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The near infrared (NIR) fluorescence enhancement by local surface plasmon resonanoce from arrayed gold (Au) nanoblocks was investigated by NIR fluorescent dyes, IR780, immobilized in hydrophobic DNA thin film on glass substrates, to clarify the gap mode effect on the fluorescence enhancement. In the substrate with Dimer type Au nanoblock arrangement, average total fluorescence intensity was larger by 10.0, 2.4, and 12.4 times for non-polarized, P- and S- polarization as compared with that on a glass substrate alone, respectively. These findings suggested that enhancement of excitation light intensity at nanogap in the Dimer type Au nanoblock arrangement affected the fluorescence intensity. Average total fluorescence intensity, on the other hand, was smaller by 0.63 times as compared with that on a glass substrate alone in the checkerboard type Au array. It is suggested that the fluorescence quenching was caused by the energy transfer from the excited state of IR780 to Au nanoblocks or by the increased deactivation of excited dye molecules induced by resonance with Au nanoblocks at the checkerboard arrangement. We have firstly achieved the NIR fluorescence enhancement by LSPR due to the gap mode.
To examine the
relationship between students’ athletic ability and their psychological skills
in the athletic club and the school life setting, 99 players from high school
soccer teams were administered with the Psychological Skills Inventory for
Athletic Clubs and the Psychological Skills Inventory for School Life. Five
coaches of the soccer teams evaluated the players’ athletic ability, using the
Technique, Intelligence and Insight, Personality, and Speed (TIPS) evaluation
framework. Structural equation modeling was conducted to test a series of
structural models. Psychological skills in the school life setting have a
direct effect on athletic ability. In addition, psychological skills in an
athletic club setting have an indirect effect on athletic ability through
psychological skills in the school life setting. In conclusion, the coach’s
belief that players who have life skills and can control their daily life must
have a high athletic ability was not wrong.
The effects of
bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) for the suppression of methane gas emissions
from sediment were examined using a laboratory-scale reactor system. Methane
gas emissions from acetate were suppressed by approximately 36% from control
based on the installation of a BES in which carbon-graphite electrodes were
buried in sediment and arbitrarily set at certain oxidative potentials (+300 mV
vs Ag/AgCl) using a potentiostat. Meanwhile, methane gas emissions increased
in the BES reactor where the electrode potential was set at -200 mV. Results obtained from pyrotag sequencing analysis of the microbial community on the
surface of the buried electrodes targeting 16S rRNA genes demonstrated that the
propagated in a sample from the reactor where the electrodes were buried.
Quantitative analysis of 16S rRNA genes of archaea also revealed that the
archaeal population had decreased to approximately 1/6 of its original level
on the electrode of the BES set at +300 mV. This implied that the
oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) in the sediment was raised to the
inhibition level for methanogenesis in the vicinity of the buried electrode.
Analysis of electron flux in the experiment revealed that electrons
intrinsically used for methanogenesis were recovered via current generation
in the sediment where a potential of +300 mV was set for the electrode,
although most electrons donated from acetate were captured by oxygen
respiration and other electron-accepting reactions. These results imply that
BES technology is suitable for use as a tool for controlling re-dox-dependent
reactions in natural environments, and that it also brought about changes in
the microbial population structure and methanogenic activity in sediment.