristine watershed was likely due to high atmospheric nitrogen deposition and large subterranean N pool. The correlations between runoff and concentration reveals that typhoon floods purge out more DIN from the subterranean reservoir, i.e., soil, by contrast, runoff washes off surface soil resulting in higher suspended sediment with higher DIP. Collectively, typhoon runoff contributes 20–70% and 47–80%, respectively, to the annual DIN and DIP exports. The DIN yield to DIP yield ratio varied from 97 to 410, which is higher than the global mean of ~ 18. Such a high ratio indicates a P-limiting condition in stream and the downstream aquatic environment. Based on our field observation, we constructed a conceptual model illustrating different remobilization mechanisms for DIN and DIP from headwaters in a mountainous river, which is analogous to typical Oceania rivers and the headwater of large rivers in similar climate zones. Our study advanced our understanding about the role of cyclones, which exert hydrological control, and land use on nutrient export in the Oceania region, benefiting watershed management under the context of climate change.
Temporal variation of nitrate and phosphate transport in headwater catchments: the hydrological controls and landuse alteration
T.-Y. Lee,J.-C. Huang,S.-J. Kao,C.-P. Tung
Biogeosciences Discussions , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/bgd-9-13211-2012
Abstract: Oceania Rivers are hotspots of high DIN (dissolved inorganic nitrogen) and DIP (dissolved inorganic phosphorus) transport. However, the effects of hydrologic controls and land use alternation on the temporal variations of DIN and DIP are rarely documented. In this study, we monitored the nitrate and phosphate concentrations from three headwater catchments with different cultivation gradients at a 3-day interval. This sampling scheme was supplemented with a 3-h interval monitoring during typhoon periods. The results showed that the DIN and DIP yields in the pristine, moderately cultivated, and intensively cultivated watersheds were 7.52/0.31, 31.17/0.30, and 40.96/0.52 kg ha 1 yr 1, respectively. The high DIN yields are comparable to the intensively and extensively disturbed large rivers around the world. These N yields may be due to a high level of nitrogen deposition, rainfall-runoff, and fertilizer application. The importance of event sampling was indicated by the contribution of the three typhoons to the annual DIN and DIP fluxes, which were 30% and 60%, respectively. Both DIN and DIP fluxes significantly increased as the cultivation gradient increased. The DIN and DIP ratio varied from 54 to 230 depending on the decrease of the cultivation gradient. This value is higher than the global mean of ~18. Thus, we speculate that nitrogen saturation occurs in the headwater catchments of Oceania Rivers. The results obtained provide fundamental clues of DIN and DIP yield of Oceania Rivers, which are helpful in understanding the impact of human disturbance on headwater watersheds.
Simulating typhoon-induced storm hydrographs in subtropical mountainous watershed: an integrated 3-layer TOPMODEL
J.-C. Huang,T.-Y. Lee,S.-J. Kao
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions , 2008,
Abstract: A three-layer TOPMODEL is here constructed by integrating three components, diffusion wave approach into surface flow, soil moisture deficit into interflow and exponential recession curve function into base flow. Sensitivity analysis reveals that D (soil depth), K (hydraulic conductivity), and mi (soil moisture decay) predominate simulated hydrograph shape and total discharge, yet, there are distinct effects on the three flows. A subtropical mountainous watershed, Heng-Chi and eighteen typhoon-induced storms with various rainfall type and wide-ranged total rainfall (81 to 1026 mm) were applied. The global best-fitted combination gives an average efficient coefficient of 75.1% and 76.0% for calibration (14 cases) and validation (4 cases), respectively. Most discharges of validation events fall within the 90% confidence interval derived from calibration events. Those results demonstrate the capability of the 3-layer TOPMODEL in subtropical watershed. Meanwhile, the upper confidence limit is suggested preferably when considering the flood assessment.
Influence of Specific Contributing Area algorithms on slope failure prediction in landslide modeling
J.-C. Huang,S.-J. Kao,M.-L. Hsu,Y.-A. Liu
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2007,
Abstract: This study anatomized algorithm effects of specific contributing area (SCA) on soil wetness estimation, consequently landslide prediction, in SHALSTAB. A subtropical mountainous catchment during three typhoon invasions is targeted. The peak 2-day rainfall intensity of the three typhoons: Haitang, Mindulle and Herb are 144, 248 and 327 mm/day, respectively. We use modified success rate (MSR) to retrieve the most satisfying mean condition for model parameters in SHALSTAB at three rainfall intensities and respective pre-typhoon NDVI themes. Simulation indicates that algorithm affects the prediction of landslide susceptibility (i.e. FS, Factor of Safety) significantly. Based on fixed NDVI and the mean condition, we simulate by using full scale rainfall intensity from 0 to 1200 mm/day. Simulations show that predicted unstable area coverage increases non-linearly as rainfall intensity increases for all algorithms yet with different increasing trends. Compared to Dinf, D8 always gives lower coverage of predicted unstable area during three typhoons. By contrast, FD8 gives higher coverage areas. The absolute difference (compared to Dinf) in predicted unstable area ranges from ~ 3% to +4% (percent watershed area). The relative difference (compared to Dinf) ranges from 15% to as high as +40%. The maximum absolute and relative differences in unstable area prediction occur around the condition of 100–300 mm/day, which is common in subtropical mountainous region. Theoretical relationship among slope, rainfall intensity, SCA and FS value was derived in which FS values are very sensitive to algorithms in the field of slope from 37 to 52degree. Results imply any comparison among SCA-related landslide models or engineering application of rainfall return period analysis must base on the same algorithm to obtain comparable results. This study clarifies the SCA algorithm effect on FS prediction and deepens our understanding on landslide modeling.
Nitrification and inorganic nitrogen distribution in a large perturbed river/estuarine system: the Pearl River Estuary, China
M. Dai, L. Wang, X. Guo, W. Zhai, Q. Li, B. He,S.-J. Kao
Biogeosciences (BG) & Discussions (BGD) , 2008,
Abstract: We investigated the spatial distribution and seasonal variation of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in a large perturbed estuary, the Pearl River Estuary, based on three cruises conducted in winter (January 2005), summer (August 2005) and spring (March 2006). On-site incubation was also carried out for determining ammonium and nitrite oxidation rates (nitrification rates). We observed a year-round pattern of dramatic decrease in NH4+, increase in NO3 , but insignificant change in NO2 in the upper estuary at salinity ~0–5. However, species and concentrations of inorganic nitrogen at upper estuary significantly changed with season. In winter, with low runoff, the most upper reach of the Pearl River Estuary showed relatively low rates of ammonia oxidation (0–5.4 μmol N L 1 d 1) and nitrite oxidation (0–5.2 μmol N L 1 d 1), accompanied by extremely high concentrations of ammonia (up to >800 μmol L 1) and nitrate (up to >300 μmol L 1). In summer, the upper estuary showed higher nitrification rates (ammonia oxidation rate ~1.5–33.1 μmol N L 1 d 1, nitrite oxidation rate ~0.6–32.0 μmol N L 1 d 1) with lower concentrations of ammonia (<350 μmol L 1) and nitrate (<120 μmol L 1). The Most Probable Number test showed relatively lower nitrifier abundance in summer at most sampling stations, indicating a greater specific nitrification rate per cell in the warm season. Temperature appeared to control nitrification rates to a large degree in different seasons. Spatial variability of nitrification rates appeared to be controlled by a combination of many other factors such as nutrient concentrations, nitrifier abundance and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations. In addition to aerobic respiration, nitrification contributed significantly to the consumption of DO and production of free CO2 at upper estuary. Nitrification-induced consumption accounted for up to approximately one third of the total water column community DO consumption in the upper estuary during the surveyed periods, boosting environmental stress on this large estuarine ecosystem.
Page 1 /550920
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.