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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 324950 matches for " S. Somasundaram "
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Degree Splitting of Root Square Mean Graphs  [PDF]
S. S. Sandhya, S. Somasundaram, S. Anusa
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/am.2015.66086
Abstract: Let \"\" be an injective function. For a vertex labeling f, the induced edge labeling \"\" is defined by, \"\" or \"\"; then, the edge labels are distinct and are from \"\". Then f is called a root square mean labeling of G. In this paper, we prove root square mean labeling of some degree splitting graphs.
Suprabasal bulla in Paget′s disease of the breast
Premalatha S,Somasundaram V
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 1992,
Abstract: A case report of Paget′s disease of the right breast in a 60-year-old woman is presented for its unusual histologic presentation. Suprabasal bulla probably due to malignant degenerative changes resulting in secondary acantholysis was present in addition to the characteristic Paget cells within the epidermis. Underlying ductal carcinoma cells were also observed.
Reliability Evaluation of Object Oriented Software Systems Using Communication Variabiles – A Review
S. Somasundaram,R. Chinnaiyan
International Journal of Software Engineering , 2009,
Abstract: Over the past 30 years, many software reliability growth models (SRGM) havebeen proposed. Object-oriented software development practices are beingrapidly adopted within increasingly complex systems, including real-time andconcurrent system applications. To address reliability issues in designingobject oriented software for this concurrent, time-critical system, this paperreviews an approach using the communication variables. Often, it is assumedthat detected faults are immediately corrected when mathematical models aredeveloped. This assumption may not be realistic in practice because the timeto remove a detected fault depends on the complexity of the fault, the skilland experience of personnel, the size of debugging team, and the techniquebeing used, and so on. During software testing, practical experiences showthat mutually independent faults can be directly detected and removed, butmutually dependent faults can be removed iff the leading faults have beenremoved. That is, dependent faults may not be immediately removed, and thefault removal process lags behind the fault detection process. In this paper,we will first give a review of fault detection & correction processes in softwarereliability modeling. We will then illustrate the fact that detected faults cannotbe immediately corrected with several examples. We also discuss the softwarefault dependency in detail, and study how to incorporate both fault dependencyand debugging time lag into software reliability modeling. The proposed modelsare fairly general models that cover a variety of known SRGM under differentconditions. Numerical examples are presented, and the results show that theproposed framework to incorporate both fault dependency and debugging timelag for SRGM has a better prediction capability. In addition, an optimal softwarerelease policy for the proposed models, based on cost-reliability criterion, isproposed.
Multi-Level Coding Efficiency with Improved Quality for Image Compression based on AMBTC
K. Somasundaram,S. Vimala
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: In this paper, we have proposed an extended version of Absolute Moment Block Truncation Coding (AMBTC) to compress images. Generally the elements of a bitplane used in the variants of Block Truncation Coding (BTC) are of size 1 bit. But it has been extended to two bits in the proposed method. Number of statistical moments preserved to reconstruct the compressed has also been raised from 2 to 4. Hence, the quality of the reconstructed images has been improved significantly from 33.62 to 38.12 with the increase in bpp by 1. The increased bpp (3) is further reduced to 1.75in multiple levels: in one level, by dropping 4 elements of the bitplane in such a away that the pixel values of the dropped elements can easily be interpolated with out much of loss in the quality, in level two, eight elements are dropped and reconstructed later and in level three, the size of the statistical moments is reduced. The experiments were carried over standard images of varying intensities. In all the cases, the proposed method outperforms the existing AMBTC technique in terms of both PSNR and bpp.
Missing Value Imputation using Refined Mean Substitution
R. S. Somasundaram,R. Nedunchezhian
International Journal of Computer Science Issues , 2012,
Abstract: In a previous work, it was clearly shown that the performance of the very simple imputation method based on Most Common Attribute Value called MC gave performance better than that of several complex imputation algorithms. And in that work [1] it was shown that the performance of MC was almost equal to that of best performing imputation method called Event Covering (EC). So in this work, It is tried to improve the performance of the simple imputation method MC and proposed a new algorithm. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been compared with the other simple and efficient imputation methods. The performance has been measured with respect to different rate or different percentage of missing values in the data set. To evaluate the performance, the standard WDBC data set has been used. The proposed algorithm performed very well and the arrived results were more significant and comparable.
Harmonic mean labeling of some cycle related graphs
S. S. Sandhya,S. Somasundaram,R. Ponraj
International Journal of Mathematical Analysis , 2012,
Some results on harmonic mean graphs
S. S. Sandhya,S. Somasundaram,R. Ponraj
International Journal of Contemporary Mathematical Sciences , 2012,
Some More Results on Harmonic Mean Graphs
S. S. Sandhya,S. Somasundaram,R. Ponraj
Journal of Mathematics Research , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jmr.v4n1p21
Abstract: A Graph $G=(V,E)$ with $p$ vertices and $q$ edges is called a harmonic mean graph if it is possible to label the vertices $xin V$ with distinct labels $f(x)$ from $1,2,ldots,q+1$ in such a way that when each edge $e=uv$ is labeled with $f(uv) = leftlceil frac{2f(u)f(v)}{f(u)+f(v)} ight ceil$ or $leftlfloor frac{2f(u)f(v)}{f(u)+f(v)} ight floor$ then the edge labels are distinct. In this case $f$ is called Harmonic mean labeling of $G$. The concept of Harmonic mean labeling was introduced in (Somasundaram, Ponraj & Sandhya). In (Somasundaram, Ponraj & Sandhya) and (Sandhya, Somasundaram & Ponraj, 2012) we investigate the harmonic mean labeling of several standard graphs such as path, cycle comb, ladder, Triangular snakes, Quadrilateral snakes etc. In the present paper, we investigate the harmonic mean labeling for a polygonal chain, square of the path and dragon. Also we enumerate all harmonic mean graph of order $leq5$.
Soil Health Management under Hill Agroecosystem of North East India
R. Saha,R. S. Chaudhary,J. Somasundaram
Applied and Environmental Soil Science , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/696174
Abstract: The deterioration of soil quality/health is the combined result of soil fertility, biological degradation (decline of organic matter, biomass C, decrease in activity and diversity of soil fauna), increase in erodibility, acidity, and salinity, and exposure of compact subsoil of poor physicochemical properties. Northeast India is characterized by high soil acidity/Al+3 toxicity, heavy soil, and carbon loss, severe water scarcity during most parts of year though it is known as high rainfall area. The extent of soil and nutrient transfer, causing environmental degradation in North eastern India, has been estimated to be about 601 million tones of soil, and 685.8, 99.8, 511.1, 22.6, 14.0, 57.1, and 43.0 thousand tones of N, P, K, Mn, Zn, Ca, and Mg, respectively. Excessive deforestation coupled with shifting cultivation practices have resulted in tremendous soil loss (200?t/ha/yr), poor soil physical health in this region. Studies on soil erodibility characteristics under various land use systems in Northeastern Hill (NEH) Region depicted that shifting cultivation had the highest erosion ratio (12.46) and soil loss (30.2–170.2?t/ha/yr), followed by conventional agriculture system (10.42 and 5.10–68.20?t/ha/yr, resp.). The challenge before us is to maintain equilibrium between resources and their use to have a stable ecosystem. Agroforestry systems like agri-horti-silvi-pastoral system performed better over shifting cultivation in terms of improvement in soil organic carbon; SOC (44.8%), mean weight diameter; MWD (29.4%), dispersion ratio (52.9%), soil loss (99.3%), soil erosion ratio (45.9%), and in-situ soil moisture conservation (20.6%) under the high rainfall, moderate to steep slopes, and shallow soil depth conditions. Multipurpose trees (MPTs) also played an important role on soil rejuvenation. Michelia oblonga is reported to be a better choice as bioameliorant for these soils as continuous leaf litter and root exudates improved soil physical behaviour and SOC considerably. Considering the present level of resource degradation, some resource conservation techniques like zero tillage/minimum tillage, hedge crop, mulching, cover crop need due attention for building up of organic matter status for sustaining soil health. 1. Introduction Soil degradation has raised some serious debate, and it is an important issue in the modern era. It refers to the decline in soil’s inherent capacity to produce economic goods and perform ecologic functions. It is the net result of dynamic soil degradative and restorative processes regulated by natural and anthropogenic
Modeling and optimization of cylindrical grinding of Al/SiC composites using genetic algorithms
Thiagarajan, C.;Sivaramakrishnan, R.;Somasundaram, S.;
Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-58782012000100005
Abstract: the al/sic composites have received more commercial attention than other kinds of metal matrix composites (mmcs) due to their high performance. however, a continuing problem with mmcs is that they are difficult to machine, due to the hardness and abrasive nature of the sic particles. grinding is often the method of choice for machining al/sic composites to acquire high dimensional accuracy and surface finish in large scale production. based on the full factorial design (34), a total of 81 experiments, each having a combination of different levels of variables, are carried out to study the effect of grinding parameters such as wheel velocity, work piece velocity, feed and depth of cut on the responses such as tangential grinding force, roughness and grinding temperature. modeling and optimization place a vital role in controlling any process for improved product quality, high productivity and low cost. in the present work, experimental results are used to calculate the analysis of variance (anova) which explains the significance of the parameters on the responses. based on the results of anova, a mathematical model is formulated using multiple regression method. a genetic algorithm (ga) based optimization procedure has been developed to optimize the grinding parameters for maximum material removal by imposing constraints on roughness. this methodology would be useful for identifying the optimum grinding parameters in order to achieve the required material removal rate (mrr).
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