oalib

Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99

Submit

Any time

2019 ( 115 )

2018 ( 740 )

2017 ( 723 )

2016 ( 1052 )

Custom range...

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 447553 matches for " S.-E. Gryning "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /447553
Display every page Item
Seasonality in onshore normalized wind profiles above the surface layer
J. N. Nissen ,S.-E. Gryning
Advances in Science and Research (ASR) , 2010, DOI: 10.5194/asr-4-57-2010
Abstract: This work aims to study the seasonal difference in normalized wind speed above the surface layer as it is observed at the 160 m high mast at the coastal site H vs re at winds from the sea (westerly). Normalized and stability averaged wind speeds above the surface layer are observed to be 20 to 50% larger in the winter/spring seasons compared to the summer/autumn seasons at winds from west within the same atmospheric stability class. A method combining the mesoscale model, COAMPS, and observations of the surface stability of the marine boundary layer is presented. The objective of the method is to reconstruct the seasonal signal in normalized wind speed and identify the physical process behind. The method proved reasonably successful in capturing the relative difference in wind speed between seasons, indicating that the simulated physical processes are likely candidates to the observed seasonal signal in normalized wind speed.
Atmospheric boundary layer wind profile at a flat coastal site – wind speed lidar measurements and mesoscale modeling results
R. Floors, E. Batchvarova, S.-E. Gryning, A. N. Hahmann, A. Pe a,T. Mikkelsen
Advances in Science and Research (ASR) , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/asr-6-155-2011
Abstract: Wind profiles up to 600 m height are investigated. Measurements of mean wind speed profiles were obtained from a novel wind lidar and compared to model simulations from a mesoscale model (WRF-ARW v3.1). It is found that WRF is able to predict the mean wind profile rather well and typically within 1–2 m s 1 to the individual measured values. WRF underpredicts the normalized wind profile, especially for stable conditions. The effect of baroclinicity on the upper part of the wind profile is discussed.
Comparison of Large Eddy Simulations of a convective boundary layer with wind LIDAR measurements
J. G. Pedersen, M. Kelly, S.-E. Gryning, R. Floors, E. Batchvarova,A. Pe a
Advances in Science and Research (ASR) , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/asr-8-83-2012
Abstract: Vertical profiles of the horizontal wind speed and of the standard deviation of vertical wind speed from Large Eddy Simulations of a convective atmospheric boundary layer are compared to wind LIDAR measurements up to 1400 m. Fair agreement regarding both types of profiles is observed only when the simulated flow is driven by a both time- and height-dependent geostrophic wind and a time-dependent surface heat flux. This underlines the importance of mesoscale effects when the flow above the atmospheric surface layer is simulated with a computational fluid dynamics model.
On the vortical motions in the Black Sea obtained by the 3-D hydrothermodynamical numerical model
I. Lecomte, I. Thollet, H. Juliussen,S.-E. Hamran
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO) , 2008,
Abstract: A debris flow occurred on 8 May 2004, in Fj rland, Western Norway, due to a Glacial Lake Outburst Flood and a natural terminal moraine failure. The site was investigated in 2004 and 2005, using pre- and post-flow aerial photos, airborne laser scanning, and extensive field work investigations, resulting in a good understanding of the mechanics of the debris flow, with quantification of the entrainment and determination of the final volume involved. However, though the moraine had a clear weak point, with lower elevation and erosion due to overflowing in the melting season, the sudden rupture of the moraine still needs to be explained. As moraines often contain an ice core, a possible cause could be the melting of the ice, inducing a progressive weakening of the structure. Geophysical investigations were therefore carried out in September 2006, including seismic refraction, GPR and resistivity. All methods worked well, but none revealed the presence of ice, though the depth to bedrock was determined. On the contrary, the moraine appeared to be highly saturated in water, especially in one area, away from the actual breach and corresponding to observed water seepage at the foot of the moraine. To estimate future hazard, water circulation through the moraine should be monitored over time.
Stable isotope records for the last 10 000 years from Okshola cave (Fauske, northern Norway) and regional comparisons
H. Linge, S.-E. Lauritzen, C. Andersson, J. K. Hansen, R. . Skoglund,H. S. Sundqvist
Climate of the Past (CP) & Discussions (CPD) , 2009,
Abstract: The sensitivity of terrestrial environments to past changes in heat transport is expected to be manifested in Holocene climate proxy records on millennial to seasonal timescales. Stalagmite formation in the Okshola cave near Fauske (northern Norway) began at about 10.4 ka, soon after the valley was deglaciated. Past monitoring of the cave and surface has revealed stable modern conditions with uniform drip rates, relative humidity and temperature. Stable isotope records from two stalagmites provide time-series spanning from c. 10 380 yr to AD 1997; a banded, multi-coloured stalagmite (Oks82) was formed between 10 380 yr and 5050 yr, whereas a pristine, white stalagmite (FM3) covers the period from ~7500 yr to the present. The stable oxygen isotope (δ18Oc), stable carbon isotope (δ13Cc), and growth rate records are interpreted as showing i) a negative correlation between cave/surface temperature and δ18Oc, ii) a positive correlation between wetness and δ13Cc, and iii) a positive correlation between temperature and growth rate. Following this, the data from Okshola show that the Holocene was characterised by high-variability climate in the early part, low-variability climate in the middle part, and high-variability climate and shifts between two distinct modes in the late part. A total of nine Scandinavian stalagmite δ18Oc records of comparable dating precision are now available for parts or most of the Holocene. None of them show a clear Holocene thermal optimum, suggesting that they are influenced by annual mean temperature (cave temperature) rather than seasonal temperature. For the last 1000 years, δ18Oc values display a depletion-enrichment-depletion pattern commonly interpreted as reflecting the conventional view on climate development for the last millennium. Although the δ18Oc records show similar patterns and amplitudes of change, the main challenges for utilising high-latitude stalagmites as palaeoclimate archives are i) the accuracy of the age models, ii) the ambiguity of the proxy signals, and iii) calibration with monitoring data.
LINDA – the Astrid-2 Langmuir probe instrument
B. Holback,?. Jacksén,L. ?hlén,S.-E. Jansson
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: The Swedish micro-satellite Astrid-2, designed for studies in magnetosperic physics, was launched into orbit on 10 December 1998 from the Russian cosmodrome Plesetsk. It was injected into a circular orbit at 1000 km and at 83 degrees inclination. The satellite carried, among other instruments, a double Langmuir Probe instrument called LINDA (Langmuir INterferometer and Density instrument for Astrid-2). The scientific goals of this instrument, as well as the technical design and possible modes of operation, are described. LINDA consists of two lightweight deployable boom systems, each carrying a small spherical probe. With these probes, separated by 2.9 meters, and in combination with a high sampling rate, it was possible to discriminate temporal structures (waves) from spatial structures. An on-board memory made it possible to collect data also at times when there was no ground contact. Plasma density and electron temperature data from all magnetic latitudes and for all seasons have been collected. Key words. Ionosphere (plasma temperature and density; plasma waves and instabilities; instruments and techniques)
Stable isotope records for the last 10 000 years from Okshola cave (Fauske, northern Norway), and regional comparisons
H. Linge,S.-E. Lauritzen,C. Andersson,J. K. Hansen
Climate of the Past Discussions , 2009,
Abstract: The sensitivity of terrestrial environments to past changes in heat transport is expected to be manifested in Holocene climate proxy records on millennial to seasonal timescales. Stalagmite formation in the Okshola cave near Fauske (northern Norway) began at about 10.4 ka, soon after the valley was deglaciated. Past monitoring of the cave and surface has revealed stable modern conditions with uniform drip rates, relative humidity and temperature. Stable isotope records from two stalagmites provide time-series spanning from ca. 10 380 yr to AD 1997; a banded, multi-coloured stalagmite (Oks82) was formed between 10 380 yr and 5050 yr, whereas a pristine, white stalagmite (FM3) covers the period from ~7500 yr to the present. The stable oxygen isotope (δ18Oc), stable carbon isotope (δ13Cc), and growth rate records are interpreted as showing i) a negative correlation between cave/surface temperature and δ18Oc, ii) a positive correlation between wetness and δ13Cc, and iii) a positive correlation between temperature and growth rate. Following this, the data from Okshola show that the Holocene was characterised by high-variability climate in the early part, low-variability climate in the middle part, and high-variability climate and shifts between two distinct modes in the late part. A total of nine Scandinavian stalagmite δ18Oc records of comparable dating precision are now available for parts or most of the Holocene. None of them show a clear Holocene thermal optimum, suggesting that they are influenced by annual mean temperature (cave temperature) rather than seasonal temperature. For the last 1000 yr, δ18Oc display a depletion-enrichment-depletion pattern commonly interpreted as reflecting the conventional view on climate development for the last millennium. Although the δ18Oc records show similar patterns and amplitudes of change, the main challenges for utilising high-latitude stalagmites as palaeoclimate archives are i) the accuracy of the age models, ii) the ambiguity of the proxy signals, and iii) calibration with monitoring data.
Liquid Column Deformation and Particle Size Distribution in Gas Atomization  [PDF]
Georgios S. E. Antipas
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2011.22012
Abstract: A water-gas flow injected by a close coupled atomizer was studied via High Speed Photography and Phase Doppler Anemometry. The formation of a wave disturbance on the surface of the water column was confirmed. The flow converged within an area approximately 3 mm in diameter, independent of atomization conditions. The particle size distribution across the spray suggested a trend of decreasing particle sizes and particle velocities with increasing distance from the spray axis of symmetry.
Days of “Zero” level geomagnetic activity accompanied by the high neutron activity and dynamics of some medical events—Antipodes to geomagnetic storms  [PDF]
E. Stoupel, E. S. Babayev, E. Abramson, J. Sulkes
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.55113
Abstract:

The links of many medical-biological events with high levels of geomagnetic activity (GMA) are widely discussed. In recent years, several medical phenomena were described in inverse distribution by time with GMA. Also a concurrent to GMA and solar activity force-cosmic ray activity (CRA) and closely related high energy neutron and proton fluxes are studied as a forces dominating at low GMA and solar activity in relation to considered medical events. The aim of this study was to explore the distribution of some important medical events on days with “Zero” GMA levels, accompanied by high CRA (neutron activity). Medical event data of the Grand Baku region (more than 3 mln inhabitants), Azerbaijan, with daily distribution on the time 1 Dec. 2002-31 Dec. 2007 was compared to daily GMA Kp indices in general (Kp > 0, 1837 days) and 34 days daily GMA indices Kp = 0. Daily CRA data was also compared using neutron monitoring data from two stations. Daily averaged data and their standard deviations on the mentioned GMA levels were compared and statistical significance was established. Results revealed a significant rise in the number of emergencies (n = 1,567,576) and total deaths number (n = 46,360) at the days of “Zero” GMA level. These days were accompanied by significant rise of CRA (neutron activity). For Sudden Cardiac Deaths (SCD, n = 1615) and cerebral stroke (CVA, n =10,054) the increase achieved strong trend to significance level. Acute Myocardial Infarction occurrence (morbidity) and trauma were also absolutely more registered at days with “Zero” GMA level, despite the small number of such days. The average Infection numbers show an inverse relationship with absolutely high registry at the “Zero” GMA level days. Study linking environmental physical activity levels and the human medical data shows that geomagnetic field variations accompanied by the increased level of cosmic ray activity, can have either direct or indirect adverse effects on human health and physiology, even when the magnitude of the geomagnetic field disturbance is extremely small or even is equal to zero. On days of “Zero” daily Kp indices describing

Use of oral ketamine for analgesia during reduction/manipulation of fracture/dislocation in the Emergency Room: An initial experience in a low-resource setting  [PDF]
E. Ogboli-Nwasor, K. E. Amaefule, S. S. Audu
Pain Studies and Treatment (PST) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/pst.2014.21004
Abstract:

Background: The use of ketamine for relief of procedure-related pain is limited in our environment. Ketamine, a phencyclidine derivative commonly used for induction and maintenance of anaesthesia, is administered routinely via the intravenous and intramuscular routes. One of the concerns while using ketamine for analgesia via these two routes is that the drug may produce anaesthesia, rather than analgesia alone. Aims and Objectives: We sought to find out if ketamine given via the oral route could be used to provide analgesia during minor orthopaedic procedures in the emergency room. We also wanted to find out if there were side-effects peculiar to the oral route. Methods: A prospective observational pilot study in consecutive patientswith fractures/dislocation in our Emergency Room was recruited into the study. All patients gave informed consent. Reduction of fractures was done 15 minutes following the administration of ketamine 5 mg/kg orally. The patients were observed during and after the procedure and the findings entered into a proforma. The data obtained were analyzed using simple statistical methods and the results presented in a table. The findings are discussed. Results: There were 9 males and 2 females with an age range of 4 yrs to 48 yrs. Pain levels were assessed using verbal rating scales. Seven patients (64%) had severe pain before administration of ketamine while 2 patients (18%) each had mild and moderate pain respectively. Four patients had Colle’s fracture only and 1 patient had a Colle’s fracture with a supracondylar femoral fracture. Two patients had tibial fractures, one patient had a complete knee dislocation, while 2 others had ulnar/radial fractures. One other patient had humeral and tibial fractures. For up to 15 minutes after the procedures all but one patient were pain-free. Five (5) patients (45.5%) were noticed to have drowsiness, 3 patients (27%) were sedated while 2 patients (18%) had no side-effects at all. Five (5) patients (45.5%) reported excellent analgesia while 6 patients (64%) said the intra and post procedure analgesia was very good. Conclusions: Oral ketamine may be useful in providing analgesia for minor procedures in the emergency room. Ketamine when sweetened with a soda drink appears to be palatable with a rapid onset of action and few side effects. Thus ketamine given orally may be a cheaper and more accessible option for effective pain-relief in the emergency room. There is a need to conduct more studies on a larger number of patients.

Page 1 /447553
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.