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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10427 matches for " Rush Memory and Aging Project "
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Faster cognitive decline in the years prior to MR imaging is associated with smaller hippocampal volumes in cognitively healthy older persons
Debra A. Fleischman,Lei Yu,Konstantinos Arfanakis,S. Duke Han,Patricia A. Boyle,David A. Bennett
Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fnagi.2013.00021
Abstract: Early identification of persons at risk for cognitive decline in aging is critical to optimizing treatment to delay or avoid a clinical diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD). To accomplish early identification, it is essential that trajectories of cognitive change be characterized and associations with established biomarkers of MCI and AD be examined during the phase in which older persons are considered cognitively healthy. Here we examined the association of rate of cognitive decline in the years leading up to structural magnetic resonance imaging with an established biomarker, hippocampal volume. The sample comprised 211 participants of the Rush Memory and Aging Project who had an average of 5.5 years of cognitive data prior to structural scanning. Results showed that there was significant variability in the trajectories of cognitive change prior to imaging and that faster cognitive decline was associated with smaller hippocampal volumes. Domain-specific analyses suggested that this association was primarily driven by decline in working memory. The results emphasize the importance of closely examining cognitive change and its association with brain structure during the years in which older persons are considered cognitively healthy.
Effects of Age on the Disruption of Cognitive Performance by Exposure to Space Radiation  [PDF]
Bernard M. Rabin, Barbara Shukitt-Hale, Kirsty L. Carrihill-Knoll
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2014.47031
Abstract: Exposure to low doses of heavy particles and protons, which will be encountered during long-term exploratory class missions to other planets, can cause deficits in cognitive performance. These deficits are similar to those observed in aged animals. The long-term effects of such exposures and their relationship to the short-term effects and to aging remain to be established. Two-month old rats were exposed to a variety of heavy particles and protons. Recognition memory was tested at two time points following irradiation. The results showed that exposure to doses of radiation that did not disrupt cognitive performance in the younger animals, disrupted performance when the subjects were re-tested at an older age. These results indicate that there is an interaction between the age of the organism and the effects of exposure to space radiation on cognitive performance, such that exposure to doses of heavy particles or protons that may not produce an initial effect on cognitive performance may produce an effect as the organism ages. Because of the interaction between exposure to the types of radiation encountered in space and age, it is possible that participating in exploratory class missions may have consequences for the quality of life after the conclusion of the mission.
“Life, Memory, Recognition and Aging” of Grey Tin  [PDF]
A. D. Styrkas
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering (MSCE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/msce.2016.411001
Abstract: It was shown that tin has two types of memory: 1) “memory of the structure” about of the event when it was in the α configuration, and 2) “memory of recognition (discern)” whereby tin recognises that an object with which it in contact, was previously in contact with substances of a particular type (“infection”). Transformations of metallic white tin into the grey semiconductor occur with the help of either small pieces of grey tin or other substances isomorphous with grey tin [1] [2] [3]. These pieces (when pressed into white tin) initiate phase transition (by “infection”) from white tin into grey tin. Once the tin is transformed into its grey form, it retains a “memory” about this after it is transferred back into white tin. Thus, for second and subsequent phase transformations, there is no need for external initiators to be used. The tin has the “memory of recognition” too—when the tin can recognises that an object with which it is in contact, was previously in contact with the “infection”. This phenomenon is concerned with the aging of tin: firstly, with the loss of “memory of the structure” of tin of the event when it was in the grey tin configuration, and, secondly, with the loss of “memory of recognition” of tin whereby the tin recognises that an object with which it is in contact, was previously in contact with substances of a particular type. Factors that effect the aging of tin has been studied in detail and an explanation of the mechanism of action of these factors has been suggested.
The Effects of Neurofeedback Training on Memory Performance in Elderly Subjects  [PDF]
Ga?l Lecomte, Jacques Juhel
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.28129
Abstract: Neurofeedback or electroencephalographic operant conditioning (EEG-OC) is an EEG biofeedback technique used to train individuals to control or modify their cortical activity through learned self-regulation. Initially used for treating a variety of pathologies, neurofeedback has been employed more recently to improve the physical or cognitive performance of human beings. The purpose of this study is to assess the hypothesis of the effect of neurofeedback (the ‘awakened mind’ model) on the memory performance of subjects aged over 65. 30 participants were shared equally between 3 groups: an experimental group that underwent 4 neurofeedback training sessions; a non-neurofeedback group trained at relaxation; and a ‘waiting list’ control group. Results showed that the members of the Neurofeedback group learned to increase the spectral power of the alpha frequency range as well as the alpha/thêta ratio, and that compared with the members of the two other groups, neurofeedback training resulted in a more pronounced decrease, albeit without any relation to changes in EEG activity and the level of stress and anxiety of participants undergoing such training. Yet contrary to expectations, no improvement of memory performance (differed recall of words and learning of lists of words) was observed. These mixed results, which suggest a wide range of applications, underline the need for a more systematic assessment of the potential applications of NFB training in elderly humans in order to be better able to specify the effects of the retained protocol on cognitive performance.
Efectos cognitivos y emocionales del envejecimiento: aportes de investigaciones basicas para las estrategias de rehabilitación
Bentosela,Mariana; Mustaca,Alba E.;
Interdisciplinaria , 2005,
Abstract: the aging process is a universal phenomenon that affects all kinds of life. it is associated to a general impairment of physiological functions. among these functions we are interested in brain functioning, that is linked to behavioral, cognitive, and emotional problems. in the present article, results related to aging are presented, within the fields of cognition and emotion, with special emphasis in animal models. though it could be quite artificial to separate cognitive from emotional functions because they interact with each other, in the present review article, we present behavioral and neurophysiological studies, in which the changes that aging process has upon the already mentioned functions have been considered. lastly, we mention the treatments used to deal with these aging-related psychological problems. on one hand, within the cognitive functioning, one of the most evident impairments in humans is related with evocation memory, that is, the inability to recall information. working memory is also compromised, specially when people face tasks that require complex parallel processing. on the other hand, procedural memory is usually conserved. animal models have also shown that spatial long-term memory and spatial working memory are impaired with aging. in addition, executive functions are affected as evidenced by an impairment in attention, discrimination, and analysis of complex information in animals. the processing of reward incentive shifts is altered, as shown by the persistence of previously learned responses in aging rats. the temporal lobe and the prefrontal cortex seem to be the most important brain regions involved in this deficit. cholinergic hypofunction may be the start point of these cognitive problems, also probably linked with an affected gabaergic transmission. considering the emotional functions, aging humans may show anhedonia and a deficient gesture recognition associated with emotional states. in human and non-human studies, an exaggerat
Treino de memória no idoso saudável: benefícios e mecanismos
Yassuda, M?nica Sanches;Batistoni, Samila Sathler Tavares;Fortes, Andréa Garofe;Neri, Anita Liberalesso;
Psicologia: Reflex?o e Crítica , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-79722006000300016
Abstract: introduction: studies document a change in memory during the process of aging. however, studies report the possibility of improvement after training. objective: to replicate international findings regarding the effects of memory training with a sample of brazilian elders and to investigate mechanisms, such as the use of strategies, that can explain its benefits. methods: 69 healthy brazilian elders were randomly divided into an experimental group (eg) and a control group (cg), and received four sessions of training (cg received training after pos-test). training included information on memory and the process of aging, instruction and practice in organizing grocery lists and the underlining of main ideas in short texts. results: there was superior improvement for prose recall and greater use of strategies (organizing lists and underlining texts) for the eg at post-test. both groups reported fewer memory complaints (assessed with the mac-q) and faster information processing (wais-r digit symbols sub-test). conclusions: after training, elders intensify the use of strategies, however, this fact does not guarantee a better performance (there was no significant improvement in list recalls). list recall results suggest the presence of the utilization deficiency: elders used the strategy but failed to benefit from it.
Efeito de estratégias de codifica??o sobre a memória contextual em idosos
Freire, Rosane Papaleo;Balardin, Joana Bisol;Caldana, Fábio;Santos, Cristiane Moro dos;Krebs, Luciana Cunha;Souza, Valdemarina Bidone de Azevedo e;Schr?der, Nadja;Bromberg, Elke;
Psicologia: Reflex?o e Crítica , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-79722008000200019
Abstract: previous researches suggest that contextual memory is especially susceptible to the negative effects of aging upon cognition. the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of memorization strategies on the performance of twenty-four elders and twenty-one young participants on contextual memory task. within each of the age groups, the participants were divided into those that received or did not receive specific orientation to link objects to a context. at test session, participants were engaged in object and context recognition tests. findings showed that the specific orientation to link object to context was able to revert the contextual memory deficits of the elders.
Effect of encoding strategies on contextual memory in elders / Efeito de estratégias de codifica o sobre a memória contextual em idosos
Rosane Papaleo Freire,Joana Bisol Balardin,Fábio Caldana,Cristiane Moro dos Santos
Psicologia: Reflex?o e Crítica , 2008,
Abstract: Previous researches suggest that contextual memory is especially susceptible to the negative effects of aging upon cognition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of memorization strategies on the performance of twenty-four elders and twenty-one young participants on contextual memory task. Within each of the age groups, the participants were divided into those that received or did not receive specific orientation to link objects to a context. At test session, participants were engaged in object and context recognition tests. Findings showed that the specific orientation to link object to context was able to revert the contextual memory deficits of the elders.
Memory training in healthy elders: outcomes and possible mechanisms of improvement / Treino de memória no idoso saudável: benefícios e mecanismos
M?nica Sanches Yassuda,Samila Sathler Tavares Batistoni,Andréa Garofe Fortes,Anita Liberalesso Neri
Psicologia: Reflex?o e Crítica , 2006,
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Studies document a change in memory during the process of aging. However, studies report the possibility of improvement after training. OBJECTIVE: To replicate international findings regarding the effects of memory training with a sample of Brazilian elders and to investigate mechanisms, such as the use of strategies, that can explain its benefits. METHODS: 69 healthy Brazilian elders were randomly divided into an experimental group (EG) and a control group (CG), and received four sessions of training (CG received training after pos-test). Training included information on memory and the process of aging, instruction and practice in organizing grocery lists and the underlining of main ideas in short texts. RESULTS: There was superior improvement for prose recall and greater use of strategies (organizing lists and underlining texts) for the EG at post-test. Both groups reported fewer memory complaints (assessed with the MAC-Q) and faster information processing (WAIS-R Digit Symbols sub-test). CONCLUSIONS: After training, elders intensify the use of strategies, however, this fact does not guarantee a better performance (there was no significant improvement in list recalls). List recall results suggest the presence of the utilization deficiency: elders used the strategy but failed to benefit from it.
Building a Project Memory Using Semantic Design Rationale Process  [PDF]
Sonia Gueraich, Zizette Boufa?da
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2011.46041
Abstract: In the proposal, a construction project memory process based on the semantic annotation is presented. A project Mem-ory concerns the representation and the identification of the experience acquired during projects realization. The main feature of this approach is that the semantic annotation is used to build a continuous semantic design rationale process. We propose in this paper, a semantic traceability in four stages (identifying, structuring, annotating and integrating). The identification and the structuring phases use a model called Extended Marguerite model which fully considers the objectives of the project memory. The annotation phase exploits the results of precedent phase to prepare the final phase. Examples are presented from a case study in an Algerian firm called ENMTP. The architecture supporting the modelling engine is presented. Finally, an evaluation of the degree of the semantic annotation brought by proposed process is given.
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