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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 329365 matches for " S Lindsey Wong "
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Malaria treatment-seeking behaviour and recovery from malaria in a highland area of Kenya
Peter O Sumba, S Lindsey Wong, Hemal K Kanzaria, Kelsey A Johnson, Chandy C John
Malaria Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-7-245
Abstract: To assess treatment-seeking behaviour for malaria in these areas, a questionnaire was administered to 117 randomly selected households in the highland area of Kipsamoite, Kenya. Self-reported episodes of malaria occurred in 100 adults and 66 children.The most frequent initial sources of treatment for malaria in adults and children were medical facilities (66.0% and 66.7%) and local shops (19.0% and 30.3%). Adults and children who initially visited a medical facility for treatment were significantly more likely to recover and require no further treatment than those who initially went to a local shop (adults, 84.9% v. 36.8%, P < 0.0001, and children, 79.6% v. 40.0%, P = 0.002, respectively). Individuals who attended medical facilities recalled receiving anti-malarial medication significantly more frequently than those who visited shops (adults, 100% vs. 29.4%, and children, 100% v. 5.0%, respectively, both P < 0.0001).A significant proportion of this highland population chooses local shops for initial malaria treatment and receives inappropriate medication at these localshops, reslting in delay of effective treatment. Shopkeeper education has the potential to be a component of prevention or containment strategies for malaria epidemics in highland areas.Malaria is a leading cause of death in children under the age of five years in sub-Saharan Africa [1]. The Roll-Back Malaria (RBM) initiative is working to improve prevention efforts in affected countries, through insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), indoor residual spraying (IRS) of pesticides, and intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) for pregnant women [2]. RBM also focuses on intervention efforts via effective anti-malarial regimens like artemesinin-based combination therapy (ACT), pre-empting epidemics in epidemic-prone areas, and improving home management of the disease. Rapid, effective treatment response with ACT is currently the most effective treatment option in sub-Saharan Africa, considering the current state
Therapeutic Camps and Their Impact on the Family of Children with Special Health Care Needs: A Mixed Method Study  [PDF]
Brandi Lindsey
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2016.69074
Abstract: Respite care through therapeutic summer day camps is a service used to relieve the physical and mental strains placed on caregivers of children with special health care needs while also creating unique opportunities to benefit the child. The purpose of this study is to determine how respite care in the form of a therapeutic summer day camp for children with special needs impacts a family’s ability to manage their child’s special health care needs within their family. This research study used mixed methodology combining quantitative data collection through pre- and post-survey and qualitative data collection through interviews that worked to answer questions relating to the effects of a therapeutic summer day camp on parents’ perspective and management of their child’s condition. The theoretical framework used to guide the study is the Family Management Style Framework. Twenty-two parents completed The Family Management Measure that was administered prior to and at the conclusion of an 8-week therapeutic summer day camp program. Qualitative interviews with 11 parents helped to better understand specific interventions and experiences of the therapeutic camp that benefitted their child and family. Although the quantitative analysis did not yield statistically significant changes in the family’s ability to manage their child’s condition as a result of attendance at the camp, the qualitative interviews demonstrated robust evidence that the camp provided meaningful experiences for the campers and parents while alleviating stress within the family. Themes include: 1) Family-Child themes of loss of normalcy, relationships affected, increased stress, family adaptations, and love for the child; 2) Camp-Child themes of meeting individual needs, creating happiness, and behavior changes; and (3) Camp-Parent themes of improved perception of the child, decreased stress, parent involvement with staff, and need for specific environment at camp. Implications of the results are discussed, along with recommendations for future research.
Dominance of multidrug resistant CC271 clones in macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Arizona
Jolene R Bowers, Elizabeth M Driebe, Jennifer L Nibecker, Bette R Wojack, Derek S Sarovich, Ada H Wong, Pius M Brzoska, Nathaniel Hubert, Andrew Knadler, Lindsey M Watson, David M Wagner, Manohar R Furtado, Michael Saubolle, David M Engelthaler, Paul S Keim
BMC Microbiology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-12-12
Abstract: Characterization of 592 clinical isolates collected in Arizona over a 10 year period shows 23.6% are macrolide resistant. The largest portion of the macrolide-resistant population, 52%, is dual mef(E)/erm(B)-positive. All dual-positive isolates are multidrug-resistant clonal lineages of Taiwan19F-14, mostly multilocus sequence type 320, carrying the recently described transposon Tn2010. The remainder of the macrolide resistant S. pneumoniae collection includes 31% mef(E)-positive, and 9% erm(B)-positive strains.The dual-positive, multidrug-resistant S. pneumoniae clones have likely expanded by switching to non-vaccine serotypes after the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine release, and their success limits therapy options. This upsurge could have a considerable clinical impact in Arizona.Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major etiological agent of pneumonia, otitis media, sinusitis, and other respiratory pathology. Macrolides remain a primary antibiotic choice for physicians treating such infections due to their broad spectrum of activity, patient tolerance, easy outpatient treatment, high achievable tissue concentrations, and anti-inflammatory properties. Use of macrolides has led to increased rates of resistance in S. pneumoniae [1,2] and even clinical treatment failure in several cases [3-5]. Macrolide resistance rates in clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae vary greatly among countries [6-9].The main mechanisms of macrolide resistance in S. pneumoniae also vary geographically. The erm(B) encoded methylation of the ribosomal macrolide target site, which confers high-level macrolide resistance as well as resistance to lincosamides and streptogramin B (MLSB phenotype), is the prevalent mechanism in some Asian, European, Middle Eastern, and African countries [6,9-13]. The mef encoded efflux pump conferring low-level macrolide resistance (M phenotype) is more prevalent in other Asian and European countries and North America [9,14-16].S. pneumoniae clones carrying bo
Caspar Controls Resistance to Plasmodium falciparum in Diverse Anopheline Species
Lindsey S. Garver,Yuemei Dong,George Dimopoulos
PLOS Pathogens , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000335
Abstract: Immune responses mounted by the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae are largely regulated by the Toll and Imd (immune deficiency) pathways via the NF-kappaB transcription factors Rel1 and Rel2, which are controlled by the negative regulators Cactus and Caspar, respectively. Rel1- and Rel2-dependent transcription in A. gambiae has been shown to be particularly critical to the mosquito's ability to manage infection with the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. Using RNA interference to deplete the negative regulators of these pathways, we found that Rel2 controls resistance of A. gambiae to the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, whereas Rel 1 activation reduced infection levels. The universal relevance of this defense system across Anopheles species was established by showing that caspar silencing also prevents the development of P. falciparum in the major malaria vectors of Asia and South America, A. stephensi and A. albimanus, respectively. Parallel studies suggest that while Imd pathway activation is most effective against P. falciparum, the Toll pathway is most efficient against P. berghei, highlighting a significant discrepancy between the human pathogen and its rodent model. High throughput gene expression analyses identified a plethora of genes regulated by the activation of the two Rel factors and revealed that the Toll pathway played a more diverse role in mosquito biology than the Imd pathway, which was more immunity-specific. Further analyses of key anti-Plasmodium factors suggest they may be responsible for the Imd pathway–mediated resistance phenotype. Additionally, we found that the fitness cost caused by Rel2 activation through caspar gene silencing was undetectable in sugar-fed, blood-fed, and P. falciparum-infected female A. gambiae, while activation of the Toll pathway's Rel1 had a major impact. This study describes for the first time a single gene that influences an immune mechanism that is able to abort development of P. falciparum in Anopheline species. Further, this study addresses aspects of the molecular, evolutionary, and physiological consequences of the observed phenotype. These findings have implications for malaria control since broad-spectrum immune activation in diverse anopheline species offers a viable and strategic approach to develop novel malaria control methods worldwide.
The Impact of Cattle Grazing in High Elevation Sierra Nevada Mountain Meadows over Widely Variable Annual Climatic Conditions  [PDF]
Lindsey Myers, Brenda Whited
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.328097
Abstract: The impact of summer cattle grazing on water quality during three very different climatic years in the Sierra Nevada was investigated. Water year 2009 had near normal precipitation; 2010 had late precipitation and snowmelt; and 2011 had 150% above normal precipitation. Surface waters were tested for pathogenic bacteria indicators fecal coliform, E. coli, and total coliform before and after cattle were released onto summer grazing allotments. Water samples were collected from meadow stream sites up to 6 weeks before and up to 6 weeks after cattle grazing began. Streams passing through ungrazed meadow served as controls. Eight sample sites were between 1694 m and 2273 m in elevation; one site was lower at 1145 m in elevation. Samples were transported within 6 hours to a water analysis laboratory, where samples were analyzed following standardized laboratory methods. Results showed that individual site and total mean concentrations of E. coli in surface waters were within regulatory standards before cattle arrived during each of the 3 study years. After the beginning of grazing, mean E. coli counts increased as follows: 2009 from 8 to 240 CFU/100mL, 2010 from 7 to 561 CFU/10mL; 2011 from 7 to 657 CFU/100mL (p < 0.05 all years). Total coliform bacteria and fecal coliform concentrations showed the same pattern. This study shows that cattle grazing in the high elevation Sierra Nevada results in a significant increase in indicator bacteria. This impact on the watersheds occurs despite widely variable annual climatic conditions.
Photonic Communications and Quantum Information Storage Capacities  [PDF]
William C. Lindsey
Optics and Photonics Journal (OPJ) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/opj.2013.32B032

This paper presents photonic communications and data storage capacitates for classical and quantum communications over a quantum channel. These capacities represent a generalization of Shannon’s classical channel capacity and coding theorem in two ways. First, it extends classical results for bit communication transport to all frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum. Second, it extends the results to quantum bit (qubit) transport as well as a hybrid of classical and quantum communications. Nature’s limits on the rate at which classical and/or quantum information can be sent error-free over a quantum channel using classical and/or quantum error-correcting codes are presented as a function of the thermal background light level and Einstein zero-point energy. Graphical results are given as well as numerical results regarding communication rate limits using Planck’s natural frequency and time-interval units!

Gender Differences: Mortgage Credit Experience  [PDF]
Debby Lindsey-Taliefero
Modern Economy (ME) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/me.2015.69093
Abstract: This study examined gender differences in the mortgage credit experience. Home Mortgage Disclosure Data Act (HMDA) data along with Lending PatternsTM generated rates for originations, denials, and fallouts from 2004 to 2013. The gender effect on these rates was examined for statistical differences using the independent t-test, ANOVA, and one sample t-test. Across the country, the results showed no statistical gender effect on origination, denial or fallout rates in the post-housing crisis era. Within the race, this relationship held up, with exclusions. The white females had a lower fallout rate than white males, and Asian females had a higher denial rate than Asian males. Within gender, controlling for race, white females had higher origination and lower denial rates than Black, Hispanic, and Native Americans but were not statistically different from Asian females. Comparing white males to females by race, the results indicated that 53% of the time white males had higher origination, lower denial, or lower fallout rates than females. While 40% of the time, the white male’s mortgage experience was not statistically different from females. Seven percent of the time the white male’s origination rate was lower than white females. In the final analysis, at no time did minority females have a better mortgage experience than white males, but they did 33% of the time experience no statistical difference. Given these points, the applicant’s gender had less of an effect on the mortgage credit experience than the applicant’s race.
Teachers Creating Effective Learning Experiences for Indigenous Learners  [PDF]
Lindsey Conner, Judith Bennetts
Creative Education (CE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2018.96074
Abstract: “Recently professional learning and development has turned a corner. Teachers as leaders of learning have realized that they can be agents of change within their classrooms by focusing on quite specific teaching changes to improve outcomes for their learners” (Conner, 2015: p. 7). This paper provides examples of how teachers were challenged to link changes in their practice to include good principles of indigenous pedagogies (through participating in cycles of teaching and inquiry), to changes in students’ outcomes, which has rarely been reported previously. Vignettes of changes teachers made to their teaching were gathered as they responded to reflections and support from mentors and used student achievement data as tools for inquiry. Teachers were provoked to be more aware of the importance of evidence-informed critical reflection on pedagogical development that was appropriate for indigenous students. We provide an overall analysis and vignette examples to illustrate the emerging themes which were: the development of positive professional relationships (mentor-teacher, teacher-teacher and teacher-student), developing pedagogical knowledge that was appropriate for indigenous students that was also informed by seeking student and whānau (family) voice or feedback to inform changes to teaching.
Factors Impacting Corn (Zea mays L.) Establishment and the Role of Uniform Establishment on Yield  [PDF]
Lindsey Novak, Joel Ransom
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/as.2018.910092
Abstract: Information from actual farm fields can help corn producers understand the value and importance of establishing uniform crop emergence and within-row plant spacing. Thirty-eight fields planted with corn (Zea mays L.) by North Dakota producers were evaluated to determine the effects of uneven plant emergence timing and within-row plant space variability, as well as identifying contributing factors. Rows within a planter’s width with the most variability yielded 6% less than the least variable rows. Individual ear weights decreased as the number of days after normal emergence (date when 50% of plant stand emerged) increased. Ears next to within-row gaps (>30.5 cm) weighed 11% more than the normally spaced plants. Combined ears from both plants situated <5.1 cm apart weighed 36% more than from a single ear from normally spaced plants. Surface residue and planting speed impacted stand establishment variability more often than other factors measured. Producers should assess each field environment individually in order to identify best practices to achieve uniform stand establishment.
Extrinsic Factors Involved in the Differentiation of Stem Cells into Insulin-Producing Cells: An Overview
Rebecca S. Y. Wong
Experimental Diabetes Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/406182
Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease with many debilitating complications. Treatment of diabetes mellitus mainly revolves around conventional oral hypoglycaemic agents and insulin replacement therapy. Recently, scientists have turned their attention to the generation of insulin-producing cells (IPCs) from stem cells of various sources. To date, many types of stem cells of human and animal origins have been successfully turned into IPCs in vitro and have been shown to exert glucose-lowering effect in vivo. However, scientists are still faced with the challenge of producing a sufficient number of IPCs that can in turn produce sufficient insulin for clinical use. A careful choice of stem cells, methods, and extrinsic factors for induction may all be contributing factors to successful production of functional beta-islet like IPCs. It is also important that the mechanism of differentiation and mechanism by which IPCs correct hyperglycaemia are carefully studied before they are used in human subjects.
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