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Massive hemoptysis is a frightening and life-threatening
event in children. Prompt, aggressive evaluation and management are necessary.
The most common cause of hemoptysis in a pediatric patient is infectious, but
other various etiologies including tracheotomy related problems, cystic
fibrosis, bronchiectasis, congenital anomalies of the cardiopulmonary
vasculature and suction trauma must be considered as well. Presented is a
report of a case of acute, massive endotracheal hemorrhage with multiple
methods of management including balloon tamponade, highly selective embolization,
and mainstem occlusion. This case is an addition to our previously reported
case series of nine pediatric patients with massive pulmonary hemorrhage.
Various diagnostic and management techniques of hemoptyis in pediatric patients
are discussed with an extensive review of the literature.