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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 326285 matches for " S West "
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New Northeastern Dexiin (Diptera; Tachinid )
Luther S. West
Psyche , 1924, DOI: 10.1155/1924/43521
Abstract:
Z(3) Interfaces in Lattice Gauge Theory
S. T. West
Physics , 1997,
Abstract: A study is made of properties of the Z(3) interface which forms between the different ordered phases of pure SU(3) gauge theory above a critical temperature. The theory is simulated on a (2+1)-D lattice at various temperatures above this critical point. At high temperatures, the interface tension is shown to agree well with the prediction of perturbation theory. Near the critical temperature, the interface behaviour is characterised by various displacement moments, and modelled by an interacting scalar field theory. This thesis is provided for reference, as it gives full details of the computational and statistical methods outlined only briefly in preprints hep-lat/9605040 and hep-lat/9607005.
Reactive nitrogen in Mexico City and its relation to ozone-precursor sensitivity: results from photochemical models
S. Sillman,J. J. West
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2009,
Abstract: We use results of a 3-D photochemistry/transport model for ozone formation in Mexico City during events in 1997 to investigate ambient concentrations of reactive nitrogen in relation to ozone-precursor sensitivity. Previous results from other locations suggest that ratios such as O3/NOy and H2O2/HNO3 might provide measurement-based indicators for NOx-sensitive or VOC-sensitive conditions. Mexico City presents a different environment due to its high concentrations of VOC and high level of pollutants in general. The model predicts a correlation between PAN and O3 with relatively high PAN/O3 (0.07), which is still lower than measured values. The model PAN is comparable with results from a model for Paris but much higher than were found in Nashville in both models and measurements. The difference is due in part to the lower temperature in Mexico City relative to Nashville. Model HNO3 in Mexico City is unusually low for an urban area and PAN/HNO3 is very high, probably due to the high ratio of reactivity-weighted VOC to NOx. The model predicts that VOC-sensitive chemistry in Mexico is associated with high NOx, NOy and NOx/NOy and with low O3/NOy and H2O2/HNO3, suggesting that these indicators work well for Mexico City. The relation between ozone-precursor sensitivity and either O3/NOz or O3/HNO3 is more ambiguous. VOC-sensitive conditions are associated with higher O3/HNO3 than would be found in NOx-sensitive conditions, but model O3/HNO3 associated with both NOx-sensitive and VOC-sensitive chemistry is higher in Mexico than in other cities. The model predicts a mixed pattern of ozone-precursor sensitivity in Mexico City, with VOC-sensitive conditions in the morning and NOx-sensitive in the afternoon, in contrast to results from other models for more recent events that predicted strongly VOC- sensitive conditions throughout the day. The difference in predicted ozone-precursor sensitivity is most likely due to different emission rates and to changes in emissions over time. The model with mixed sensitivity predicts much lower ambient NOx and NOx/NOy than the strongly VOC-sensitive model.
Reactive nitrogen in Mexico City and its relation to ozone-precursor sensitivity: results from photochemical models
S. Sillman,J. J. West
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2008,
Abstract: We use results of a 3-D photochemistry/transport model for ozone formation in Mexico City during events in 1997 to investigate ambient concentrations of reactive nitrogen in relation to ozone-precursor sensitivity. Previous results from other locations suggest that ratios such as O3/NOy and H2O2/HNO3 might provide measurement-based indicators for NOx-sensitive or VOC-sensitive conditions. Mexico City presents a different environment due to its high concentrations of VOC and high level of pollutants in general. The model predicts a correlation between PAN and O3 with relatively high PAN/O3 (0.07), which is still lower than measured values. The model PAN is comparable with results from a model for Paris but much higher than were found in Nashville in both models and measurements. The difference can be explained by the lower temperature in Mexico City relative to Nashville. Model HNO3 in Mexico City is unusually low for an urban area and PAN/HNO3 is very high, probably due to the high ratio of reactivity-weighted VOC to NOx. The model predicts that VOC-sensitive chemistry in Mexico is associated with high NOx, NOy and NOx/NOy and with low O3/NOy and H2O2/HNO3, suggesting that these indicators work well for Mexico City. The relation between ozone-precursor sensitivity and either O3/NOz or O3/HNO3 is more ambiguous. VOC-sensitive conditions are associated with higher O3/HNO3 than would be found in NOx-sensitive conditions, but model O3/HNO3 associated with both NOx-sensitive and VOC-sensitive chemistry is higher in Mexico than in other cities. The model predicts mixed sensitivity to NOx and VOC in Mexico City, with a tendency towards VOC-sensitive chemistry in the morning and NOx-sensitive in the afternoon, in contrast to model results for more recent events that predicted strongly VOC-sensitive conditions. The difference in predicted ozone-precursor sensitivity is most likely due to changes in emission rates over time. The model with mixed sensitivity predicts much lower ambient NOx and NOx/NOy than the strongly VOC-sensitive model.
Analytical solution for nonlinear Schrodinger vortex reconnection
S. Nazarenko,R. J. West
Physics , 2003,
Abstract: Analysis of the nonlinear Schrodinger vortex reconnection is given in terms of coordinate-time power series. The lowest order terms in these series correspond to a solution of the linear Schrodinger equation and provide several interesting properties of the reconnection process, in particular the non-singular character of reconnections, the anti-parallel configuration of vortex filaments and a square-root law of approach just before/after reconnections. The complete infinite power series represents a fully nonlinear analytical solution in a finite volume which includes the reconnection point, and is valid for finite time provided the initial condition is an analytic function. These series solutions are free from the periodicity artifacts and discretization error of the direct computational approaches and they are easy to analyze using a computer algebra program.
Community Perceptions and Practices in Management of Malaria in Under-five Children in Rivers State in Nigeria
CI Tobin-West, S Babatunde
International Journal of Health Research , 2012,
Abstract: Purpose: To determine baseline information on the perceptions of the causes and treatment of fevers suspected to be malaria in children less than five years in Rivers State, Nigeria in order to inform policy recommendations that will improve malaria control programme in the State. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in nine local government areas of the State through a multi-staged sampling, among parents and caregivers. Interviews were carried out using a questionnaire on malaria information adapted from WHO/ Federal Ministry of Health. Data was analyzed using Epi-Info v6.04d software, and descriptive statistics were computed with 95% Confidence Intervals for statistical inferences. Results: A total of 811 mothers/caregivers participated in the survey. Of these, 76.3% (95% CI=73.3–79.2) were aware that mosquitoes causes malaria fever. Fever was the commonest illness reported among children under five years two weeks preceding the survey (62.9%, 95% CI=59.5– 66.2). Majority of the caregivers (94.1%) reported taking actions within 24 hours of a child’s febrile illness by giving medications at home with drugs purchased from Patent Medicine Vendors rather than visiting a nearby health centre for treatment (53.3% (95% CI=49.6–57.0) versus 26.8% (95% CI=23.4–30.2). However, the drug mostly used for treatment was chloroquine sulfate (33.6%, 95% CI=30.1–37.2) instead of artemisininbased combined drugs 18.9%, 95% CI=16.8 – 21.9), Conclusion: Caregivers knowledge and response time to fever was reassuring that children can be reached promptly with more effective antimalaria treatment like artemisinin-based drugs, if community-directed management options that utilizes trained community-based volunteers were introduced.
Community Perceptions and Practices in Management of Malaria in Under-five Children in Rivers State in Nigeria
CI Tobin-West, S Babatunde
International Journal of Health Research , 2011,
Abstract: Purpose: To determine baseline information on the perceptions of the causes and treatment of fevers suspected to be malaria in children less than five years in Rivers State, Nigeria in order to inform policy recommendations that will improve malaria control programme in the State. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in nine local government areas of the State through a multi-staged sampling, among parents and caregivers. Interviews were carried out using a questionnaire on malaria information adapted from WHO/ Federal Ministry of Health. Data was analyzed using Epi-Info v6.04d software, and descriptive statistics were computed with 95% Confidence Intervals for statistical inferences. Results: A total of 811 mothers/caregivers participated in the survey. Of these, 76.3% (95% CI=73.3–79.2) were aware that mosquitoes causes malaria fever. Fever was the commonest illness reported among children under five years two weeks preceding the survey (62.9%, 95% CI=59.5– 66.2). Majority of the caregivers (94.1%) reported taking actions within 24 hours of a child’s febrile illness by giving medications at home with drugs purchased from Patent Medicine Vendors rather than visiting a nearby health centre for treatment (53.3% (95% CI=49.6–57.0) versus 26.8% (95% CI=23.4–30.2). However, the drug mostly used for treatment was chloroquine sulfate (33.6%, 95% CI=30.1–37.2) instead of artemisininbased combined drugs 18.9%, 95% CI=16.8 – 21.9), Conclusion: Caregivers knowledge and response time to fever was reassuring that children can be reached promptly with more effective antimalaria treatment like artemisinin-based drugs, if community-directed management options that utilizes trained community-based volunteers were introduced.
Bayesian statistical modeling of spatially correlated error structure in atmospheric tracer inverse analysis
C. Mukherjee, P. S. Kasibhatla,M. West
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2011,
Abstract: We present and discuss the use of Bayesian modeling and computational methods for atmospheric chemistry inverse analyses that incorporate evaluation of spatial structure in model-data residuals. Motivated by problems of refining bottom-up estimates of source/sink fluxes of trace gas and aerosols based on satellite retrievals of atmospheric chemical concentrations, we address the need for formal modeling of spatial residual error structure in global scale inversion models. We do this using analytically and computationally tractable conditional autoregressive (CAR) spatial models as components of a global inversion framework. We develop Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to explore and fit these spatial structures in an overall statistical framework that simultaneously estimates source fluxes. Additional aspects of the study extend the statistical framework to utilize priors on source fluxes in a physically realistic manner, and to formally address and deal with missing data in satellite retrievals. We demonstrate the analysis in the context of inferring carbon monoxide (CO) sources constrained by satellite retrievals of column CO from the Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument on the TERRA satellite, paying special attention to evaluating performance of the inverse approach using various statistical diagnostic metrics. This is developed using synthetic data generated to resemble MOPITT data to define a proof-of-concept and model assessment, and then in analysis of real MOPITT data. These studies demonstrate the ability of these simple spatial models to substantially improve over standard non-spatial models in terms of statistical fit, ability to recover sources in synthetic examples, and predictive match with real data.
Clinical pharmacist evaluation of medication inappropriateness in the emergency department of a teaching hospital in Malta
West LM,Cordina M,Cunningham S
Pharmacy Practice (Granada) , 2012,
Abstract: Appropriate prescribing remains an important priority in all medical areas of practice. Objective: The objective of this study was to apply a Medication Appropriateness Index (MAI) to identify issues of inappropriate prescribing amongst patients admitted from the Emergency Department (ED).Method: This study was carried out at Malta’s general hospital on 125 patients following a two-week pilot period on 10 patients. Patients aged 18 years and over and on medication therapy were included. Medication treatment for inappropriateness was assessed by using the MAI. Under-prescribing was also screened for. Results: Treatment charts of 125 patients, including 697 medications, were assessed using a MAI. Overall, 115 (92%) patients had one or more medications with one or more MAI criteria rated as inappropriate, giving a total of 384 (55.1%) medications prescribed inappropriately. The mean SD MAI score per drug was 1.78 (SD=2.19). The most common medication classes with appropriateness problems were supplements (20.1%), antibiotics (20.0%) and steroids (19.8%). The most common problems involved incorrect directions (26%) and incorrect dosages (18.5%). There were 36 omitted medications with untreated indications. Conclusion: There is considerable inappropriate prescribing which could have significant negative effects regarding patient care.
Mechanisms of heme iron absorption: Current questions and controversies
Adrian R West, Phillip S Oates
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2008,
Abstract: Iron is a critical micronutrient, and iron derived from heme contributes a large proportion of the total iron absorbed in a typical Western diet. Heme iron is absorbed by different mechanisms than non-heme iron, but despite considerable study over many years these mechanisms remain poorly understood. This review provides an overview of the importance of heme iron in the diet and discusses the two prevailing hypotheses of heme absorption; namely receptor mediated endocytosis of heme, and direct transport into the intestinal enterocyte by recently discovered heme transporters. A specific emphasis is placed on the questions surrounding the site of heme catabolism and the identity of the enzyme that performs this task. Additionally, we present the hypothesis that a non-heme iron transport protein may be required for heme iron absorption and discuss the experiences of our laboratory in examining this hypothesis.
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