oalib

Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99

Submit

Any time

2020 ( 47 )

2019 ( 459 )

2018 ( 519 )

2017 ( 535 )

Custom range...

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 325362 matches for " S. Syndergaard "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /325362
Display every page Item
Errors in GNSS radio occultation data: relevance of the measurement geometry and obliquity of profiles
U. Foelsche, S. Syndergaard, J. Fritzer,G. Kirchengast
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT) & Discussions (AMTD) , 2011,
Abstract: Atmospheric profiles retrieved from GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) radio occultation (RO) measurements are increasingly used to validate other measurement data. For this purpose it is important to be aware of the characteristics of RO measurements. RO data are frequently compared with vertical reference profiles, but the RO method does not provide vertical scans through the atmosphere. The average elevation angle of the tangent point trajectory (which would be 90° for a vertical scan) is about 40° at altitudes above 70 km, decreasing to about 25° at 20 km and to less than 5° below 3 km. In an atmosphere with high horizontal variability we can thus expect noticeable representativeness errors if the retrieved profiles are compared with vertical reference profiles. We have performed an end-to-end simulation study using high-resolution analysis fields (T799L91) from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) to simulate a representative ensemble of RO profiles via high-precision 3-D ray tracing. Thereby we focused on the dependence of systematic and random errors on the measurement geometry, specifically on the incidence angle of the RO measurement rays with respect to the orbit plane of the receiving satellite, also termed azimuth angle, which determines the obliquity of RO profiles. We analyzed by how much errors are reduced if the reference profile is not taken vertical at the mean tangent point but along the retrieved tangent point trajectory (TPT) of the RO profile. The exact TPT can only be determined by performing ray tracing, but our results confirm that the retrieved TPT – calculated from observed impact parameters – is a very good approximation to the "true" one. Systematic and random errors in RO data increase with increasing azimuth angle, less if the TPT is properly taken in to account, since the increasing obliquity of the RO profiles leads to an increasing sensitivity to departures from horizontal symmetry. Up to an azimuth angle of 30°, however, this effect is small, even if the RO profiles are assumed to be vertical. For applications requiring highest accuracy and precision it is advisable to exclude RO profiles with ray incidence angles beyond an azimuth of 50°. Errors in retrieved atmospheric profiles decrease significantly, by up to a factor of 2, if the RO data are exploited along the retrieved TPT. The tangent point trajectory of RO profiles should therefore be exploited whenever this is possible.
Radio occultation bending angle anomalies during tropical cyclones
R. Biondi, T. Neubert, S. Syndergaard,J. K. Nielsen
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT) & Discussions (AMTD) , 2011,
Abstract: The tropical deep convection affects the radiation balance of the atmosphere changing the water vapor mixing ratio and the temperature of the upper troposphere lower stratosphere. The aim of this work is to better understand these processes and to investigate if severe storms leave a significant signature in radio occultation profiles in the tropical tropopause layer. Using tropical cyclone best track database and data from different GPS radio occultation missions (COSMIC, GRACE, CHAMP, SACC and GPSMET), we selected 1194 profiles in a time window of 3 h and a space window of 300 km from the eye of the cyclone. We show that the bending angle anomaly of a GPS radio occultation signal is typically larger than the climatology in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere and that a double tropopause during deep convection can easily be detected using this technique. Comparisons with co-located radiosondes, climatology of tropopause altitudes and GOES analyses are also shown to support the hypothesis that the bending angle anomaly can be used as an indicator of convective towers. The results are discussed in connection to the GPS radio occultation receiver which will be part of the Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space (ACES) payload on the International Space Station.
Processing and validation of refractivity from GRAS radio occultation data
K. B. Lauritsen,S. Syndergaard,H. Gleisner,M. E. Gorbunov
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/amtd-4-2189-2011
Abstract: We discuss the processing of GRAS radio occultation (RO) data done at the GRAS Satellite Application Facility. The input data consists of operational near-real time bending angles from December 2010 from the Metop-A satellite operated by EUMETSAT. The data are processed by an Abel inversion algorithm in combination with statistical optimization based on a two-parameter fit to an MSIS climatology. We compare retrieved refractivity to analyses from ECMWF. It is found that for global averages, the mean differences to ECMWF analyses are smaller than 0.2% below 30 km (except near the surface), with standard deviations around 0.5% for altitudes between 8 and 25 km. The current processing is limited by several factors, which are discussed. In particular, the penetration depth for rising occultations is generally poor, which is related to the tracking of the L2 signal. Extrapolation of the difference between the L1 and L2 signals below the altitude where L2 is lost is possible and would generally allow deeper penetration of retrieved refractivity profiles into the lower troposphere.
Errors in GNSS radio occultation data: relevance of the measurement geometry and obliquity of profiles
U. Foelsche,S. Syndergaard,J. Fritzer,G. Kirchengast
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions , 2010, DOI: 10.5194/amtd-3-4261-2010
Abstract: Atmospheric profiles retrieved from GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) radio occultation (RO) measurements are increasingly used to validate other measurement data. For this purpose it is important to be aware of the characteristics of RO measurements. RO data are frequently compared with vertical reference profiles, but the RO method does not provide vertical scans through the atmosphere. The average elevation angle of the tangent point trajectory (which would be 90° for a vertical scan) is about 40° at altitudes above 70 km, decreasing to about 25° at 20 km and to less than 5° below 3 km. In an atmosphere with high horizontal variability we can thus expect noticeable representativeness errors if the retrieved profiles are compared with vertical reference profiles. We have performed an end-to-end simulation study using high-resolution analysis fields (T799L91) from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) to simulate a representative ensemble of RO profiles via high-precision 3-D ray tracing. Thereby we focused on the dependence of systematic and random errors on the measurement geometry, specifically on the incidence angle of the RO measurement rays with respect to the orbit plane of the receiving satellite, also termed azimuth angle, which determines the obliquity of RO profiles. We analyzed by how much errors are reduced if the reference profile is not taken vertical at the mean tangent point but along the retrieved tangent point trajectory (TPT) of the RO profile. The exact TPT can only be determined by performing ray tracing, but our results confirm that the retrieved TPT – calculated from observed impact parameters – is a very good approximation to the "true" one. Systematic and random errors in RO data increase with increasing azimuth angle, less if the TPT is properly taken in to account, since the increasing obliquity of the RO profiles leads to an increasing sensitivity to departures from horizontal symmetry. Up to an azimuth angle of 30°, however, this effect is small, even if the RO profiles are assumed to be vertical. For applications requiring highest accuracy and precision it is advisable to exclude RO profiles with ray incidence angles beyond an azimuth of 50°. Errors in retrieved atmospheric profiles decrease significantly, by up to a factor of 2, if the RO data are exploited along the retrieved TPT. The tangent point trajectory of RO profiles should therefore be exploited whenever this is possible.
Radio occultation bending angle anomalies during tropical cyclones
R. Biondi,T. Neubert,S. Syndergaard,J. Nielsen
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/amtd-4-1371-2011
Abstract: The tropical deep convection affects the radiation balance of the atmosphere changing the water vapor mixing ratio and the temperature of the upper troposphere lower stratosphere. The aim of this work is to better understand these processes and to investigate if severe storms leave a significant signature in radio occultation profiles in the tropical tropopause layer. Using tropical cyclone best track database and data from different GPS radio occultation missions (COSMIC, GRACE, CHAMP, SACC and GPSMET), we selected 1194 profiles in a time window of 3 h and a space window of 300 km from the eye of the cyclone. We show that the bending angle anomaly of a GPS radio occultation signal is typically larger than the climatology in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere and that a double tropopause during deep convection can easily be detected using this technique. Comparisons with co-located radiosondes, climatology of tropopause altitudes and GOES analyses are also shown to support the hypothesis that the bending angle anomaly can be used as an indicator of convective towers. The results are discussed in connection to the GPS radio occultation receiver which will be part of the Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space (ACES) payload on the International Space Station.
Thermal structure of intense convective clouds derived from GPS radio occultations
R. Biondi, W. J. Randel, S.-P. Ho, T. Neubert,S. Syndergaard
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2012,
Abstract: Thermal structure associated with deep convective clouds is investigated using Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation measurements. GPS data are insensitive to the presence of clouds, and provide high vertical resolution and high accuracy measurements to identify associated temperature behavior. Deep convective systems are identified using International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) satellite data, and cloud tops are accurately measured using Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIPSO) lidar observations; we focus on 53 cases of near-coincident GPS occultations with CALIPSO profiles over deep convection. Results show a sharp spike in GPS bending angle highly correlated to the top of the clouds, corresponding to anomalously cold temperatures within the clouds. Above the clouds the temperatures return to background conditions, and there is a strong inversion at cloud top. For cloud tops below 14 km, the temperature lapse rate within the cloud often approaches a moist adiabat, consistent with rapid undiluted ascent within the convective systems.
Processing and validation of refractivity from GRAS radio occultation data
K. B. Lauritsen, S. Syndergaard, H. Gleisner, M. E. Gorbunov, F. Rubek, M. B. S rensen,H. Wilhelmsen
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT) & Discussions (AMTD) , 2011,
Abstract: We discuss the processing of GRAS radio occultation (RO) data done at the GRAS Satellite Application Facility. The input data consists of operational near-real time bending angles from December 2010 from the Metop-A satellite operated by EUMETSAT. The data are processed by an Abel inversion algorithm in combination with statistical optimization based on a two-parameter fit to an MSIS climatology. We compare retrieved refractivity to analyses from ECMWF. It is found that for global averages, the mean differences to ECMWF analyses are smaller than 0.2% below 30 km (except near the surface), with standard deviations around 0.5% for altitudes between 8 and 25 km. The current processing is limited by several factors, which are discussed. In particular, the penetration depth for rising occultations is generally poor, which is related to the tracking of the L2 signal. Extrapolation of the difference between the L1 and L2 signals below the altitude where L2 is lost is possible and would generally allow deeper penetration of retrieved refractivity profiles into the lower troposphere.
Processing of GRAS/METOP radio occultation data recorded in closed-loop and raw-sampling modes
M. E. Gorbunov, K. B. Lauritsen, H.-H. Benzon, G. B. Larsen, S. Syndergaard,M. B. S rensen
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT) & Discussions (AMTD) , 2011,
Abstract: Instrument GRAS (Global Navigation Satellite System Receiver for Atmospheric Sounding) on-board of the Metop-A satellite was activated on 27 October 2006. Currently, Metop-A is a fully operational satellite with GRAS providing from 650–700 occultations per day. We describe our processing of GRAS data based on the modification of our OCC software, which was modified to become capable of reading and processing GRAS data. We perform a statistical comparison of bending angles and refractivities derived from GRAS data with those derived from ECMWF analyses. We conclude that GRAS data have error characteristics close to those of COSMIC data. In the height range 10–30 km, the systematic refractivity difference GRAS–ECMWF is of the order of 0.1–0.2 %, and the standard deviation is 0.3–0.6 %. In the lower troposphere GRAS refractivity and bending angle indicate a negative bias, which reaches its maximum value in the tropics. In particular the retrieved refractivity is biased by up to 2.5 %. The negative bias pattern is similar to that found in the statistical validation of COSMIC data. This makes it probable that the bias should not be attributed to the instrument design or hardware.
Quantification of structural uncertainty in climate data records from GPS radio occultation
A. K. Steiner, D. Hunt, S.-P. Ho, G. Kirchengast, A. J. Mannucci, B. Scherllin-Pirscher, H. Gleisner, A. von Engeln, T. Schmidt, C. Ao, S. S. Leroy, E. R. Kursinski, U. Foelsche, M. Gorbunov, S. Heise, Y.-H. Kuo, K. B. Lauritsen, C. Marquardt, C. Rocken, W. Schreiner, S. Sokolovskiy, S. Syndergaard,J. Wickert
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2013,
Abstract: Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) has provided continuous observations of the Earth's atmosphere since 2001 with global coverage, all-weather capability, and high accuracy and vertical resolution in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). Precise time measurements enable long-term stability but careful processing is needed. Here we provide climate-oriented atmospheric scientists with multicenter-based results on the long-term stability of RO climatological fields for trend studies. We quantify the structural uncertainty of atmospheric trends estimated from the RO record, which arises from current processing schemes of six international RO processing centers, DMI Copenhagen, EUM Darmstadt, GFZ Potsdam, JPL Pasadena, UCAR Boulder, and WEGC Graz. Monthly-mean zonal-mean fields of bending angle, refractivity, dry pressure, dry geopotential height, and dry temperature from the CHAMP mission are compared for September 2001 to September 2008. We find that structural uncertainty is lowest in the tropics and mid-latitudes (50° S to 50° N) from 8 km to 25 km for all inspected RO variables. In this region, the structural uncertainty in trends over 7 yr is <0.03% for bending angle, refractivity, and pressure, <3 m for geopotential height of pressure levels, and <0.06 K for temperature; low enough for detecting a climate change signal within about a decade. Larger structural uncertainty above about 25 km and at high latitudes is attributable to differences in the processing schemes, which undergo continuous improvements. Though current use of RO for reliable climate trend assessment is bound to 50° S to 50° N, our results show that quality, consistency, and reproducibility are favorable in the UTLS for the establishment of a climate benchmark record.
Study of the Structural and Electrical Properties of Cr-Doped BiFeO3 Ceramic  [PDF]
S. S. Arafat, S. Ibrahim
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2017.810051
Abstract: Multiferroic BiFe1-xCrxO3 (x = 0.2 and 0.4) ceramics were synthesized in a single phase. The effects of Cr3+ substitution on the crystal structure, dielectric permittivity and leakage current were investigated. Preliminary X-ray structural studies revealed that the samples had a rhombohedral perovskite crystal structure. The dielectric constant ε' significantly increased while the dielectric loss tanδ was substantially decreased with the increase in Cr3+ substitution. The temperature effect on the dielectric properties exhibited an anomaly corresponding to magneto-electric coupling in the samples and was shifted to lower temperatures with the increase in Cr3+ substitution. The leakage current density also reduced in magnitude with the increase in the Cr3+ substitution.
Page 1 /325362
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.