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DNA Fingerprinting and Assessment of Genetic Diversity among 22 Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] Varieties Grown in Ghana  [PDF]
Benjamin A. Danso, Daniel K. Dzidzienyo, Ruth N. A. Prempeh, Marian D. Quain
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104938
Abstract:
Identification of varieties based on only morphological traits is limited by the influence of environment on such morphological traits. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fingerprinting offers an efficient system of identifying varieties at the DNA level without any environmental interference. This work used 20 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers to characterise twenty-two cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] varieties for the purposes of varietal protection and further assessed for genetic diversity. This study was conducted at the Biotechnology laboratory of Council for Scientific and Industrial Research-Crops Research Institute, Ghana (CSIR-CRI). The varieties were made up of 15 cultivars released by CSIR-CRI, Ghana, 5 cultivars released by CSIR-Savannah Agricultural Research Institute, Ghana (SARI), 1 advanced line, 1 landrace and 1 exotic variety. Nineteen out of the 20 SSR markers used in this study were polymorphic. These polymorphic primers generated a range of 1 to 6 alleles per primer with polymorphic information content (PIC) varying from 0.107 (SSR-6608) to 0.656 (SSR-6613). Allele frequency ranged from 0.136 (SSR- 6371) to 0.841 (SSR-6608) with mean of 0.445. With the aid of Darwin software, dissimilarity matrix and a dendrogram were generated from the molecular data to evaluate and group the varieties based on genetic resemblance. Three pairs of varieties (Agyenkwa and Adom; Hewale and Ayiyi; Zamzam and Hewale) recorded the highest genetic distance of 0.652 each. The genetic information gathered for each variety has been made available to the breeding institutions. The genetic diversity detected among the varieties fingerprinted will be helpful to plant breeders in selecting parents for future cowpea improvement programmes.
Testosterone and Its Bioactive Components Are Associated with Libido and the Metabolic Syndrome in Men  [PDF]
H. Alidu, N. Amidu, W. K. B. A. Owiredu, C. K. Gyasi-Sarpong, A. T. Bawah, P. P. M. Dapare, E. B. Agyemang Prempeh
Advances in Sexual Medicine (ASM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/asm.2017.72008
Abstract: Background: Some evidence has shown that the prevalence of hypoactive sexual desire and erectile dysfunction (ED) is associated with testosterone levels whilst higher levels of testosterone have been reported to increase the frequency of intercourse. Available evidence points towards an etiologic role for hypogonadism in the causation of diabetes, metabolic syndrome (Mets) and sexual dysfunction (SD) even though the exact pathophysiological linkage is yet to be fully elucidated. This study therefore sought to evaluate the impact of testosterone as well as its bioactive components on both the MetS and SD. Method: Diabetic men engaged in a stable heterosexual relationship for at least 2 years were recruited for this study. Participants were at least 18 years and provided an informed and signed consent to partake in this study. Fasting blood samples were taken from the participants for biochemical and hormonal assay. The participants were then evaluated using the Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction for males (GRISS-M). Metabolic syndrome was assessed using the NCEP-ATP III, IDF and WHO criteria. All data analyses were performed using the SPSS software, version 11.0 systat, Inc. Germany and GraphPad Prism, version 5.0, San Diego California, USA. Results: The mean total, free and bioavailable testosterone as well as SHBG recorded among the participants was 7.10 ± 1.23 ng/ml, 0.10 ± 0.01 ng/ml, 7.01 ± 1.41 ng/ml and 4.33 ± 1.12 nmol/l respectively. Subjects with the MetS showed significantly lower SHBG levels in comparison with subjects without the MetS. Participants with raised triglyceride levels showed significantly lower levels of total, free and bioavailable testosterone when compared to participant without raised triglycerides. Participants with problems of avoidance and infrequency of sexual activity showed significantly lower levels of total, free and bioavailable testosterone when compared to participants without avoidance or infrequency problems. The +SD/+MetS group recorded the lowest SHBG levels. Conclusion: Testosterone and its bioactive components are associated with male libido as well as the metabolic syndrome. Low levels of free and bioavailable testosterone are true determinants of the MetS in men.
Inhibition of vascular response in inflammation by crude aqueous extract of the root bark of zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides
A.B.A Prempeh, J Mensah-attipoe
Ghana Medical Journal , 2009,
Abstract: Background: The root bark extract of Zanthoxylum xanthozyloides is used in folklore medicine in Ghana and Nigeria to treat inflammation. A previous pharmacological study confirmed the anti-inflammatory activity of the extract. Objective: To study the effect of the extract on vascular response in inflammation. Method: The extract was obtained by Soxhlet extraction and rotatory evaporation, followed by freezedrying. Groups of rats (with carrageenin-induced paw inflammation) and mice (with xylene-induced pinna inflammation) were, respectively, assigned randomly to treatment groups. The animals were given three different treatments orally: 0.9% saline (control), the extract (400mg/kg and 800mg/kg for mice; 1000mg/kg, 2000 mg/kg, and 4000mg/kg for rats), and indomethacin (5mg/kg and 10mg/kg for mice; 10mg/kg, 20mg/kg, and 40mg/kg for rats). In another set of experiment, each treatment group received phenylephrine subcutaneously (30μg/kg for rats and 20μg/kg for mice) in addition to the specified treatment aforementioned. Inboth sets of experiments, each group of rats was rotated through the entire treatment groups such that each animal served as control as well as received all the treatments. Analysis of variance was used as the statistical test. Results: The extract and indomethacin both caused dose-dependent reduction in the carrageenin-induced increase in paw volume in rats and also reduced xylene- induced increase in blood flow in mice pinna arteries. Phenylephrine enhanced the decrease in capillary permeability and vasodilatation caused by low dose extract but not that caused by high dose extract or both low and high dose indomethacin. Conclusion: The extract reduced vasodilatation and decreased capillary permeability in inflammation.
Acanthamoeba produces disseminated infection in locusts and traverses the locust blood-brain barrier to invade the central nervous system
Parisa N Mortazavi, Graham Goldsworthy, Ruth Kirk, Naveed A Khan
BMC Microbiology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-10-186
Abstract: Using Acanthamoeba isolates belonging to the T1 and T4 genotypes, the findings revealed that amoebae induced sickness behaviour in locusts, as evidenced by reduced faecal output and weight loss and, eventually, leading to 100% mortality. Significant degenerative changes of various tissues were observed by histological sectioning. Both isolates produced disseminated infection, with viable amoebae being recovered from various tissues. Histological examination of the CNS showed that Acanthamoeba invaded the locust CNS, and this is associated with disruption of the perineurium cell/glial cell complex, which constitutes the locust blood-brain barrier.This is the first study to demonstrate that Acanthamoeba invades locust brain by modulating the integrity of the insect's blood-brain barrier, a finding that is consistent with the human infection. These observations support the idea that locusts provide a tractable model to study Acanthamoeba encephalitis in vivo. In this way the locust model may generate potentially useful leads that can be tested subsequently in mammalian systems, thus replacing the use of vertebrates at an early stage, and reducing the numbers of mammals required overall.Acanthamoeba is a multifaceted opportunistic pathogen that infects mainly immunocompromised people and/or contact lens wearers [1-4]. Despite advances in antimicrobial chemotherapy, the mortality rate associated with Acanthamoeba granulomatous encephalitis remains very high, i.e., > 90% [2,3,5]. This is, in part, due to our incomplete understanding of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of Acanthamoeba encephalitis.A whole-organism approach to the study of disease is considered essential in gaining a full understanding of the interrelationships between infectious agents and their hosts [6,7]. At present, mice are most widely used models to study Acanthamoeba granulomatous encephalitis in vivo. Mostly, Acanthamoeba granulomatous encephalitis is limited to individuals with a weakened immu
La perspectiva freudiana de la eficacia del análisis
Rubistein,Adriana M.; Naparstek,Fabián A.; Bachmann,Ruth M.;
Anuario de investigaciones , 2006,
Abstract: the purpose of this work is to locate the fundamental coordinates that frame the freudian perspective of the analytic efficacy in the investigation, still under way, on"freud and the efficacy of the analysis", give reasons of the importance of this coordinates in the freudian texts in light of the present problems of the psychoanalysis, and present some preliminary conclusions. the problem of the efficacy is up-to-date in our society and interests directly al psychoanalysis that does not remain excepted of requests of measurement and evaluation to realize its results. the work locates the antecedents of the problem and distinguishes two present positions inside the psychoanalysis to respond to the requests of the science: a position that seeks to validate the psychoanalysis with empirical investigations according to the model of the positive sciences, another position that rescues the importance to maintain the specificity of the psychoanalysis. from this the interest of the revision of the freudian position is supported and some preliminary conclusions are anticipated.
?Continuamos informando o asumimos el cambio?
Rojas,María Orfa; Garzón,Ruth; del Riesgo,Lilia;
Revista Ciencias de la Salud , 2006,
Abstract: traditional educative systems, had convert students in passive recipient, who are keeping information without any possibility to process and apply it for the solution of daily problems. general discussion between educative researchers, had been establish the necessity to change the educative strategies that have been supporting those situations, looking for an integral education of the individual in terms of the capacity to argue, to create, to innovate, to develop by him self with independence. governments, institutions and the politics requirements, that handle the globalization and the human development based in the knowledge economy, demand changes in the pedagogical system strategies in spite of the barriers from the traditional educative system. responding to these necessity, the biochemistry department belong to the basic sciences institute from the medicine faculty in the university of rosario, is applying a different pedagogical strategy.
May We Continue Informing or May We Assume the Change?
María Orfa Rojas,Ruth Garzón,Lilia del Riesgo
Revista Ciencias de la Salud , 2006,
Abstract: Traditional educative systems, had convertstudents in passive recipient, who are keepingRecibido: Marzo 3 de 2006.Aceptado: Abril 17 de 2006.* Ph.D, Profesora titular.** Ph.D, Profesora principal.+ M.D., MSc, Profesora principal, Unidad de Bioquímica,Instituto de Ciencias Básicas, Facultad de Medicina,Colegio Mayor Universidad del Rosario.Autor correspondiente: María Orfa Rojas, Unidad deBioquímica, Facultad de Medicina de la Universidaddel Rosario, [email protected]ículo de reflexióninformation without any possibility to processand apply it for the solution of daily problems.General discussion between educative researchers,had been establish the necessity to changethe educative strategies that have been supportingthose situations, looking for an integraleducation of the individual in terms of the capacityto argue, to create, to innovate, to developby him self with independence.Governments, institutions and the politicsrequirements, that handle the globalization andthe human development based in the knowledgeeconomy, demand changes in the pedagogicalsystem strategies in spite of the barriers fromthe traditional educative system. Responding tothese necessity, the Biochemistry Departmentbelong to the Basic Sciences Institute from theMedicine Faculty in the University of Rosario,is applying a different pedagogical strategy.
Acción bioquímica y tóxica de compuestos organofosforados
Ruth Román Palacios,Laura García Chávez
Revista de la Sociedad Química de México , 1997,
Abstract:
Confirmation of the C-17 stereochemistry of pentolame by single crystal x-ray analysis of its monohydrate
Cristina Lemini,Ruth Jaimez,Rubén A. Toscano
Revista de la Sociedad Química de México , 2004,
Abstract: En este trabajo se determinó por difracción de rayos X, la estructura molecular y cristalina del 17β-aminoestrógeno Pentolame. Su estructura se investigó a fin de determinar sin ambigüedades la configuración absoluta del nuevo centro estereogénico (C17) formado durante su obtención. Los resultados obtenidos mediante referencia interna al material de partida, estrona [(8R,9S,13S,14S)-3- Hidroxiestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-ona], confirman la asignación 17S hecha en base a los datos de espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética Nuclear. El monohidrato de pentolame cristaliza en el sistema triclínico, en el grupo espacial P 1 con una molécula por celda. El anillo B de la molécula, adopta la conformación típica 7α,8β de media silla observada en este tipo de esteroides. En el empacado cristalino la molécula de agua desempe a un papel esencial uniendo cadenas infinitas adyacentes, formadas por interacciones de puente de hidrógeno entre la cabeza y la cola de dos moléculas del esteroide.
Analgesic activity of crude aqueous extract of the root bark of zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides
ABA Prempeh
Ghana Medical Journal , 2008,
Abstract: Objective: The analgesic activity of crude aqueous extract of the root bark of Zanthoxylum xanthozyloides was studied in mice and rats with the view to verifying the claim in folklore medicine that the extract has analgesic activity. Method: The extract was obtained by Soxhlet extraction and rotatory evaporation, followed by freezedrying. Groups of rats and mice were, respectively, assigned randomly to treatment groups. The animals received three different treatments orally: 0.9% saline (control), the extract (400mg/kg and 800mg/kg for mice; 1000mg/kg and 2000mg/kg for rats) and indomethacin (5mg/kg and 10mg/kg for mice; 10mg/kg and 20mg/kg for rats). Each group of animals was rotated through the entire treatment groups such that each animal served as control as well as received all the treatments. The hot-plate and paw-pressure methods were used to study pain perception in the treated animals. Analysis of variance was used as the statistical test. Results: In both methods, the extract and indomethacin caused dose-dependent elevation in pain threshold. At the peak of activity, 400mg/kg and 800mg/kg extract caused 74% and 95% increase in the reaction time respectively whilst 5mg/kg and 10mg/kg indomethacin gave 97% and 116% increment respectively. Similarly, 1000mg/kg and 2000mg/kg extract caused 65% and 84% increase in pain threshold whilst 10mg/kg and 20mg/kg indomethacin caused 95% and 113% increment respectively. Conclusion: It was concluded that the extract induced analgesia, probably, by inhibiting prostaglandin production, just as did indomethacin.
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