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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3621 matches for " Ruth Owusu "
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Adherence to Artesunate-Amodiaquine Therapy for Uncomplicated Malaria in Rural Ghana: A Randomised Trial of Supervised versus Unsupervised Drug Administration
Kwaku Poku Asante,Ruth Owusu,David Dosoo,Elizabeth Awini,George Adjei,Seeba Amenga Etego,Daniel Chandramohan,Seth Owusu-Agyei
Journal of Tropical Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/529583
Abstract: Introduction. To enhance effective treatment, african nations including Ghana changed its malaria treatment policy from monotherapy to combination treatment with artesunate-amodiaquine (AS
An Open Label, Randomised Trial of Artesunate+Amodiaquine, Artesunate+Chlorproguanil-Dapsone and Artemether-Lumefantrine for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Malaria
Seth Owusu-Agyei, Kwaku Poku Asante, Ruth Owusu, Martin Adjuik, Stephen Amenga-Etego, David Kwame Dosoo, John Gyapong, Brian Greenwood, Daniel Chandramohan
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002530
Abstract: Background Artesunate+amodiaquine (AS+AQ) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) are now the most frequently recommended first line treatments for uncomplicated malaria in Africa. Artesunate+chlorproguanil-dapsone (AS+CD) was a potential alternative for treatment of uncomplicated malaria. A comparison of the efficacy and safety of these three drug combinations was necessary to make evidence based drug treatment policies. Methods Five hundred and thirty-four, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) normal children were randomised in blocks of 15 to the AS+AQ, AL or AS+CD groups. Administration of study drugs was supervised by project staff and the children were followed up at r home on days 1,2,3,7,14 and 28 post treatment. Parasitological and clinical failures and adverse events were compared between the study groups. Main Findings In a per-protocol analysis, the parasitological and clinical failure rate at day 28 post treatment (PCF28) was lower in the AS+AQ group compared to the AL or AS+CD groups (corrected for re-infections: 6.6% vs 13.8% and 13.8% respectively, p = 0.08; uncorrected: 14.6% vs 27.6% and 28.1% respectively, p = 0.005). In the intention to treat analysis, the rate of early treatment failure was high in all three groups (AS+AQ 13.3%; AL 15.2%; and AS+CD 9.3%, p = 0.2) primarily due to vomiting. However, the PCF28 corrected for re-infection was lower, though not significantly, in the AS+AQ group compared to the AL or the AS+CD groups (AS+AQ 18.3%; AL 24.2%; AS+CD 20.8%, p = 0.4) The incidence of adverse events was comparable between the groups. Conclusions AS+AQ is an appropriate first line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Ghana and possibly in the neighbouring countries in West Africa. The effectiveness of AL in routine programme conditions needs to be studied further in West Africa. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00119145
Community perceptions of malaria and malaria treatment behaviour in a rural district of Ghana: implications for artemisinin combination therapy
Kwaku P Asante, Livesy Abokyi, Charles Zandoh, Ruth Owusu, Elizabeth Awini, Abubakari Sulemana, Seeba Amenga-Etego, Robert Adda, Owusu Boahen, Sylvester Segbaya, Emmanuel Mahama, Constance Bart-Plange, Daniel Chandramohan, Seth Owusu-Agyei
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-409
Abstract: Two surveys were conducted; a cross-sectional survey of 729 randomly selected household heads (urban-362, rural-367) and 282 women with children < 5 years (urban-121, rural-161) was conducted in 2006. A district wide survey was conducted in 2007 to assess awareness of AS-AQ. These were complemented with twenty-eight focus group discussions (FGDs) and 16 key informant interviews (KII) among community members and major stakeholders in the health care delivery services. All nine (9) health facilities and five (5) purposively selected drug stores were audited in order to identify commonly used anti-malarials in the study area at the time of the survey.Majority of respondents ( > 75%) in the sampled survey mentioned mosquito bites as the cause of malaria. Other causes mentioned include environmental factors (e.g. dirty surroundings) and standing in the sun. Close to 60% of the household heads and 40% of the care-givers interviewed did not know about AS-AQ. The community respondents who knew about and had ever taken AS-AQ perceived it to be a good drug; although they mentioned they had experienced some side effects including headaches and body weakness. Co-blistered AS-AQ was available in all the government health facilities in the study area. Different formulations of ACTs were however found in urban chemical shops but not in rural chemical stores where monotherapy antimalarials were predominant.The knowledge of fever as a symptom of malaria is high among the study population. The awareness of AS-AQ therapy and its side-effect was low in the study area. Community education and sensitization, targeting all categories of the population, has to be intensified to ensure an efficient implementation process.It has been estimated that about 3000 malaria deaths occur among African children each day [1], with about 0.5 billion clinical malaria cases and 2-3 million severe malaria episodes occurring annually [2]. The children who do not die from the severe form of malaria may suff
Floral diversity and carbon stocks and of protected forest ecosystem: A case of UENR’s Bat Sanctuary, Sunyani, Ghana  [PDF]
Nat Owusu-Prempeh, Osei Owusu Antobre, Thomas Agyei
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2018.81003
Abstract: The study assesses the functional status of the University of Energy and Natural Resources’ (UENR) bat sanctuary by examining its floral diversity and carbon stocks. Twenty-nine sampling points (plots) were randomly generated by using the ArcGIS random sampling algorithm. Using a three-nest sampling plot of 100m2, 25m2, and 1m2 quadrat, the enumeration of trees (DBH>10cm), saplings (>2cm DBH <10cm) and seedlings (girth <2cm) was undertaken, respectively. Additionally, the diversity of each floral species was computed using the Shannon Wiener diversity index whilst the carbon stocks were estimated using allometric equations. The total carbon stock per plot was derived from the summation of the aboveground carbon (AGC), belowground carbon (BGC) and deadwood carbon (DWC). In sum, 450 floral individuals belonging to 47 species and 22 families were enumerated with Bignoniaceae (16.4%), Apocynaceae (10.0%), Caesalpiniaceae (9.2%) and Rubiaceae (8.8%) being the most common families within the protected area (PA). The average carbon sequestered per hectare of the PA was 2,789.3 tons. However, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the 10m buffer created and the core area with respect to species diversity and carbon stocks. The study has provided valuable information on the functional status of the bat sanctuary which will help promote its conservation for sustained provision of ecosystem services.
Household Perceptions, Treatment-Seeking Behaviors and Health Outcomes for Buruli Ulcer Disease in a Peri-Urban District in Ghana  [PDF]
Adobea Yaa Owusu, Clement Adamba
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2012.23024
Abstract: Buruli ulcer (BU) has been associated with very unimaginable outcomes. It is flesh eating, disfiguring and economically dehydrating. Yet the disease is still mostly shrouded in mystery. Consequently, people have different perceptions about it and hence adopt different treatment behaviorss towards it; notwithstanding the free treatment for it. The purpose of this paper is to identify and examine respondents’ perceptions and the influence these have on their health seeking behaviorss. Eighty-six BU patients who had been treated or were being treated of BU in the Ga West District Health Center in Ghana were sampled for this study. A structured questionnaire and a qualitative in-depth interview guide were used to elicit the data. Some of the interviewees held the belief that the disease is caused by their adversaries, including witches. More than half of the respondents, however, did not have any idea about the disease and thought it is just the work of God. The first point of call for health care for most of the patients studied was herbalists or else they used herbs. Nearly a quarter of them also engaged in self medication, including the use of ‘pain killers’ and ointments, since they took the first signs for ordinary boils. Perceptions of the cause of the disease influenced health seeking behaviors, which further influenced treatment outcomes. A lot of education is needed on the symptoms of the disease, including encouraging early seeking of care at the District Health Center.
Funding of Agricultural Research and Development in Ghana: The Case of Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)  [PDF]
Roland Asare, George Owusu Essegbey
Technology and Investment (TI) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ti.2016.72006
Abstract: Agricultural Research and Development (R&D) investments contribute greatly to economic growth, agricultural development and poverty reduction in developing countries. This paper examines the financial investment and expenditure trends in agricultural R&D in Ghana with emphasis on the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and the implication for the policies driving agricultural research in Ghana. Data from Agricultural Science & Technology Indicator (ASTI) and in-depth studies on agricultural R&D in Ghana were used. Purposive sampling was used to gather data in thirteen agricultural research institutes and five public universities in Ghana. Through questionnaire administration, data were collected and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The study revealed that, total public agricultural R&D expenditure had increased by 59 per cent from 42.5 million (2005 PPP) dollars in 2000 to 67.7 million (2005 PPP) dollars in 2011 and with an average expenditure of 54.1 million (2005 PPP) dollars per year. The total expenditure by CSIR constitutes about 50 per cent of the total agricultural research expenditure in Ghana. The study however, showed a drastic decline in capital investments from 6.7 per cent in 2000 to 0.1 per cent in 2011 of the total government funding with operational cost following similar declining pattern. Still, when considering the totality of funding including salaries and wages, government support is the main source of funding for agricultural R&D in Ghana (85 per cent) with donors (7.3 per cent), sale of goods and services (6.7 per cent) and others serving as complementary sources. Though there have been considerable government investments in agricultural R&D in CSIR over the period, impact on operational and research activities has been minimal as the chunk of it went into payment of salaries and wages. The fundamental challenge is funding the very important operational and research activities which lead to technology development and innovation. Increasing commercialization of research technologies and government investment in agricultural R&D in Ghana, are recommended to address this investment challenge.
Ecotourism as a Conservation Tool - A Case of Afadjato–Agumatsa Conservation Area, Ghana
EH Owusu
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) , 2008,
Abstract: Nature tourism is being increasingly promoted as a means to combat the inequality and dependency in rural areas. Furthermore, ecotourism as a subset of nature tourism has emerged as a potential mechanism for involving rural communities in the management of their natural resources, and thus benefit from their conservation efforts. This paper presents the results of a study undertaken within three traditional areas around the Mt. Afadjato and Agumatsa Range in Ghana. I examined local peoples\' perceptions on whether the costs of conservation can be offset with the potential benefits of the biodiversity of the area. Local people in all traditional areas see ecotourism as an opportunity to develop the area than as a conservation tool. However, the status of biodiversity, and the range of potential opportunities and costs, suggest that local people could benefit more from conservation and ecotourism, if they are prepared to the bear the costs. Equally, this will only be possible with the adoption of a holistic strategy that embraces the conservation of the whole of the Mt. Afadjato and Agumatsa Range, rather than the piecemeal approach currently being promoted by different traditional areas. Furthermore, since poverty in diverse forms is considered as one of the major threats to sustaining biodiversity, benefits from ecotourism must be appropriately targeted so that local people benefit and understand that these benefits are linked to the conservation of natural resources of the Afadjato-Agumasta Conservation Area.
A GIS-Based Estimation of Soil Loss in the Densu Basin in Ghana
G Owusu
West African Journal of Applied Ecology , 2012,
Abstract: Distributed erosion simulation models are useful in evaluation of different strategies for land-use and soil management improvement in watersheds. The increased soil erosion in Densu basin of Ghana has led to siltation of the river channel that is causing flooding in some parts of Accra, Ghana. The most urbanized basin in Ghana, Densu, supplies water to 600,000 people, with agriculture employing about 40% of the active population. A PCRaster GIS soil loss risk maps have been developed for Densu basin using models of Universal Soil Equation (USLE) and Revised Universal Soil Equation (RUSLE). Soil loss factors such as rainfall erosivity, soil erodibilty, slope and slope length were also mapped for the basin. The model predicted average, minimum and maximum annual soil loss rates of 2.2, 0, and 63 t ha–1y–1 , respectively, indicating that some areas in the basin are above tolerance level of 5.0 t ha–1yr–1. The total soil loss was 756,507 tonnes per hectare per year. Among the soil types Lixisols experienced the highest soil loss of 402,080 t ha–1 yr–1 with Plinthosols experiencing the lowest soil loss of 64 t ha–1 yr–1. Among the administrative districts in the basin Suhum, Kraboa and Coaltar experienced the highest absolute soil loss of 216,957 t ha–1 yr–1 while Fanteakwa experienced the highest average soil loss of 4.5 t ha–1 yr–1. The results can serve as data and information to water resources managers and soil conservationists.
The Perceptions of Local Communities towards the Conservation of Birds in an Important Bird Area in Ghana
EH Owusu
West African Journal of Applied Ecology , 2008,
Abstract: The important bird areas (IBA) concept provides a practical index of the diversity and condition of an ecosystem on a site-by-site basis using birds as indicators. It is believed that protecting and managing such sites will result in the conservation of some of the most sensitive, fragile and ecologically rich habitats in the world. However, acceptance of the IBA concept and, thus, site conservation action, by local communities is dependent on their perception of the importance of birds with regard to some aspects of their livelihood. The study was undertaken to examine the importance local communities around an IBA, the Afadjato and Agumatsa Conservation Area in Ghana, attach to conservation of birds, and their relevance as an indicator of environmental quality. Results obtained from a questionnaire survey, combined with group interviews, suggest that the importance local communities attached to bird conservation in the area was, to a large extent, dependent on the village or locality where people lived. West African Journal of Applied Ecology Vol. 13 2008: pp. 111-116
Natural Resources of Okyeman- an Overview
EH Owusu
West African Journal of Applied Ecology , 2012,
Abstract: Biodiversity in all its forms sustains tremendous socio-economic and cultural interests of millions of people all over the world. Increasing human population has resulted in proportional increase in the demand for natural resources for the sustenance of human development needs. Unsustainable pattern of utilization of biodiversity in most parts of the world has necessitated the need for new thinking in the management of biodiversity. One key approach to managing these resources is through community-based approaches as opposed the classic approach to managing natural resources. The Akyem Abuakwa Traditional Area (Okyeman) in the Eastern Region of Ghana offers some lessons on community approaches in managing natural resources. Okyeman is one of the ecologically endowed areas in Ghana. The Traditional Area boasts of rich biodiversity including endemic, rare and globally threatened fauna and flora as well as diverse landscape of aesthetic value. Atewa Range Forest Reserve, one of the ecologically unique sites in Ghana is a prominent feature in the traditional area which is a home to many of the fauna and flora resources of the traditional area. However, these have in recent times come under intense pressure from illegal and unsustainable exploitation. This situation has compromised the ecological and biological integrity of Okyeman. Recognizing the need to reverse the situation, the traditional council has in recent times taken the initiative to use the existing traditional structures to enhance natural resource governance in the area. This chapter gives an overview of the current status of natural resource of the traditional area, highlighting on their importance to local people and the need for sustainable exploitation of these resources.
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