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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 325222 matches for " S. Kazadzis "
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Optical and geometrical characteristics of cirrus clouds over a Southern European lidar station
E. Giannakaki, D. S. Balis, V. Amiridis,S. Kazadzis
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2007,
Abstract: Optical and geometrical characteristics of cirrus clouds over Thessaloniki, Greece (40.6° N, 22.9° E) have been determined from the analysis of lidar and radiosonde measurements performed during the period from 2000 to 2006. Cirrus clouds are generally observed in a mid-altitude region ranging from 8.6 to 13 km, with mid-cloud temperatures in the range from 65° to 38°C. The cloud thickness generally ranges from 1 to 5 km and 38{%} of the cases studied have thickness between 2 and 3 km. The retrieval of optical depth and lidar ratio of cirrus clouds is performed using three different methods, taking into account multiple scattering effect. The mean optical depth is found to be 0.31±0.24 and the corresponding mean lidar ratio is 30±17 sr following the scheme of Klett-Fernald method. Sub-visual, thin and opaque cirrus clouds are observed at 3%, 57% and 40% of the measured cases, respectively. A comparison of the results obtained between the three methods shows good agreement. The multiple scattering errors of the measured effective extinction coefficients range from 20 to 60%, depending on cloud optical depth. The temperature and thickness dependencies on optical properties have also been studied in detail. A maximum mid-cloud depth of ~3.5 km is found at temperatures around ~ 47.5°C, while there is an indication that optical depth and mean extinction coefficient increases with increasing mid-cloud temperature. A correlation between optical depth and thickness was also found. However, no clear dependence of the lidar ratio values on the cloud temperature and thickness was found.
Optical and geometrical characteristics of cirrus clouds over a mid-latitude lidar station
E. Giannakaki,D. S. Balis,V. Amiridis,S. Kazadzis
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2007,
Abstract: Optical and geometrical characteristics of cirrus clouds over Thessaloniki, Greece (40.6°, 22.9°) have been determined from the analysis of lidar and radiosonde measurements performed during the period from 2000 to 2006. Cirrus clouds are generally observed in a mid altitude region ranging from 7 to 12 km, with mid-cloud temperatures in the range from –65° to –25°C. A seasonality of cirrus geometrical and temperature properties is found. The cloud thickness ranges from 0.85 to 5 km and 37% of our cases have thickness between 2 and 3 km. The retrieval of cloud's optical depth and lidar ratio is performed using three different methods, taking into account multiple scattering effects. The mean optical depth is found to be 0.3±0.24 and the corresponding mean lidar ratio is 28±17 sr. Sub-visual, thin and opaque cirrus clouds are observed at 7.5%, 51% and 42.5% of the measured cases respectively. The multiple scattering errors of the measured effective extinction coefficients range from 20% to 60% depending on cloud optical depth. A comparison of the results between the three methods shows good agreement. In addition we present the advantages and limitations of each method applied. The temperature and thickness dependencies on optical properties have also been studied in detail. A maximum mid-cloud depth of ~3 km is found at temperatures around ~–45°C while there is an indication that optical depth increases with increasing thickness and mid-cloud temperature. No clear dependence of the lidar ratio values on the cloud temperature and thickness was found.
Aerosol forcing efficiency in the UVA region from spectral solar irradiance measurements at an urban environment
S. Kazadzis, N. Kouremeti, A. Bais, A. Kazantzidis,C. Meleti
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2009,
Abstract: Spectral Ultraviolet (UV) measurements using a Brewer MKIII double spectroradiometer were used for the determination of the aerosol forcing efficiency (RFE) under cloud free conditions at Thessaloniki, Greece for the period 1998–2006. Using measured spectral UVA irradiance in combination with synchronous aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements at 340 nm, we calculated the seasonal and the percent RFE changes with the help of radiative transfer model calculations used for cloud and aerosol free conditions reference. The calculated RFE for the 325–340 nm wavelength integral was found to be 0.71±0.30 W m 2/τs340 nm and corresponds to a mean calculated RFE% value of 15.2%±3.8% (2 σ) per unit of τs340 nm, for the whole period. This indicates a mean reduction of 15.2% of the 325–340 nm irradiance for a unit of aerosol optical depth slant column increase. Lower RFE% was found during summertime, which is a possible indication of lower absorbing aerosols. Mean AOD slant at 340 nm for the city of Thessaloniki were processed in combination with RFE% and a mean monthly UVA attenuation of ~10% for the whole period was revealed. The nine years' analysis results showed a reduction in RFE%, which provides a possible indication of the changes in the optical properties over the city area. If such changes are only due to changes in the aerosol absorbing properties, the above finding suggests a 2% per decade increase in UVA due to changes in the aerosol absorption properties, in addition to the calculated increase by 4.2%, which is attributed only to AOD decrease at Thessaloniki area over the 1998–2006 period.
The effect of the global UV irradiance measurement accuracy on the single scattering albedo retrieval
S. Kazadzis, J. Gr bner, A. Arola,V. Amiridis
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT) & Discussions (AMTD) , 2010,
Abstract: The possibility of measuring aerosol optical absorption properties in the UV spectral range such as single scattering albedo (SSA), using remote sensing techniques, is currently an open scientific issue. We investigate the limitations on calculating column average SSA using a combination of global UV spectral measurements (that are comon in various UV monitoring stations worldwide) with radiative transfer modeling. To point out the difficulties in such a retrieval we have used the travelling reference spectroradiometer QASUME (Quality Assurance of Spectral Ultraviolet Measurements in Europe) results from 27 visits to UV monitoring stations around Europe. We have used the QASUME instrument as relative reference, analyzing absolute differences and also temporal and spectral deviations of UV irraidances, that are used as basic input for the SSA retrieval. The results comparing the mean SSA derived by all instruments, measuring synchronous UV spectra, showed that 5 were within ± 0.02 difference from the SSA calculated from the QASUME instrument, while 17 were within ± 0.04, for the Solar zenith angle of 60 degrees. As for the uncertainty that has been calculated using the 2σ standard deviation of the spectral measurements, a mean 0.072 and 0.10 (2σ) uncertainties have been calculated for 60° and 30°, respectively. Based on the fact that additional uncertainties would be introduced in the SSA retrieval from AOD model input accuracy, assymetry parameter assumptions, we show that only very few instrumnents could be able to detect long term SSA changes. However, such measurements/results ar useful in order to retrieve SSA at UV wavelengths, a product needed for various applications such as, inputs for modeling radiative forcing studies and satellite retrieval algorithms.
Spatial and temporal UV irradiance and aerosol variability within the area of an OMI satellite pixel
S. Kazadzis,A. Bais,D. Balis,N. Kouremeti
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2009,
Abstract: Results of an experimental campaign that took place in the greater Thessaloniki area were used to investigate temporal and spatial UV variability within an OMI satellite pixel. UV irradiance and aerosol optical depth measurements were performed for a one month period at three sites characterized as urban, rural and industrial, depending on their location and possible local aerosol sources. OMI showed a general UV irradiance overestimation compared to all three sites and for all atmospheric conditions. During the campaign the standard deviation calculated from the three sites for UV irradiance at 324 nm was of the order of 26%. For cloudless days with high spatial aerosol variability, UV differences reached ±20% within the OMI pixel. For cloudy days UV differences up to 100% were found at the three sites, a percentage that depends on the ground-based data integration time used for the comparison. Here we tried to focus on the limitations when trying to interpret results of UV irradiance comparisons between OMI satellite and ground based stations, taking into account the UV variability within an OMI pixel, due to such small scale spatial cloud and aerosol inhomogeneities.
Effects of total solar eclipse of 29 March 2006 on surface radiation
S. Kazadzis,A. Bais,M. Blumthaler,A. Webb
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2007,
Abstract: Solar irradiance spectral measurements were performed during a total solar eclipse. The spectral effect of the limb darkening to the global, direct irradiance and actinic flux measurements was investigated. This effect leads to wavelength dependent changes in the measured solar spectra showing a much more pronounced decrease in the radiation at the lower wavelengths. Radiative transfer model results were used for the computation of a correction for the total ozone measurements due to the limb darkening. This correction was found too small to explain the large decrease in total ozone column derived from the standard Brewer measurements, which is an artifact in the measured irradiance due to the increasing contribution of diffuse radiation against the decreasing direct irradiance caused by the eclipse. Calculations of the Extraterrestrial spectrum and the effective sun's temperatures, as measured from ground based direct irradiance measurements, showed an artificial change in the calculations of both quantities due to the fact that radiation coming from the visible part of the sun during the eclipse phases differs from the back body radiation described by the Planck's law.
Attenuation of global ultraviolet and visible irradiance over Greece during the total solar eclipse of 29 March 2006
A. Kazantzidis,A. F. Bais,C. Emde,S. Kazadzis
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2007,
Abstract: The variability of ultraviolet and photosynthetically active radiation during the total solar eclipse of 29 March 2006 was examined in this study. The measurements from NILU-UV multichannel actinometers at 7 stations of the Greek UV Network were used, where the maximum eclipse percentage ranged from 73.1% to 94.8%. In addition, an extra instrument was established at a remote Greek island, Kastelorizo, which was within the Moon's umbral shadow. The measured changes in UV and visible irradiance were compared with 1-D model calculations (accounting for the limb darkening effect) and differences up 30% were observed for the lower UV wavelengths at high eclipse percentages. The spectral ratios between wavelengths was generally reproduced by the 1-D model, expect for 305 nm, where the irradiance at eclipse percentages of more than 85% decreased with slower rates than for longer wavelengths. As a result, the total ozone, derived from the 305/320 nm ratio, apparently decreased significantly for high eclipse percentages. Comparison results with 3-D model calculations approaching and during totality revealed an agreement with measurements in the UV-A region.
NO2 and HCHO photolysis frequencies from irradiance measurements in Thessaloniki, Greece
C. Topaloglou,S. Kazadzis,A. F. Bais,M. Blumthaler
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2005,
Abstract: An empirical approach for the retrieval of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and formaldehyde (HCHO) photolysis frequencies from measurements of global irradiance is presented in this work. Four months of synchronous measurements of actinic flux and global irradiance performed in Thessaloniki, Greece by a Bentham spectroradiometer were used to extract polynomials for the conversion of global irradiance to photolysis frequencies [(NO2) and J(HCHO)]. The comparison of these photolysis frequency values to the corresponding values calculated by spectral actinic flux measurements, showed a ratio very close to unity for all J's with a standard deviation of 6% for J(NO2) and 3% for J(HCHO). Additional sets of polynomials were also extracted to allow determination of J(NO2) by spectroradiometers with lower upper wavelength limits such as single and double Brewer spectroradiometers within acceptable uncertainty (corresponding ratio was 1 and standard deviation was 6% for double and 10% for single Brewers). The validity of the method under different atmospheric conditions was also examined by applying the polynomials to another set of actinic flux and global irradiance measurements performed in May 2004, in Buchhofen, Germany. In this case, comparing J values extracted from the polynomials to those calculated from actinic flux, showed equivalent results, demonstrating that the method can also be applied to other measurement sites.
Ozone Monitoring Instrument spectral UV irradiance products: comparison with ground based measurements at an urban environment
S. Kazadzis,A. Bais,A. Arola,N. Krotkov
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2008,
Abstract: We have compared spectral ultraviolet overpass irradiances from the Ozone Monitoring Instruments (OMI) against ground-based Brewer measurements at Thessaloniki, Greece from September 2004 to December 2007. It is demonstrated that OMI overestimates UV irradiances by 30%, 17% and 13% for 305 nm, 324 nm, and 380 nm respectively and 20% for erythemally weighted irradiance. The bias between OMI and Brewer increases with increasing aerosol absorption optical thickness. We present methodologies that can be applied for correcting this bias based on experimental results derived from the comparison period and also theoretical approaches using radiative transfer model calculations. All correction approaches minimize the bias and the standard deviation of the ratio OMI versus Brewer ratio. According to the results, the best correction approach suggests that the OMI UV product has to be multiplied by a correction factor CA(λ) are in the order of 0.8, 0.88 and 0.9 for 305 nm, 324 nm and 380 nm respectively. Limitations and possibilities for applying such methodologies in a global scale are also discussed.
Actinic flux and O1D photolysis frequencies retrieved from spectral measurements of irradiance at Thessaloniki, Greece
S. Kazadzis,C. Topaloglou,A. F. Bais,M. Blumthaler
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2004,
Abstract: The results of two methods retrieving actinic flux and ozone photolysis frequencies from measurements of irradiance with a Brewer MKIII spectroradiometer are investigated in this paper. The first method uses actinic flux retrieved from irradiance measurements by the use of known formulas while the second is an empirical method converting irradiance to ozone photolysis frequencies through polynomials extracted from a study of synchronous actinic flux and irradiance measurements. When examining the actinic fluxes derived from the first method to those measured by an actinic flux spectrometer, data agree within ±10% for solar zenith angles lower than 75° for the UV-B and the UV-A wavelength band. Also, the actinic to global irradiance ratio derived, deviates within ±6% for solar zenith angles lower than 70° compared with cloudless sky calculations of the TUV model. For both cases the deviations are in the order of the magnitude of the measurements or model uncertainties. The ozone photolysis frequencies calculated by the second method show a mean ratio of 0.98±0.12 (1σ and 0.97±0.06 for all data and for cloudless skies, respectively, when compared with ozone photolysis frequencies derived by a Bentham actinic flux spectroradiometer. Finally, the agreement of the two methods is within ±5% comparing two years' data of ozone photolysis frequencies retrieved from irradiance measurements at Thessaloniki, Greece. The use of such methods on extensive data sets of global irradiance can provide JO1D values with acceptable uncertainty, a parameter of particular importance for chemical process studies.
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