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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 325024 matches for " S Kebede "
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Idiopathic Masseter Muscle Hypertrophy
B Kebede, S Megersa
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Benign Masseteric Hypertrophy is a relatively uncommon condition that can occur unilaterally or bilaterally. Pain may be a symptom, but most frequently a clinician is consulted for cosmetic reasons. In some cases prominent Exostoses at the angle of the mandible are noted. Although it is tempting to point to Malocclusion, Bruxism, clenching, or Temporomandibular joint disorders, the etiology in the majority of cases is unclear. Diagnosis is based on awareness of the condition, clinical and radiographic findings, and exclusion of more serious Pathology such as Benign and Malignant Parotid Disease, Rhabdomyoma, and Lymphangioma. Treatment usually involves resection of a portion of the Masseter muscle with or without the underlying bone. Ethiop J Health Sci. Vol. 21, No. 3 November 2011
Communication skills of physicians during patient interaction in an in-patient setting at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Teaching Hospital (TASH), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2009
D Zewdneh, K W/Michael, S Kebede
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Physician-patient relationship is foremost among the numerous qualities needed for sound patient care. In the Ethiopian clinical setting, a vast majority of patients complain that physicians do not interact with them properly. Objective: Assess behavior of physicians (verbal and nonverbal) when interacting with patients. Methods: Randomly selected physicians were observed in doctor-patient interactions in an inpatient setting using a standardized check list at Tikur Anbessa Hospital in November, 2009.Mean comparison of total scores of each category as well as mean interaction and biomedical exam times were made using Pearson’s Chi square, and Student’s T test. Results: 211 interactions were observed. 22.7% were consultants, 49.7% were residents and 26.5% were interns. Mean total score of observed behavior ranged from poor to satisfactory across category and showed statistically significant variations. Average interaction time was 7.87 minutes while average biomedical exam time was 5.05 minutes. The means showed a significant variation (p=0.001 at 95% CI). Conclusion: The study has shown that there is a reasonable ground to suggest that physician-patient interaction has deficiencies. Due attention should be given to improve communication skills of physicians.
Prevalence and Predictors of Intestinal Helminthiasis among School Children in Jimma Zone; A Cross-Sectional Study
A Yami, Y Mamo, S Kebede
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Globally, millions of people suffer from intestinal parasitic infections. These infections are among the most common resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. In Ethiopia and particularly in Jimma and its surroundings intestinal parasitic infections are highly prevalent because of low living standards and poor environmental sanitation. The objective of the survey was to determine the prevalence and predictors of intestinal parasitosis among school children in four woredas of Jimma zone surrounding Gilgel gibe hydraulic dam and serve as a base line data to help evaluate health promoting activities for the future and monitor those already delivered to the community. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in October, 2008 in four Woredas of Jimma zone bordering Gilgel Gibe Dam. Children attending grades 1-8 in the schools located within 10 Kms ofthe Dam in the four bordering woredas and those living 30 Kms away from the shore line were the study subjects. Six hundred twenty four and 321 children were selected from the schools around Gilgel Gibe dam and from the schools in Bulbul, respectively. Data on background of participant was collected and stool specimen collected and processed. Data were filtered and entered into computer then analyzed using SPSS for windows version 13.0.1. RESULTS: Of the 937 selected individuals, 855 participated in the study giving a response rate of 91.2%. The prevalence of intestinal parasitosis was 47.1% where 174 (20%) had Ascaris lumbricoides monoinfection; 4.3% had dual infection involving Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm and 0.2% had triple infection but all the infections were of light intensity. In addition, there was no association between prevalence of intestinal parasitosis with availability or regular use of latrine and clinical symptoms. CONCLUSION: The prevalence and intensity of intestinal parasites in the study area is lower than national, urban and rural setting of Jimma zone. These might be due to a better awareness of the study community on prevention of intestinal parasitosis following increased health promoting activities in the area, delivered through various activities of Jimma Public health training program. KEYWORDS: intestinal parasitosis, Gilgel-Gibe, Southwest Ethiopia Ethiop J Health Sci. Vol. 21, No. 3 November 2011
Impact Assessment of Gilgel Gibe Hydroelectric Dam on Schitosomiasis: A Cross Sectional Study in Southwest Ethiopia
A Yami, S Kebede, Y Mamo
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Intestinal schistosomiasis is prevalent in East Africa including Ethiopia. Constructed five years back, Gilgel Gibe dam is suspected to harbor the intermediate host for transmission of schistosomiasis. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis and risk factors among school children. METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional study was carried out in October 2008 in four Woredas bordering Gilgel Gibe dam, within 10 kilometers, and Bulbul, which is 30 Kms away from the dam. Children attending grades 1-8 in the schools located adjacent to the dam constituted the cases and those living in Bulbul constitute the controls. Using Epinfo version 6.0 for cross-sectional study, a sample size of 937 was determined. Sample size allocation was done 2:1 for cases and control. After interview, stool sample was collected and analyzed. Screening for the presence of intermediate host and physiochemical analyses of selected water bodies along the major water contact sites of the reservoir was also done Data were entered into computer and analyzed using SPSS for windows version 13.0.1. RESULTS: Out of 624 sampled cases and 312 controls, 585 and 270 participated in the study giving a response rate of 93.8% and 86.5%, respectively. Four hundred seventy four (81.0% of the cases and 203 (75.2%) controls use latrine regularly. On stool examination, 406 (47.5%) children, 295 (50.4%) cases and 111 (41.1%) controls) were positive to intestinal parasites but only two children, both from the control groups, were positive for Schistosoma mansoni. The three river water samples on which malacological survey was done had similar physicochemical characteristics in many ways except high conductivity, pH and percent of dissolved oxygen concentration (milligram per liter) at one site where uninfected Biomphilaria Pfeifferi was found CONCLUSION: The study revealed that schistosomiasis is not yet a problem at Gilgel-Gibe dam. But, continuous surveying is required as the intermediate host is prevalent, the water bodies are suitable for the intermediate host and cases of schistosomiasis are identified 30 kms away the dam, in control area.
The Role of Magnetic Fields in Gamma-Ray Bursts from SNeII  [PDF]
Legesse Wetro Kebede
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2013.34058

Data from a recently discovered long Gamma Ray Burst (GRB 090102) by NASAs Swift satellite revealed that such GRBs may not be fireballs as usually presumed, but instead they are powered and collimated by organized strong magnetic fields (≧ 1015 G) generated by the compact object, a neutron star (NS) created at the core of the associated supernova explosion (SNeII). A mechanism for the generation of such strong surface magnetic fields where power NSs result from the deaths of massive progenitor stars is described based on a non-conventional model for pulsar magnetic fields, namely, spinning polarization charge that I recently developed in [1]. I show that this could give rise to scenarios involving long GRB events as the one captured by the Swift satellite during GRB 090102 in January 2, 2009. The model predicts that the magnetic moment of a NS has a dynamical feature which makes it different from that of a simple pulsar. I show this could have serious consequences on the statistics of observing long GRBs and also help explain such scenarios as the steep decline in the photon count-rate and the subsequent shutoff in the Swift/XRT X-ray data from GRB 070110.

Catchment modeling and model transferability in upper Blue Nile Basin, Lake Tana, Ethiopia
A. S. Gragne,S. Uhlenbrook,Y. Mohammed,S. Kebede
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions , 2008,
Abstract: Understanding spatial and temporal distribution of water resources has an important role for water resource management. To understand water balance dynamics and runoff generation mechanisms at the Gilgel Abay catchment (a major tributary into lake Tana, source of Blue Nile, Ethiopia) and to evaluate model transferability, catchment modeling was conducted using the conceptual hydrological model HBV. The catchment of the Gigel Abay was sub-divided into two gauged sub-catchments (Upper Gilgel Abay, UGASC, and Koga, KSC) and one ungauged sub-catchment. Manual calibration of the daily models for three different catchment representations (CRs): (i) lumped, (ii) lumped with multiple vegetation zones, and (iii) semi-distributed with vegetations zone and elevation zones, showed good to satisfactory model performance (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency values, Reff>0.75 and >0.6, respectively, for UGASC and KSC). The change of the time step to fifteen and thirty days resulted in very good model performances in both sub-catchments (Reff>0.8). The model parameter transferability tests conducted on the daily models showed poor performance in both sub-catchments, whereas the fifteen and thirty days models yielded high Reff values using transferred parameter sets. This together with the sensitivity analysis carried out after Monte Carlo simulations (1 000 000 model runs) per CR explained the reason behind the difference in hydrologic behaviors of the two sub-catchments UGASC and KSC. The dissimilarity in response pattern of the sub-catchments was caused by the presence of dambos in KSC and differences in the topography between UGASC and KSC. Hence, transferring model parameters from the view of describing hydrological process was found to be not feasible for all models. On the other hand, from a water resources management perspective the results obtained by transferring parameters of the larger time step model were acceptable.
Technical Notes: Notes and Proposed Guidelines on Updated Seismic Codes in Ethiopia - Implication for Large-Scale Infrastructures
S Kinde, S Engeda, A Kebede, E Tessema
Zede Journal , 2011,
Abstract: In light of recent expansion in the planning and construction of major building structures as well as other infrastructures such as railways, masshousing, dams, bridges, etc, this paper reviews the extent of seismic hazard in Ethiopia and proposes a review and update of the current out-dated and - in most cases - non-conservative seismic code. In specific terms, the last three seismic codes are reviewed and a comprehensive set of discussions on seismic zoning and PGA (peak ground acceleration), special provisions in concrete and steel beams and columns design, and seismic analysis are provided through a comparison with major international building codes. Sets of recommendations in updated and conservative seismic zoning, need for separate seismic codes for non-building type structures, a choice of 475 years as return-period instead of the current 100 years, and a revisit of the basic seismic design philosophy to focus on performance basis are provided. Key-words seismic design, building code, seismic hazard, earthquake, infrastructure, codes and standards.
Seismic hazard assessment in Eastern and Southern Africa
V. Midzi,D. J. Hlatywayo,L. S. Chapola,F. Kebede
Annals of Geophysics , 1999, DOI: 10.4401/ag-3770
Abstract: Seismic hazard assessment for the Eastern and Southern Africa region was done using the probabilistic approach. Seismic hazard maps for 10% exceedance in 50 years, 10% exceedance in 100 years, as well as for 50 and 100 years return periods were prepared using the FRISK88M software. The area involved covers a wide region bounded by latitudes 40°S-25°N and longitudes 10°E and 55°E. Input parameters for the computations were obtained using the recent earthquake catalogue compiled by Turyomurugyendo. The catalogue which covers the time period 627-1994, contains earthquakes within the area bounded by 40°S-25°N and 10°E-55°E, with homogeneous magnitudes (M S ). Since a Poisson model of earthquake occurrence is assumed, dependent events were cleaned from the catalogue. Attenuation relations for the Eastern and Southern Africa region based on the strong motion data are virtually non-existent. However, attempts have been made recently by Jonathan and Twesigomwe to establish an average attenuation relation for the region. These relations were used in the computations. Possible uncertainties in the attenuation relations were accounted for using the logic-tree formalism. The results are presented in seismic hazard maps in terms of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) for the mean and the 85th percentile. The distribution of PGA values indicate relatively high hazard along the East African rift system. In the northern segments of the rift system, they exceed 250 gals for 10% probability of exceedence in 50 years.
The Gender Perspective of Household Food Security in Meskan District of the Gurage Zone, Southern Ethiopia
M Kebede
African Research Review , 2009,
Abstract: Despite the considerable number of rural women in Ethiopia and their contribution in food production, processing , preparation and provision, they are often neglected and deprived of services and amenities which leads to their vulnerability to poverty, food insecurity, gender bias and effects of environmental change. Accordingly, the principal objective of this study is to assess the food security situation and the type of coping strategies pursued by female and male- headed households in two kebeles of Meskan District of the Gurage Zone, Ethiopia. The findings of the study indicated that femaleheaded households compared to male-headed households are found at a low level of food security and are non- self sufficient in terms of the food requirement of their households and the amount they produce within a year. A number of factors cause the difference in food security status between female and male-headed households as discussed in detail in this paper. The paper winds up by concluding that granting a piece of land by itself could not end the food insecurity problem of female-headed households as these households are constrained by lack of access to important factors of production such as labor, plough oxen and credit and other agricultural inputs. Moreover, cultural and social constraints in a form of gender biased customs, stereotypes and misconceptions about women are the major challenges for female-headed households in the study area.
Contraceptive prevalence in Dembia District, northwest Ethiopia
Yigzaw Kebede
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2006,
Abstract: Background: Inadequate family planning services exist in Ethiopia, where total fertility and population growth rates are markedly high. Objective: This study is aimed at assessing family planning coverage and the main factors that are associated with the usage of contraceptives among women in the 15-49 years age group. Methods: A cross sectional community based study was conducted in April 2004 in Dembia District, northwest Ethiopia. Using the multistage sampling technique, a total of 1340 women in one urban and three rural kebeles were selected for the study. A questionnaire interview was also used for data collection. Result: It was found that 392 (71.3%) respondents from the urban kebele and 354 (44.8%) in the rural kebeles of the district had information about family planning. Three hundred and nine women (23.1%) had ever used modern family planning methods. The current CPR in the district was found to be 12.3 % (22.5% in the urban kebele and 5.2% in the rural kebeles) and most women (64.2%) used injectable contraceptives. A total of 144 (46.6%) women who had ever used contraceptives have discontinued taking contraceptives. Of those women who had never used contraceptives, 728 (70.5%) said they did not want to take contraceptives in the future. Residence, distance from health institutions, age of the women, education of the woman and the husband, as well as occupation, and religion were found to be significantly associated with the usage of contraceptives. Conclusion: CPR is low in the district, especially in rural areas. Strategies like out reach programs and the training of Community based reproductive health agents (CBRHAs) needs to be considered to increase the coverage of family planning services in the area. The Ethiopian Journal of Health Development Vol. 20(1) 2006: 32-38
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