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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1916 matches for " Rudolf Knapp "
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Relaxation Estimation of RMSD in Molecular Dynamics Immunosimulations
Wolfgang Schreiner,Rudolf Karch,Bernhard Knapp,Nevena Ilieva
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/173521
Abstract: Molecular dynamics simulations have to be sufficiently long to draw reliable conclusions. However, no method exists to prove that a simulation has converged. We suggest the method of “lagged RMSD-analysis” as a tool to judge if an MD simulation has not yet run long enough. The analysis is based on RMSD values between pairs of configurations separated by variable time intervals Δt. Unless RMSD(Δt) has reached a stationary shape, the simulation has not yet converged.
Introduction of organised mammography screening in Tyrol: results following first year of complete rollout
Willi Oberaigner, Martin Daniaux, Sabine Geiger-Gritsch, Rudolf Knapp, Uwe Siebert, Wolfgang Buchberger
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-673
Abstract: Working from the results of the pilot phase, we extended the organised mammography system to all counties in Tyrol. All women living in Tyrol and covered by compulsory social insurance were invited for a mammography, in the age group 40-59 annually and in the age group 60-69 biennially. Screening mammography was offered mainly by radiologists in private practice, with further assessment performed at hospitals. Using the screening database, all well-established performance indicators were analysed and compared with accepted/desired levels as per the EU guidelines.From June 2008 to May 2009, 120,440 women were invited. Per 1000 mammograms, 14 women were recalled for further assessment, nine underwent biopsy and four cancer cases were detected. Of invasive breast cancer cases, 32.3% and 68.4% were ≤ 10 mm and ≤ 15 mm in size, respectively, and 79.2% were node-negative. The positive predictive value for further assessment and for biopsy was 25.9% and 39.9%, respectively. Estimated two-year participation rate was 57.0%. In total, 14 interval cancer cases were detected during one year of follow-up; this is 18.4% of the background incidence rate.In Tyrol, Austria, an organised mammography screening program was implemented in a smooth transition from an existing spontaneous screening system and was completely rolled out within a short time. The high level of performance already seen in the pilot phase was maintained after rollout, and improvements resulting from the pilot phase were affirmed after one year of complete rollout.Breast cancer is the leading cause of female cancer death in all industrialised countries (and also worldwide), and the breast is also the leading incident cancer site for females [1]. Therefore, screening methods for breast cancer are of greatest public health importance. A recently published Cochrane Review, which assessed the effect of mammography screening for breast cancer on mortality and morbidity concluded that screening is likely to reduce bre
Breast cancer incidence and mortality in Tyrol/Austria after fifteen years of opportunistic mammography screening
Willi Oberaigner, Wolfgang Buchberger, Thomas Frede, Rudolf Knapp, Christian Marth, Uwe Siebert
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-86
Abstract: To study time trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality, we applied the age-period-cohort model by Poisson regression to the official mortality data covering more than three decades from 1970 to 2006 and to the incidence data ranging from 1988 to 2006. In addition, for incidence data we analysed data on breast cancer staging and compared these with EU guidelines.For the analysis of time trend in breast cancer mortality in age groups 40-79, an age-period-cohort model fits well and shows for years 2002-2006 a statistically significant reduction of 26% (95% CI 13%-36%) in breast cancer mortality as compared to 1992-1996.We see only slight non-significant increases in breast cancer incidence. For the past five years, incidence data show a 10% proportion of in situ cases, and of 50% for cases in stages II+.The opportunistic breast cancer screening programme in Tyrol has only in part exploited the mortality reduction known for organised screening programmes. There seems to be potential for further improvement, and we recommend that an organised screening programme and a detailed screening database be introduced to collect all information needed to analyse the quality indicators suggested by the EU guidelines.Breast cancer (BC) is the leading cause of female cancer death in all industrialised countries (and also worldwide) and the breast is also the leading incident cancer site for females [1]. Therefore, screening methods for BC are of greatest public health importance. Efficiency and efficacy of organised mammography screening programmes have been proven in large randomised trials conducted in Europe and North America. For several years already, organised mammography screening programmes have been recommended in the EU[2]. Austria is one of the European countries where up to 2006 no organised programmes were implemented, but where coverage in spontaneous mammography screening could have been rather high. In a micro-census conducted in Austria in 2006-2007, more tha
Introduction of organised mammography screening in tyrol: results of a one-year pilot phase
Willi Oberaigner, Wolfgang Buchberger, Thomas Frede, Martin Daniaux, Rudolf Knapp, Christian Marth, Uwe Siebert
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-91
Abstract: In June 2007, the system of opportunistic mammography screening in Tyrol was changed to an organised system by introducing a personal invitation system, a training program, a quality assurance program and by setting up a screening database. All procedures are noted in a written protocol. Most EU recommendations for organised mammography screening were followed, except double reading. All women living in Tyrol and covered by social insurance are now invited for a mammography, in age group 40-59 annually and in age group 60-69 biannually. Screening mammography is offered mainly by radiologists in private practice. We report on the results of the first year of piloting organised mammography screening in two counties in Tyrol.56,432 women were invited. Estimated participation rate was 34.5% at one year of follow-up (and 55.5% at the second year of follow-up); 3.4% of screened women were recalled for further assessment or intermediate screening within six months. Per 1000 mammograms nine biopsies were performed and four breast cancer cases detected (N = 68). Of invasive breast cancer cases 34.4% were ≤ 10 mm in size and 65.6% were node-negative. In total, six interval cancer cases were detected during one year of follow-up; this is 19% of the background incidence rate.In the Tyrolean breast cancer screening program, a smooth transition from a spontaneous to an organised mammography screening system was achieved in a short time and with minimal additional resources. One year after introduction of the screening program, most of the quality indicators recommended by the European guidelines had been reached.However, it will be necessary to introduce double reading, to change the rule for BI-RADS 3, and to concentrate on actions toward improving the participation rate.Breast cancer is the leading cause of female cancer death in all industrialised countries (and also worldwide), and the breast is also the leading incident cancer site for females [1]. Therefore, screening metho
A Comparison of Protein Kinases Inhibitor Screening Methods Using Both Enzymatic Activity and Binding Affinity Determination
Amalie Frederikke Rudolf, Tine Skovgaard, Stefan Knapp, Lars Juhl Jensen, Jens Berthelsen
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098800
Abstract: Binding assays are increasingly used as a screening method for protein kinase inhibitors; however, as yet only a weak correlation with enzymatic activity-based assays has been demonstrated. We show that the correlation between the two types of assays can be improved using more precise screening conditions. Furthermore a marked improvement in the correlation was found by using kinase constructs containing the catalytic domain in presence of additional domains or subunits.
Iodine—A Potential Antioxidant and the Role of Iodine/Iodide in Health and Disease  [PDF]
Rudolf Winkler
Natural Science (NS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2015.712055
Abstract: In human physiology, iodine is primarily noted for its role in thyroid function and less so for its many extrathyroidal functions, particularly those based on its antioxidant properties. As I- it protects against free radicals and peroxides. This is seen in vitro in decreased depolymerization of hyaluronic acid and increased antioxidant status in human serum, and in vivo in increased antioxidant enzyme activities and decreases of malondialdehyde and peroxides. It could be shown or deduced that balneotherapeutic applications of iodine/iodide have a positive effect on cardiocirculatory diseases, respiratory disorders, some eye diseases (dry eye, cataract, age-related macular degeneration), and other degenerative diseases connected with increased oxidative stress that are also treated by balneotherapy.


Prevention of Iatrogenic Cervical Cancer  [PDF]
Rudolf Klimek
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2015.514109
Abstract: Cervical carcinogenesis consists of natural occurring spontaneous cellular processes which may lead to self-organized dissipative structures of cervical cancers what was first explained in 1977 after several years of my biochemical, biophysical, hormonal and clinical studies. That was possible thanks to monograph “Biochemie der Tumoren” written in 1942 by Nobel Prize winner H. von Euler with my master Prof. B. Skarzynski. Today I express my gratitude to Nobelist Harald zur Hausen and his team for they discovered the nuclide sequences of HPV in genomes of cervical cancer cells which opened the possibility to describe the causal role of information in formula of reality. Vaccines built from the protein capsid of HPV have proved only the pathogenic information about the virus because of its lack of DNAs. All the theories of carcinogenesis have properly described this event from methodologically different point of view. The point is that one should understand the thermodynamic rules underlying each of these approaches. Neoplasms are self-organized from the cells of the patient, who did not provide the necessary conditions for cellular metabolism as defined in the moment of appearance of its zygote. In light of medical thermodynamics all oncogenic factors can divide into sufficient or necessary to events for creating a dissipathogenic cellular status. Cervical cancer is a tumor associated with the human papillomavirus as only its pathogenic dissipathogenic factors, but the genome of cervical carcinoma cells maybe the original source of many types of HPV from the peeled off cancer cells of the uterine cervix. Many things are known to increase the risk of carcinogenesis which as a natural process is an alternative of cellular or social death. Neoplasm cell is an effect of carcinogenesis, but not a causal point at which it begins its existence.
Rarity, Species Richness, and the Threat of Extinction—Are Plants the Same as Animals?
Sandra Knapp
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001067
Abstract: Assessment of conservation status is done both for areas or habitats and for species (or taxa). IUCN Red List categories have been the principal method of categorising species in terms of extinction risk, and have been shown to be robust and helpful in the groups for which they have been developed. A recent study highlights properties associated with extinction risk in flowering plants, focusing on the species-rich hot spot of the Cape region of South Africa, and concludes that merely following methods derived from studies of vertebrates may not provide the best estimates of extinction risk for plants. Biology, geography, and history all are important factors in risk, and the study poses many questions about how we categorise and assess species for conservation priorities.
Four New Vining Species of Solanum (Dulcamaroid Clade) from Montane Habitats in Tropical America
Sandra Knapp
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010502
Abstract: Solanum (Solanaceae), with approximately 1500 species, is one of the largest genera of flowering plants, and has a centre of diversity in the New World tropics. The genus is divided into 13 major clades, of which two, the Dulcamaroid clade and the “African Non-Spiny” clade, exhibit vine morphology with twining petioles. I am currently preparing a worldwide monograph of these two groups, comprising some 70 species.
New species of Solanum (Solanaceae) from Peru and Ecuador
Sandra Knapp
PhytoKeys , 2010, DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.1.659
Abstract: Three new species of “non-spiny" Solanum are described from Peru and Ecuador, and a revised description for Solanum verecundum M.Nee is presented. Solanum kulliwaita S.Knapp, sp. nov. (Dulcamaroid clade) is endemic to the Department of Cuzco in southern Peru, and is most similar to the recently described Solanum sanchez-vegae S.Knapp of northern Peru. Solanum dillonii S.Knapp, sp. nov. (Brevantherum clade) is found in southern Ecuador and northern Peru in the Amotape-Huancabamba phytogeographic zone, and is morphologically similar to the widespread Solanum riparium Ruiz & Pav. Solanum oxapampense S.Knapp, sp. nov., (also of the Brevantherum clade) is endemic to the Oxapampa region (Department of Pasco) of central Peru, and is similar to and segregated from Solanum verecundum M.Nee of Peru and Ecuador. Complete descriptions, distributions and preliminary conservation assessments of all new species are given.
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